Chess Made Simple. 9. Attacks on Opposite Wings. Attacks on Pawn Chains . Doubled Pawns: Blockade; then Destroy. Nimzo-Indian Defense. Chess and in programmed instructions we could improve the Chess stills of a wide range of people. . My book presents material as a tutor would and requires . ronaldweinland.info-ID= ISBN (pdf) interested readers to learn and master the game progressive chess. The author assumes basic.
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BEGINNER & INTERMEDIATE CHESS. A CURRICULUM FOR YOUTH COACHES DECEMBER PROVIDED BY ronaldweinland.info CHIC GO. Chess is the most intelligent game ever invented. It has a lot of things that are similar to life. It trains you to use all your resources to the maximum extent. Chess was invented long ago. the names we use for the pieces date from the Middle Chess players have agreed that a move without a letter - such as e4 - is .
How to play chess tutorial pdf Perfect Your. World-class training from a super-grandmaster and his coach. Andrei Volokitin and. Vladimir Grabinsky. The game of chess is played between two opponents who move their pieces alternately.
Simple Attacking Plans by Fred Wilson https: Move by Move by Irving Chernev https: Tactics by Dan Heisman https: Feb 24, 1. Hello and good evening to all. Feb 24, 2. Feb 26, 3.
Possibly of interest: Log In or Join. Hot Topics. Free Game Analysis! This is what someone wrote to me by PM: Name a grandmaster SpiderUnicorn 45 min ago. This type of ending is full of hidden dangers due to the unusual King positions.
Korchnoi played the plausible 63 d6, when 63 Rdl!
The difference is that the Black King gains a move as e5 is unguarded in the variation By playing 63 Rdl first, Black has nothing better than Ke4 65 d5 Ke5, and Black is a critical move behind. Korchnoi said after the match that this game convinced him Kasparov was more than a combinational prodigy. The final match with Smyslov, in Vilnius, Lithuania in , was onesided. Kasparov reached the necessary four wins without a loss; he had lost just one each to Belyavsky and Korchnoi.
Garry was certain of his destination, at the ripe age of The La Bourdonnais-McDonnell match was also devoid of politics, intimidation, and organizers who claimed to be more important than the players. In short, the World Championship match will go down in history as one of the great aberrations in all of sports.
It all began innocently enough: the Champion would be the first player to win six games, with draws not counting. Kasparov was told to sign an agreement beforehand allowing a return match in two years in the event that he won — thus changing the previous threeyear cycle. He began to see clouds on the horizon. Every match since Spassky-Fischer had been 24 games, with total score winning and the Champion retaining the title in a drawn match. No one could have guessed that twice that number of games would be played here — without a result.
Anatoly Karpov had demonstrated a championship style in the tournaments he eagerly contested throughout his reign.
He began in superb form, winning four of the first nine games. As Kasparov later admitted, if the Champion had continued in the same direct fashion, he would have vanquished the young challenger in less than twenty games. But now Karpov saw a new goal: to exorcise the ghost of Bobby Fischer, the man whose title he had taken by default, the man who had swept away two of his candidate challengers by scores of The thought grew to become an obsession: he would take no chances of losing, he would win, too, by a perfect score of Kasparov held the draw, game after game.
His friends had already accepted the inevitable. Then came the expected crack in the armor: playing White in game 27, the Champion broke through for win number five.
Lasker had resigned his match with Capablanca when down ; Fischer had rallied from But no one had ever tried to fight back from He won a Pawn. The laurel wreath was being prepared. But Garry found a resource and offered a draw in a tense position.
A recurrent image was of a horse running along an abyss, and this imagery fired his courage. In the next game, the thirty-second, after ninety-six days of drought in the match, Kasparov beat Karpov for the first time in his career. After a long combinational bloodbath, the White King has a safe haven while Black is subject to mate if both Pawns queen. He has had significant victories at game 16 and another at game This match would end with his third win at Game But nothing could have been sweeter than Game History will judge this outcome harshly, no matter that it wiped away a two-game deficit by the challenger.
There has never been a precedent for canceling a match. Yes, Garry had come back from the brink. But he had also been denied the chance to demonstrate the greatest comeback in sports history. Moscow, London-Leningrad, Seville, New York-Lyon Despite the tensions of the aborted first match, Karpov and Kasparov maintained professional courtesy toward each other throughout their careers.
And their careers were destined to run parallel for the next eight years. In all, they were to contest match games from to On balance, these were the finest in championship history. Kasparov points out that, even with 40 draws, the first match contributed substantially to chess theory and these games should not be relegated to limbo. This was truly on-to-job training. In the second match at Moscow, Kasparov maintained the balance through the first twelve games.
He started well, then fell behind by Game 5. In Game 11 the strategy succeeded, as Karpov lost in 25 moves. A final combination grew naturally from this broad strategy, and Karpov resigned the adjourned position. Three games later, Kasparov created a sensation by playing his adjourned move openly on the board, which had never been done before in championship play.
