This second edition of Java Swing thoroughly covers all the features . Programming with Accessibility . While the fine points of this distinction are appreciated .. of you still working with JDK , we've included a PDF containing the. About Swing. Swing library is an official Java GUI toolkit released by Sun Microsystems. There is also another GUI library for the Java programming language. primitives such as points, lines, curves or polygons to represent images. According to the ronaldweinland.info page on Java Swing: Free Java Tutorials: Some of Oracle's links point to locations that no longer exist. We have no contol.
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JAVA provides a rich set of libraries to create Graphical User Interface in a platform GUI Programming concepts and after completing this tutorial you will be at. ronaldweinland.info The class JFrame is an extended version of ronaldweinland.info that adds support for the JFC/Swing. Swing Tutorial in PDF - Learn SWING in simple and easy steps starting from basic to advanced concepts with examples including Overview, Environment Setup.
The introduction of support for a pluggable look and feel allows Swing components to emulate the appearance of native components while still retaining the benefits of platform independence. Originally distributed as a separately downloadable library, Swing has been included as part of the Java Standard Edition since release 1. Development of Swing's successor, JavaFX , started in , and it was officially introduced two years later at JavaOne Foundations[ edit ] Swing is platform-independent because it is completely written in Java. Extensible[ edit ] Swing is a highly modular-based architecture, which allows for the "plugging" of various custom implementations of specified framework interfaces: Users can provide their own custom implementation s of these components to override the default implementations using Java's inheritance mechanism.
You will not be able to reference an anonymous instance in your program after it is created. This is usually alright for a Label instance as there is often no need to reference a Label after it is constructed. Button A java. Button is a GUI component that triggers a certain programmed action upon clicking.
The first constructor creates a Button object with the given label painted over the button. The second constructor creates a Button object with no label. Disabled Button cannot be clicked.
The getLabel and setLabel methods can be used to read the current label and modify the label of a button, respectively. We will describe Swing later. Event Clicking a button fires a so-called ActionEvent and triggers a certain programmed action. I will explain event-handling later. TextField A java.
TextField is single-line text box for users to enter texts. There is a multiple-line text box called TextArea. You can convert a String to a primitive, such as int or double via static method Integer.
To convert a primitive to a String, simply concatenate the primitive with an empty String. It has a top-level container Frame, which contains three components - a Label "Counter", a non-editable TextField to display the current count, and a "Count" Button.
The TextField shall display count of 0 initially. Each time you click the button, the counter's value increases by 1. This is because we have yet to write the handler for the Frame's close button. We shall do that in the later example. Dissecting the AWTCounter. In other words, this class AWTCounter is a Frame, and inherits all the attributes and behaviors of a Frame, such as the title bar and content pane.
Lines 12 to 46 define a constructor, which is used to setup and initialize the GUI components. In Line 13, the setLayout inherited from the superclass Frame is used to set the layout of the container. FlowLayout is used which arranges the components in left-to-right and flows into next row in a top-to-bottom manner. A Label, TextField non-editable , and Button are constructed.
We invoke the add method inherited from the superclass Frame to add these components into container.
In Line , we invoke the setSize and the setTitle inherited from the superclass Frame to set the initial size and the title of the Frame. The setVisible true method Line 42 is then invoked to show the display.
The statement btnCount. In brief, whenever the button is clicked, the actionPerformed will be called. In the actionPerformed Lines , the counter value increases by 1 and displayed on the TextField.
The constructor is executed to initialize the GUI components and setup the event-handling mechanism.
The GUI program then waits for the user input. For example, if we insert the following code before and after the setvisible : System. You could have an insight of the variables defined in the class. LEFT" default ; text is "Counter" assigned in constructor java. The components are arranged in FlowLayout.
The program shall accumulate the number entered into the input TextField and display the sum in the output TextField. Frame Line 5 - the top-level window container. In the constructor Line 13 , we constructs 4 components - 2 java. Label and 2 java.
