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STAAD PRO V8I LEARNING PDF

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PDF | Explain the steps and how to analysis the concrete structures and steel structures by using Staad-Pro Ver. V8i software. ronaldweinland.info is a general purpose structural analysis and design program with supplies the manuals in the PDF format at no cost for those who wish to print. Staad Pro Tutorial - [Free] Staad Pro Tutorial [PDF] [EPUB] khaled. SBM d.o.o. STAAD Pro. v8i Video Tutorials (Step by Step) | CivilDigital.


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Starting ronaldweinland.info 3 5. Running Section Wizard 4 6. Running Mesher 4 Section 2 Tutorials 5 Tutorial 1 – Steel Portal Frame 6 Tutorial 2 – Reinforced Concrete. Learning Bentley ronaldweinland.info V8i for Structural Analysis CADCIM Technologies St. Andrews Drive Schererville, IN , USA (ronaldweinland.info). Staad PRO ronaldweinland.info Pages·· Installation procedure to STAAD Pro 7 and staad pro v8i in Using STAAD Pro Tutorial - SDC Publications.

Pro provides five types of elements to use in modeling structures: Beams: Linear structural members. The terms member and beam are synonymous. Use of the term beam should not be taken to imply that the member cannot take an axial load. Pro by either the Beams Cursor or the Geometry Cursor. Nodes: Points of connectivity between structural entities. The terms joint and node are synonymous.

Click Yes in response to the prompt asking if you want to add a node. The Insert Nodes into Beam dialog offers many ways to specify the location of new nodes to be added. Enter 0. A value of 3. A new node is created at the specified location, and the text prompt in the lower left corner of the screen indicates Click on node at start of beam.

Click on the node that was just created. A line starts rubber-banding between that node and the cursor location. Click near the middle of the vertical member on the right. Click Yes to the prompt about adding a new node. Note that this is a faster method of adding a node at the midpoint than the method used on the horizontal member. Click on this new node to finish adding the new member. An even faster method would be to use the Add Beam between. This is one of the additional tools Mid-Points tool available beneath the Add Beams icon.

Click and hold the left mouse button while pointing to the Add Beams tool. When the sub-toolbar pops up, keep the left mouse button depressed and point the cursor to the Add Beam between MidPoints tool , and then release the mouse button.

The Add Beam between Mid-Points tool now remains the visible icon. Click the Add Beam between Mid-Points tool. Click on the vertical member on the left.

The message in the Status Bar now says Select Second Beam, and the line starts rubber-banding from the mid-point of the vertical member. Click on the left-hand member of the top horizontal beam. Creating geometry using the spreadsheet: On the Start Page, click Open Project and point to the location of the dataset installation.

Grids will intentionally be left off to illustrate that this method of entering geometry is completely independent of grid systems. Node 1 has already been entered. In the Beams spreadsheet, input the following node numbers, using the tab key to move between cells: Beam 1 2 3 4 5 Node A 1 2 3 1 2 Node B 2 3 4 3 4 The beams appear in the Main Window as their end nodes are entered in the spreadsheet.

Note that this portal frame has been created completely independently of any grid systems. How to use the Structure Wizard: Structure Wizard is a powerful and useful utility for creating structures from a built-in library of standard prototype structures. For a demonstration of some of its capabilities, Structure Wizard will be used to build a model of the structure shown in the figure below: Figure 2. Add a column. Use the Mirror command to create the left side.

This will be demonstrated in a later section. Click Space type structure in the New dialog. Pro will automatically append the. Click the Next button. Click the Open Structure Wizard checkbox in the Where do you want to go? Pro at any time by using the Geometry Run Structure Wizard command. Pro graphic environment now appears, and the Structure Wizard window opens. Pro provides the ability to save user models in a parametric format that allows them to be recalled and modified quickly.

Select Prototype Models. The Select Units dialog opens and allows a choice of unit systems to use in the definition of the prototype structure.

Pro model. This makes it possible to create a prototype in one unit system and then merge it into a model with a different unit system. Click the Model Type list in the upper left corner and note the built-in categories of structure prototype models that are already available. Select Truss Models in the Model Type list.

Learning Bentley STAAD Pro V8i for Structural Analysis

Structure Wizard displays six types of truss prototype models on the left side of the window. Double-click the North Light truss icon to create the right half of the truss structure. Another option to select the North Light prototype is to drag and drop the North Light structure type icon over to the right side of the Structure Wizard window, where the coordinate axes tripod is displayed.

