Summary statistics of tuberose cultivation. Parameter estimates of adoption of double variety tuberose flower. Download full-text PDF. highest bulb and flower yield both per plant and per hectare were recorded in poultry manures followed by plant growth and economic cultivation of tuberose. Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.), an ornamental bulbous plant, is commercially grown for its attractive and luring cut flowers in tropical and.
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Cultivation Practices of Tuberose - Free download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File ( .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Tuberose Cultivation - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Tube rose, Floricuture, Horticulture, project report. 20 cm row to row and plant to plant, respectively or 30 x 20 cm. ▫ About q bulbs are required for tuberose cultivation in. 20q bulbs are required for tuberose .
Growing information Planting Tuberose in the Garden Plant tuberose bulbs outside after all danger of frost has passed and daytime temperatures remain above 70 degrees. Select a sunny site or container with good drainage protected from wind. Prepare the bed for tuberose planting by turning the soil under to a depth of 8 inches. Level with a rake to remove clumps of grass and stones. Most plants respond well to soils amended with organic matter.
In case of gladiolus, the adoption of commercial cut flower cultivation technology was found to be positively and significantly correlated with their education, social participation, and experience in flower cultivation, extension agency contact and mass media exposure. So he decided to cultivate tuberose and visited KVK.
Subject Matter Specialist from KVK advised him to participate in the training programme on Scientific tuberose cultivation and gave information about training date.
Mostly local varieties are cultivated by the farmers of Dharmapuri district. The plant is propagated by transplanting daughter tubers from older plants. This form of vegetative propagation favors the spread of many diseases.
Plant in containers or beds, two to three inches deep. Gardeners in zones lower than 8 must dig up the bulbs in the fall. Introduction of Rose Cultivation:-Rose is one of the popular, oldest, modern and lovely flower grown all over the world. Rose plants can be a kind of shrubs, climbing or trailing with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles.
It bears single type of flowers on sturdy spikes. The flower bud is slightly pinkish tinged. Florets are bigger and appealing than Calcutta Single. Resistant to Meloidogyne incognita nematode. Loose flowers are ideal for making garland, while spikes can be used as cut flower. Shringar is preferred by farmers and perfumery industries. Suvasini A multi whorled variety developed form the cross between Single x Double. Pure white flwers are bold and big, borne on a long spike. Spikes are best suited as cut flower.
Prajwal This hybrid which bears single type flowers on tall stiff spikes is from the cross Shringar x Mexican Single. The flower buds are slightly pinkish in colour while the flowers are white. The individual flowers are large in size, compared to Local Single.
It yields twenty per cent more loose flowers than Shringar. Recommended both for loose flower and cut flower purpose.
The flower buds are greenish in colour in contrast to pinkish buds in Suvasini and Local Double. Spike yield is 50 per cent higher compared to Suvasini.
Hence, recommended for cut flower purpose. Field Preparation and Sowing Preparation of field The field should be ploughed deep to a good tilth by ploughings 45 cm and properly manures. The field is left for 15 days that destroys the weeds and insect-pest. Well rotten cow dung or farmyard manure, at the rate of 50 tonnes per hectare should be incorporated in the soil. After field preparation, the plots of appropriate size should be prepared.
Spacing Bulbs are planted at a spacing of 30x20 cm or 20x20 cm at a depth of cm. Propagation Tuberose is propagated by bulbs. In general, bulbs having diameter between 1. About 1. Seed treatment These bulbs are first thoroughly cleaned and treated with Bavistin 0. Pre-plant storage of bulbs at 10C for a period of 30 days to improve the plant growth, increased spike and flower yield. Pre-planting treatment of bulbs with GA3, etherel or thiourea promoted early appearance of flower and produced highest number of longer spikes with maximum number of florets.
First one-third dose is given at the time of planting of bulbs, second at 60 days after planting and the third when flowering starts. Water and Irrigation Management It is very essential to irrigate before planting to provide optimum moisture for sprouting and further irrigation should be avoided until the bulbs are sprouted.