The Frame adds the components, in FlowLayout. The listener class this or AWTAccumulator needs to implement ActionListener interface and provides implementation to method actionPerformed. In event-driven programming, a piece of event-handling codes is executed or called back by the graphics subsystem when an event was fired in response to an user input such as clicking a mouse button or hitting the ENTER key in a text field.
Call Back methods In the above examples, the method actionPerformed is known as a call back method. In other words, you never invoke actionPerformed in your codes explicitly. The actionPerformed is called back by the graphics subsystem under certain circumstances in response to certain user actions. Three kinds of objects are involved in the event-handling: a source, listener s and an event object.
The source object such as Button and Textfield interacts with the user. Upon triggered, the source object creates an event object to capture the action e. This event object will be messaged to all the registered listener object s , and an appropriate event-handler method of the listener s is called-back to provide the response. In other words, triggering a source fires an event to all its listener s , and invoke an appropriate event handler of the listener s.
To express interest for a certain source's event, the listener s must be registered with the source. In other words, the listener s "subscribes" to a source's event, and the source "publishes" the event to all its subscribers upon activation. This is known as subscribe-publish or observable-observer design pattern. The sequence of steps is illustrated above: The source object registers its listener s for a certain type of event.
A source fires an event when triggered. How the source and listener understand each other? The answer is via an agreed-upon interface. For example, if a source is capable of firing an event called XxxEvent e. Firstly, we need to declare an interface called XxxListener e. For example, the MouseListener interface is declared as follows with five operational modes.
The Hello constructor initializes the frame by first calling the superclass constructor, passing the parameter "hello", which is used as the window's title. It then calls the setDefaultCloseOperation int method inherited from JFrame to set the default operation when the close control on the title bar is selected to WindowConstants. Next, a JLabel is created for the string "Hello, world! The pack method inherited from the Window superclass is called to size the window and lay out its contents.
The main method is called by the Java virtual machine when the program starts. It instantiates a new Hello frame and causes it to be displayed by calling the setVisible boolean method inherited from the Component superclass with the boolean parameter true. Once the frame is displayed, exiting the main method does not cause the program to terminate because the AWT event dispatching thread remains active until all of the Swing top-level windows have been disposed. Window with Button[ edit ] The basic example code running on Windows 7 The following is a rather simple Swing-based program.
It displays a window a JFrame containing a label and a button. FlowLayout; import javax. JButton; import javax. JFrame; import javax. JLabel; import javax.
WindowConstants; import javax. Make it visible. Although Swing code can be run without using this technique for instance, by not implementing Runnable and moving all commands from the run method to the main method , it is considered to be good form, as Swing is not thread-safe , meaning that invoking resources from multiple threads can result in thread interference and memory consistency errors.
JFrame be super class and add our own widget s to it in this case, a JButton. JOptionPane; import javax. SwingUtilities; import java.
ActionListener; import java. BorderLayout as its default layout-manager. Child objects do not have their lifecycle so when parent object deletes all child object will also delete automatically. Any house can have several rooms. So, if you delete the house room will also be deleted. Objects created for Object-Oriented Programs can be reused in other programs.
Thus it saves significant development cost. Large programs are difficult to write, but if the development and designing team follow OOPS concept then they can better design with minimum flaws. It also enhances program modularity because every object exists independently. Programming languages can be classified into 3 primary types Unstructured Programming Languages: The most primitive of all programming languages having sequentially flow of control.
Code is repeated through out the program Structured Programming Languages: Has non-sequentially flow of control. Use of functions allows for re-use of code. Click here if the video is not accessible Let's understand these 3 types with an example. Suppose you want to create a Banking Software with functions like Deposit Show Balance Unstructured Programming Languages The earliest of all programming language were unstructured programming language.
Structured Programming With the arrival of Structured programming repeated lines on the code were put into structures such as functions or methods.