The Select Parameters dialog contains fields for entering parametric dimensions for the structure. A dialog is displayed showing the current breakdown of bay lengths. By default, the program sets the bay lengths equal. This dialog permits the individual bay lengths to be revised manually, but it enforces the constraint that the sum of the bay lengths must remain the same as the overall length of the truss. For this example, leave the bay lengths set to their default values. Click OK or Cancel to dismiss this dialog.

Click the Apply button in the Select Parameters dialog.

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The structure now appears on the right side of the Structure Wizard window. Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 The local origin for the structure is indicated by a colored coordinate axis tripod. Note the location of the origin and the orientation of the local coordinate axes.

The coordinate axis tripod shows that the origin is located at the lower left corner of the truss. The structure can be viewed from various angles by dragging it with the mouse. It helps to grab the structure near the top of the view, and think of it as being encapsulated in a transparent sphere.

Press and hold the Control Ctrl key, and note how it locks the structure so that it only rotates about one of the two orthogonal axes in the plane of the screen. Press and hold the Shift key, and note how it locks the structure so that it only rotates about one of the three local axes indicated by the tripod.

The axis of rotation is controlled by where the structure is grabbed with respect to the three reference circles shown on the screen. After rotating the structure in either the Shift key or Control Ctrl key modes, just click the mouse anywhere in the right side of the Structure Wizard window to return to clear sphere rotation mode. Pro Model.

Pro s Main Window. Pro project. Pro main menu. Therefore, the units provided in the Select Parameters dialog are controlled by the Select Units setting in the Structure Wizard main menu. File Select Unit. For this reason, it is possible that the units that come up in the Paste Prototype Model dialog could be different than the units that come up in the Select Parameters dialog. The Paste Prototype Model dialog currently provides two methods to shift the insertion point of the prototype model to a location other than 0, 0, 0 in the STAAD.

Pro model: By distance between following two nodes and specifying two reference nodes, or By the following X, Y, and Z values and entering the desired coordinate location. Pro model that already contained some elements, a third option to locate the prototype model would be available. This option will be demonstrated in a later section. Pro Main Window is now visible. Click the Geometry Beam page in the Page Control. In the Nodes table in the Data Area, note that the Y coordinate for nodes 1 through 5 is 15 ft.

Pro origin. Marius Rizea. Junar Amaro. Karen-John Richard Nelson. Farhan Tahir. Janardhan Cn. Nathaniel Miranda Dagsa Jr. Guru Prasad. Hussain Mir. Rohan Persaud. More From Dreamtech Press.

Dreamtech Press. Software Project Management Includes Practicals. Popular in Stress Mechanics. Saragadam Naga Shivanath Rau. Jaya Raja Sekar. Sharun Suresh. Applied Mechanics of Solids a. Swapnil Rahane. Marta Benito. The examples represent various structural analyses and design problems commonly encountered by structural engineers. The topics covered include model generation, structural analysis and design, result verification, and report generation.

Pro Extension component s is available separately. Pro is an analysis and design software package for structural engineering. This manual is intended to guide users who are new to this software as well as experienced users who want specific information on the basics of using the program.

Section 1 describes the following: The tutorials guide a user through the processes of: This consists of generating the structural geometry, specifying member properties, material constants, loads, analysis and design specifications, etc. System Requirements l Verification of results - graphically and numerically. System Requirements The following hardware requirements are suggested minimums. Systems with increased capacity provide enhanced performance.

The disk space requirement will vary depending on the modules you are installing. A typical minimum is MB free space. Pro Version , the size of structures that the program can handle has been increased significantly. You may need to ensure that adequate amounts of virtual memory are available, and in Windows NT and systems, parameters such as paging file sizes should be large enough or span over multiple drives if the free space on any one drive runs low. You should have a basic familiarity with Microsoft Windows systems in order to use the software.

Pro V8i. Figure Quickstart 4. Pro 1.

Pro V8i program group found in the Windows Start menu. Pro window opens to the start screen. Pro, we suggest that you go through the tutorials shown in Part II of this manual. For help on using this program, refer to the Section Wizard help accessed from the same location or from within the individual programs. Running Mesher 1. Information on using this program is available from the Help menus of the program.