During summer, irrigation should be given at weekly interval or even earlier in case soil dries out and during winter at 10 days interval. Manual weeding is effective and should be done at monthly interval. For chemical weed control, Atrazine 1. Pest Management The important insects are thrips, aphids and weevil. Thrips and aphids are controlled by the spray of Rogor or Metasystox 1. The weevils can be controlled by the spray of Thiodon 2.
Bud borer Helicoverpa armigera This can be controlled by the spray of endosulfan 0. Tuberose is damage by nematodes and resulting extensive yield losses. Nematodes like too-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and M. Stem rot The disease symptom is preceded by the appearance of prominent coarse mycelial masses on leaf surface at or near the soil level.
The infection is caused by Sclerotium rolfsii. Also, the incidence can be minimized by reducing soil moisture or planting at wider spacing. Flower Bud rot It is caused by Erwinia sp. Results in dry rotting of the buds with brown surched necrotic discoloration of peduncles. The diseased plants should be uprooted and destroyed. The disease can be controlled by the spray of Streptomycin 0. The treatment should be repeated at 15 days interval.
A little shade towards the later part of the afternoon is desirable in hot summer of there is too much shade, the plants grow tall and lanky and the flowering is adversely affected. Tuberose is sensitive to wet feet, hence drainage should be good, water- logging even for a short period damages the root system and affects the growth and flowering.
Soil preparation Land preparation is very important for the cultivation of tuberose. The field should be worked deep to a good tilth and properly manured.
If the soil is not thoroughly prepared and contains soil clods or undecomposed organic matter, bulb production is affected and it also reduces the yield and quality of flowers. Care should be taken to make the land free from weeds. Bulb selection and planting Selection of good planting materials necessary for obtaining higher yield and good quality of flowers. It has been observed that fresh bulbs if planted, lead only to profuse vegetative growth but little flowering, and a storage for few weeks is essential for better growth and flower production.
Therefore, clumps of bulbs should be dug out of the soil when plants cease to grow and are stored in the well ventilated semi-shady place for at least one month before planting. The bulbs before planting, should be treated with fungicide, and Blitox may be used for this purpose.
They should carefully be placed upright by land and covered with soil. Clumps as such should never be planted as the plants grow vegetatively rather than produce flowering spikes.
For pot cultivation, bulbs are planted in the centre of a 20 cm pot. Bulb size, depth and planting time The size of bulb plays an important role on growth and flowering of tuberose. It influences the sprouting of bulbs and the time required is inversely proportional to the size of the bulb. Larger bulbs were found to take more time for sprouting.
This might be due to the presence of more layers of membranes scales which interfered exchange of gases and inhibited metabolic process. Plant height and number of leaves per bulb also showed gradual increase with the increase in bulb size-up to a certain limit. Bulb size also influences flowering. Larger bulbs cause early flowering and give higher yield of spike and flowers. The number of flowers per spike, flower quality, daughter bulb production etc were also found to be related to bulb size.
In general, bulbs having diameter having 2. It has been observed that planting of bulbs having 2. Planting depth also marketedly influences growth and production of flowers.
It may vary from 4. The bigger is the bulb, the more is the depth.
Similarly, in sandy soil, planting is deeper as compared to clay soil. Planting of bulbs at greater depth delays the appearance of shoots. In sandy loam soil, planting of bulbs at the depth of 6.
Tuberose is generally planted in February-March in the plains and in April-May in the hills.
On a medium fertile clay soil, the best time for planting was reported between 14 and 29 June. In southern parts of India, the bulb should be planted in the month of July-August. Planting of bulbs in the month of April has shown to record the highest yield of spikes and flowers in the cv. Sequential planting may be practised to obtain flowers almost throughout the year, if the temperature is not very low in the winter months.
Replanting is necessary after 3 years C. Planting distance Plant density influences the yield and quality of flowers and bulbs obtained per unit area. Higher plant density has been found to produce greater yield of spikes, flowers and bulbs. The planting distance varies in different regions. Similarly the quantity of planting material required for an area is also variable. Irrigation Soil moisture is an important factor affecting growth and flowering in tuberose.
Irrigation should be done before planting to provide optimum moisture for sprouting and further irrigation should be avoided until the bulbs have sprouted. Too much moisture in the soil at the time of sprouting results in the rotting of bulbs and similar condition during flowering adversely affects the development of spikes and flowers. The frequency of irrigation depends upon soil type, stage of growth and weather conditions.