Using the command file The Command File is a text file which contains the data for the structure being modeled. This file consists of simple English-language like commands. This command file may be created directly using the editor built into the program, or for that matter, any editor which saves data in text form e.

This command file is also automatically created behind the scenes when the structure is generated using the Graphical User Interface. The graphical model generation mode and the command file are seamlessly integrated. So, at any time, you may temporarily exit the graphical model generation mode and access the command file.

You will find that it reflects all data entered through the graphical model generation mode. Further, when you make changes to the command file and save it, the GUI immediately reflects the changes made to the structure through the command file.

Both methods of creating our model are explained in this tutorial. Sections 1. Section 1. Pro text editor. The figure below shows the structure. An input file called Tutportal. This file contains what would otherwise have resulted had we followed the procedure explained in Section 1. W12X35 properties Member 2: W14X34 Material Modulus of Elasticity: Fixed Node 4: Pinned Loads Load case 1: Wind From Left 10 kips point force at Node 2 Load case 3: Design Parameters: Unsupported length of compression flange for bending: Steel Yield Stress: Pro window displaying the start screen Note about the unit system: There are two base unit systems in the program which control the units length, force, temperature, etc.

The base unit system also dictates what type of default values the program will use when attributes such as Modulus of Elasticity, Density, etc.

Pro Technical Reference Manual for details. These two unit systems are English Foot, Pound, etc. Pro is this base unit system setting. That choice will serve as the default until we specifically change it. In the dialog that comes up, choose the appropriate unit system you want. For this tutorial, let us choose the English units Kip, Feet, etc. Click Accept to close the dialog. The structure type is defined as either Space, Plane, Floor, or Truss: Space the structure, the loading or both, cause the structure to deform in all 3 global axes X, Y and Z.

Truss the structure carries loading by pure axial action. Truss members are deemed inca- pable of carrying shear, bending and torsion. Select Plane. Select Foot as the length unit and Kilo Pound as the force unit. The units can be changed later if necessary, at any stage of the model creation. You can directly type a file path or click […] to open the Browse by Folder dialog, which is used to select a location using a Windows file tree.

After specifying the above input, click Next. The next page of the wizard, Where do you want to go? Open Structure Wizard provides access to a library of structural templates which the program comes equipped with. Those template models can be extracted and modified parametrically to arrive at our model geometry or some of its parts. All these options are also available from the menus and dialogs of the GUI, even after we dismiss this dialog. Select the Add Beam option and click Finish.

Pro graphical environment will be displayed. Pro window. Pro window is shown in the following figure. The window has five major elements as described below: B Toolbar The dockable Toolbar gives access to the most frequently used commands. You may also create your own customized toolbar. Each tab on the Page Control allows you to perform specific tasks.

The organization of the Pages, from top to bottom, represents the logical sequence of operations, such as, definition of beams, specification of member properties, loading, and so on.

The name on the tabs may or may not appear depending on your screen resolution and the size of the STAAD. However, the icons on the Page Control tabs always appear. The Pages in the Page Control area depend on the Mode of operation. When you are in the Load Page, the contents of the Data Area changes to display the currently assigned Load cases and the icons for different types of loads. The icons in the toolbar as well as in the Page Control area offer ToolTip help.

As we move the mouse pointer over a button, the name of the button — called a ToolTip — appears above or below the button. This floating Tool tip help will identify the icon. A brief description of the icon also appears in the status bar. We are now ready to start building the model geometry.

Pro commands the instructions which get written in the STAAD input file are described in the following sections. From the standpoint of the STAAD command file, the commands to be generated for the structure shown in section 1. We selected the Add Beam option earlier to facilitate adding beams to create the structure. This initiates a grid in the main drawing area as shown below. The directions of the global axes X, Y, Z are represented in the icon in the lower left hand corner of the drawing area.

Click Create. A dialog opens which will enable us to set up a grid. Within this dialog, there is a drop-down list from which we can select Linear, Radial or Irregular form of grid lines. The Linear tab is meant for placing the construction lines perpendicular to one another along a "left to right - top to bottom" pattern, as in the lines of a chess board.

The Radial tab enables construction lines to appear in a spider-web style, which makes it is easy to create circular type models where members are modeled as piece-wise linear straight line segments. The Irregular tab can be used to create gridlines with unequal spacing that lie on the global planes or on an inclined plane. Select Linear, which is the Default Grid. In our structure, the segment consisting of members 1 to 3, and nodes 1 to 4, happens to lie in the X-Y plane.

So, in this dialog, let us keep X-Y as the Plane of the grid. The size of the model that can be drawn at any time is controlled by the number of Construction Lines to the left and right of the origin of axes, and the Spacing between adjacent construction lines.

After entering the specifications, provide a name and click on OK. Please note that these settings are only a starting grid setting, to enable us to start drawing the structure, and they do not restrict our overall model to those limits.

By providing a name, each new grid can be identified for future reference. To change the settings of this grid, click Edit. Let us start creating the nodes. In a similar fashion, click on the following points to create nodes and automatically join successive nodes by beam members.

The status bar When steps 1 to 4 are completed, the structure will be displayed in the drawing area as shown below. At this point, let us remove the grid from the structure. The Diagrams dialog opens to the Labels tab. The structure in the main window should resemble the figure shown below.

To define member properties, select the Property Page tool located on the top toolbar. In either case, the Properties dialog opens see figure below. This is available under the Section Database button in the Properties dialog as shown below.

So, let us click Section Database. The Material check box is set. Leave this set as it will be used to subsequently assign the material constants E, Density, Poisson, etc.

Choose W12X35 as the beam size, and ST as the section type. Then, click Add as shown in the figure below. After the member properties have been created, click Close. The next step is to associate the properties we just created with selected members in our model. Follow these steps. Select the first property reference in the Properties dialog W12X Click Assign.

The mouse pointer changes to d. Click on members 1 and 3. To stop the assignment process, either select Assign or press the ESC key. In a similar fashion, assign the second property reference W14X34 to member 2.

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After both the properties have been assigned to the respective members, our model should resemble the following figure. Consequently, the material constants got assigned to the members along with the properties, and the following commands were generated in the command file: The commands to be generated are: The Set Current Input Units dialog opens.

The same member is offset by negative 6. Since we know that member 2 is the one to be assigned with the offset, let us first select this member prior to defining the offset itself. Select member 2 by clicking on it using the Beam Cursor tool. The selected member will be highlighted. To define member offsets, select the Specification Page tool located in the top toolbar.

Alternatively, one may go to the General Spec page from the left side of the screen. In either case, the Specifications dialog shown below comes up. Member Releases and Offsets are defined through the Beam button in this dialog as shown below.

In the Beam Specs dialog that opens, select the Offset tab. We want to define the offset at the start node in the X direction. Hence, make sure that the Startoption is selected under Location.

Specify a value of 6. Since we have already selected the member, let us click Assign. To apply the offset at the end node, repeat steps 3 and 4, except for selecting the End option and providing a value of After both the Start and End offsets have been assigned, the model will look as shown below.

Click anywhere in the drawing area to un-highlight the member. The Print Member Information dialog opens. Ensure that the assignment method is set To Selection. Press the OK button in this dialog.

Click anywhere in the drawing area to un-highlight the members. To create a support, select the Support Page tool located in the top toolbar as shown below.

In either case, the Supports dialog opens as shown in the next figure. Since we already know that node 1 is to be associated with a Fixed support, using the Nodes Cursor tool , select node 1.

It becomes highlighted. Then, click Create in the Supports dialog as shown below. In the Create Support dialog that opens, select the Fixed tab which also happens to be the default and click Assign as shown below. After the supports have been assigned, the structure will look like the one shown below.

The Diagrams dialog opens to the Structure tab. None displays the structure without displaying the cross-sectional properties of the members and elements. Full Sections displays the 3D cross-sections of members, depending on the member properties.

Sections Outline displays only the outline of the cross-sections of members. Select Full Sections and click OK. You can also change the color of the sections by clicking on the Section Outline color button under Colors. The resulting diagram is shown in the following figure. A new view opens with the model rendered in a 3D, perspective view. Details of the individual cases are explained at the beginning of this tutorial.

The corresponding commands to be generated are listed below. The creation and assignment of load cases involves the following two steps: First, we will be creating all three load cases. To create loads, first select the Load Page tool located on the top tool bar. Alternatively, one may go to the General Load page from the left side of the screen. Before we create the first load case, we need to change our length units to feet. To do that, as before, utilize the input Units tool see section 1.