The tuberose fields should be irrigated at interval of days, if the weather is dry. It has been suggested that during summer months April to June the crop should be irrigated at weekly interval and during winter at day interval. In South India, the crop requires irrigation twice a week during dry months and at weekly interval during other months except in the rainy season.
In an investigation on the effect of irrigation frequency on the growth and flowering, it was observed that plants of cv. Pearl irrigated at 40 11m2 every 7 days were large, flowered earlier and produced large bulbs than those irrigated at every 14 days.
Mulching with black polythene does not reduce the water requirement. Manuring and Fertilization The requirement of manures and fertilizers for tuberose vary with climatic conditions and soil types. High dose of, N and P markedly promotes leaf and bulb formation in tuberose. These treatments also improve flowering. The effect of K has been less pronounced than N and P in these respects. The plants treated with low dose of N and P shows growth inhibition and fails to flower.
Tuberose responds to fertilizer application but it should not be fertilized with excessive N as the flower spike become quite tall and soft, making it vulnerable to wind and the plants become more susceptible to diseases and pests.
The flower quality is also affected adversely. The effect of deficiency of various elements is given in Table 1 here. Table 1: Effect of fertilizer deficiency Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Fertilizer element Nitrogen Phosphorus Calcium Magnesium Iron Boron Manganese Deficiency symptom Reduction in number of spikes and number of flowers per spike; typical pale green foliage Dark green upper leaves and purple colouration in lower leaves; reduction in growth and flowering Cracking of the spike, bud rot in case of acute deficiency Interveinal chlorosis of older leaves Interveinal chlorosis of new leaves Cracking of leaf margins, deformed leaves and stunted inflorescence Yellowing between the veins of lower leaves Although tuberose cultivation has been found to be a profitable enterprise, experimental evidence on their nutritional requirements are meagre.
Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium greatly influence growth and flower production. K2O potash has not shown any response. However, for tuberose cultivation soils low in potassium, application of K2O 50 kgiha have been suggested.
Growth and Flowering Tuberose bulb goes through a characteristic cycle of development beginning with its initiation as a growing point. In the vegetative stage the bulblets grow and attain their maximum size. The subsequent reproductive stage includes the initiation of flower differentiation of floral parts, elongation of the flowering shoot and finally flowering and sometimes seed production.
Tuberose normally begins to flower in 80 to 95 days after sprouting. It flowers profusely during summer and rains April-September in the plains of eastern parts of India, in the hills it flowers in May-August, while in milder climate this flowers well throughout the year. Environmental factors The various environmental factors affecting the growth and flowering of tuberose are mentioned here.
Temperature Temperature is the most important factor affecting growth and initiation and subsequent flower development of bulbous plants. High 40C as well as low temperature 10C reduce spike length, weight and quality of tuberose flowers. The optimum temperature range for growth and development is 20 to 30C. However, it was observed that a temperature of Storage temperature also influences the sprouting of bulbs after planting and subsequent growth and flower production.
Preplant storage of bulbs at 10C for a period of 30 days was found to improve the plant growth and increase yield of spikes and flowers. This treatment also caused early emergence of flower spikes and improved the quality of flowers.
The bulb remain dormant during winter months in places where the temperature is low. Light Although tuberose is not strictly photosensitive, long day exposure promotes vegetative growth as well as early emergence of the first flower spike, and also increases the length of the flower spikes. A day length of about 16 hours promoted growth and flowering.
Though the influence of light on growth and development of tuberose has not been methodically studied, reduction in light intensity promotes the leaf length whereas increase in the intensity and duration of light result in production of quality blooms, provided there is optimum temperature. Low light intensity adversely affects flowering, therefore, in short-day conditions i.
Role of growth substances and other chemicals Growth and developmental behaviour of bulbous plants is also regulated either by a single or by an interaction of several endogenous growth hormones like gibberellin, auxin, cytokinin and abscisic acid ABA.
They playa major role in directing the movement of organic metabolites and in establishing sinks. Application of certain growth substances has been found to influence the growth and flowering of tuberose.