The Add New Load Cases dialog opens. This type of association needs to be done if we intend to use the program's facility for automatically generating load combinations in accordance with those codes. This feature becomes active only when the load case is assigned a Loading Type called Live at the time of creation of that case.

As we do not intend to use the automatic load combination generation option, we will leave the Loading Type as None. The newly created load case will now appear under the Load Cases Details option. To create the Member load, first select the 1: You will notice that the Add New Load Items dialog shows more options now. Specify GY as the Direction, enter Select Load Case Details in the Load dialog.

In the Add New Load Cases dialog, once again, we are not associating the load case we are about to create with any code based Loading Type and so, leave Loading Type as None. Next, to create the Joint load, select 2: Wind From Left. Specify 10 for Fx, and click Add. Creating load case 3 Load cases 1 and 2 were primary load cases.

Load case 3 will be defined as a load combination. So, the next step is to define load case 3 as 0. We intend to use the default algebraic combination type Normal.

Learning Bentley STAAD Pro V8i for Structural Analysis

The load cases appear in the right side list box. Then, enter 0. These data indicate that we are adding the two load cases with a multiplication factor of 0. Click Add. Now that we have completed the task of creating all 3 load cases, click Close. The mouse pointer changes to 4. Click on member 2.

After the member load has been assigned, the model will look as shown below. After assigning the joint load, the model will look as shown below. We also need to obtain a static equilibrium report. This requires the command: Then, check the Statics Check print option.

Click Add and then Close. This requires the specification of the following commands: Next, select all the members by rubber-banding around them using the mouse. Click Define Commands in the data area on the right hand side of the screen. Click Assign and then Close.

At this point, the Post Analysis Print dialog should resemble the figure shown below. The Load List dialog opens. From the Load Cases list box on the left, double-click on 1: Then click OK. The corresponding commands to be generated are: To specify steel design parameters, go to Design Steel page from the left side of the screen. Click Define Parameters in the Steel Design dialog.

To define the remaining parameters, repeat step 3 except for selecting the parameters and providing the values listed below. When all the parameters have been added, click on the Close button in the Design Parameters dialog. The next step is to assign these parameters to specific members of the model.

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From looking at the requirements listed in the beginning of this tutorial, we know that the FYLD parameter is to be assigned to all the members, while the remaining parameters are to be assigned to members 2 and 3. As before, use the Use Cursor to Assign method to assign these parameters. In the Design Commands dialog that appears, click on the Select tab.

Then, click Add followed by the Close button. Once again, we need to associate this command with members 2 and 3. After the parameters are assigned, click anywhere in the drawing area to un-highlight the members.

This has the effect of changing the stiffness distribution for the entire structure. Since the structure is statically indeterminate, we ought to re-analyze it if we want the nodal displacements, member forces, etc. The command to be generated is hence: To specify the Analysis command, repeat step 1 of Section 1. Since we are not interested in a statics check report once again, let us check the No Print option. Finally, click Add followed by the Close button. This will require that we do a code checking operation again.

To define and assign 1. Next, select all the members by clicking and dragging a window around them using the mouse. Then, assign this parameter to all the members. These forces will very likely be quite different from those which were used in the member selection operation see the commands of section 1.

Consequently, we have to verify that the structure is safely able — from the standpoint of the design code requirements — to carry these new forces. A code checking operation, which uses the up-to-date cross sections of the members, and the latest member forces, will provide us with a status report on this issue.

Click Commands in the Steel Design dialog as shown below. In the Design Commands dialog that appears, click on the Check Code tab. We have now completed the tasks for assigning the input for this model. Let us now take a look at the data that has been written into the file that we just saved earlier. A new window will open up with the data listed as shown here: We could make modifications to the data of our structure in this Editor if we wish to do so.

As we saw in Section 1. If you would like to understand that method, proceed to the next section. If you want to skip that part, proceed to section 1.

The commands used in the command file are described later in this section. Pro command file may be created using the built-in editor, the procedure for which is explained further below in this section. Any standard text editor such as Notepad or WordPad may also be used to create the command file. Pro keywords, numeric data, comments, etc.

Pro editor. A typical editor screen is shown below to illustrate its general appearance. To access the built-in editor, first start the program using the procedure explained in Section 1. Next, follow step 1 of Section 1. You will then encounter the dialog shown in the figure shown below. At this point, the editor screen similar to the one shown below will open.

The commands may be typed in upper or lower case letters. Usually the first three letters of a keyword are all that are needed -- the rest of the letters of the word are not required. The required letters are underlined.

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The remainder of the words is the title of the problem, which is optional. If a line is typed with an asterisk in the first column, it signifies that the line is a comment line and should not be executed. For example, one could have put the optional title above on a separate line as follows. Joint numbers and their corresponding global X and Y coordinates are provided above.

For example, 3 20 Note that the reason for not providing the Z coordinate is because the structure is a plane frame. If this were a space frame, the Z coordinate would also be required. Semicolons ; are used as line separators. In other words, data which is normally put on multiple lines can be put on one line by separating them with a semicolon. Member 2 has been assigned a W14X The word ST stands for standard single section. Sections 5.

See Section 5. The beam member is physically connected to the 2 columns at the face of the column, and not at the column centerline.

This creates a rigid zone, about half the depth of the columns, at the 2 ends of the beam 2. This rigid zone is taken advantage of using member offsets It is you choice whether or not you wish to use these. The information that is printed includes start and end joint numbers incidence , member length, beta angle and member end releases. More information on the support specification is available in Section 5.

Member Load specification is explained in Section 5. A 10 kip force is acting at joint 2 in the global X direction. The second line provides the components of the load combination case - primary load cases and the factors by which they should be individually multiplied. Section 5. The member forces are in the member local axes while support reactions are in the global axes. Parameters are specified typically when their values differ from the built-in program defaults.

The yield strength of steel is specified as ksf 40 ksi since it is different from the default value of 36 ksi. The above command instructs the program to do another cycle of analysis. It controls the level of information produced in the steel design output. We have lowered it from 2. These forces will very likely be quite different from those which were used in the member selection operation. Save the file and return to the main screen. This concludes the session on generating our model as a command file using the built-in editor.

If you wish to perform the analysis and design, you may proceed to the next section of this manual. The on-screen post-processing facilities are explained in Section 1. Remember that without successfully completing the analysis and design, the post- processing facilities will not be accessible. Pro performs Analysis and Design simultaneously. As the analysis progresses, several messages appear on the screen as shown in the figure below.

Notice that we can choose from the three options available in the above dialog: These options are indicative of what will happen after we click Done. The output file contains the numerical results produced in response to the various input commands we specified during the model generation process.

It also tells us whether any errors were encountered, and if so, whether the analysis and design was successfully completed or not. The Go to Post Processing Mode option allows us to go to graphical part of the program known as the Post-processor. This is where one can extensively verify the results, view the results graphically, plot result diagrams, produce reports, etc.

The Stay in Modelling Mode lets us continue to be in the Model generation mode of the program the one we currently are in in case we wish to make further changes to our model. Pro creates an Output file. This file provides important information on whether the analysis was performed properly. Pro encounters an instability problem during the analysis process, it will be reported in the output file.

We can access the output file using the method explained at the end of the previous section. Pro output file for the problem we just ran is shown in the next few pages. Pro output file is displayed through a file viewer called SproView. This viewer allows us to set the text font for the entire file and print the output file to a printer. Use the appropriate File menu option from the menu bar. By default, the output file contains a listing of the entire input also.

You may choose not to print the echo of the input commands in the Output file. It is quite important that we browse through the entire output file and make sure that the results look reasonable, that there are no error messages or warnings reported, etc. The information presented in the output file is a crucial indicator of whether or not the structure satisfies the engineering requirements of safety and serviceability.

STD 2. ALPHA 6. Pro offers extensive result verification and visualization facilities. These facilities are accessed from the Post Processing Mode. The Post Processing mode is used to verify the analysis and design results and generate reports.

For this tutorial problem, we shall perform the following tasks: However, you can access the Post Processing mode by the following procedure at any point.

Select either the Post-Processing tool Figure 1. The Results Setup dialog opens. Select the load cases for which to display the results. Notice that in the Post-Processing mode, the tabbed Page Control bar and the menu bar change to offer the post processing functions: The screen will now look like the figure shown below. The title at the bottom of the diagram is indicative of that aspect.

Annotation is the process of displaying the displacement values on the screen.