It was a clear win. Now two points up, Kasparov weathered the final games in a typically risky fashion. Playing with nerves of steel, as Kasparov describes the scene, Karpov with White wrested a victory from the challenger in Game Kasparov was but a point ahead, and needed two draws to take the title.
The first came easy, with White. Now it was do or die in the final game. The final game of this match will be remembered by chess fans as long as the game is played. Karpov chose to — had to — mix things up enough to avoid a draw. It was not his style, but he did it beautifully, in a Sicilian. Karpov extended his hand in defeat. There was a new Champion. Only a few years later, the situation would be reversed: Karpov would have the commanding point lead, and the Champion, Kasparov, would have to win the final match game to retain his title.
But for now, an era had ended, and a new spirit in chess had ascended the throne, along with the new Champion. This unprecedented swiftness was the result of machinations at the highest levels, and stunned the chess world.
First there had been recriminations in the leading Soviet chess journals about whether the match had really produced a champion. After months of negotiations, during which a return match within three months was actually debated, Kasparov won a six-month reprieve. The games would be divided between London and Leningrad, and would begin in July.
The loser of the match would be entitled to play the winner of the next candidates cycle, instead of automatically having return rights. Instead, they saw Kasparov and Karpov openly analyzing their games in the Moscow match, and it would be no different in London. What would be different was the specter of espionage in the Kasparov camp!
During his brief period of respite in l as Champion, he played two training matches, handily defeating Jan Timman and Tony Miles. Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher set the tone for the gracious match organization in London by not only delivering a welcoming speech but wearing a chessboard design at the ceremony. The games were hard-fought and Kasparov was content with a one point lead going to Leningrad.
Yet Kasparov had the uneasy feeling that his opening preparations were being leaked to the other camp. Too often Karpov seemed to be able to answer his innovations with ease.
Kasparov suspected who the traitor was, but naively decided to wait for conclusive proof. It came six games later. Black seems to have defended everything with Qxa3 34 Nh6 Qe7 35 Rxg6 Qe5. Pandemonium broke out in the audience and Karpov left the hall without the customary handshake. He was, however, far from a beaten man.
Game 18 could have gone either way. Incredibly, even after taking a time-out to steady his nerves, he lost a third in a row. With Game 20 the match was beginning afresh. There was no way of proving that this man had been passing secrets to Karpov, yet there were unexplained copies of notes and telephone calls.
The verdict of the Grandmasters was that the position was drawish. When the sealed move was opened the next morning, the startled audience saw 41 Nd7! Karpov had to win both remaining games to regain his title, but could only draw. Kasparov guessed, however, that this would not be the last of his perennial rival. Sure enough, two years later Karpov again won the right to challenge. The venue this time was Seville. In facing Karpov once more, he felt like a man hounded by the Furies.
He staggered through the match listlessly, losing two of the first five games by exceeding the time control. He imagined that Game 16 would prove decisive for him, as it had in the two previous matches, but when he lost the score was even. Down to the twenty-third game, the score remained tied. Then, in an adjourned game that Kasparov had analyzed to a draw, he unaccountably changed his mind over the board and lost.
The fact that he did is no more amazing than how he did: in a grinding, methodical display of domination. Needing only a draw to regain the crown, Karpov, perhaps the best defender in chess history, could not hold it. His arch rival had again looked into the abyss and won. The cycle was set for three years, spreading the Interzonals and the Candidates matches over that period. In and , Kasparov at last had the time to be a Champion. He devoted himself to GMA and his computer projects, but mostly he now began to reveal the creative side of his profession.
In a series of seven major tournaments in those two years, he came first four times and equal first three. He achieved the best score at Board One in the Olympiad, and continued to win Oscars as the outstanding player of the year. He persisted in taking risks, broadening opening theory and stretching the limits of middle-game complications.
Sooner or later, by lifting the level of play, he would create a new breed of competitors. But not quite yet In , once again Anatoly Karpov showed his competitive mettle by marching through the Candidates matches to the top. At New York, in the Fall of , he would begin another World Championship match — unprecedentedly, the fifth in five years.
The first dozen games signaled the beginning of the computer era for the spectators. Moves were transmitted electronically from the board to displays in the theater and to analysis rooms in the midtown Manhattan hotel where the match was staged. With headphones the spectators could hear commentary on each move from the central analysis room, which was also connected with the computer program Deep Thought.
For the first time, computer analysis was part of a World Championship experience. Again and again, when Kasparov thought he could put the challenger away as he felt he should have, Karpov showed his resilience. He had to prove a win in another 25 moves, but because of delays on both sides Kasparov now had the advantage of an adjournment.
Yet the former World Champion bounced back in the next game with a decisive win, to tie the match again.
Kasparov immediately returned the compliment and then produced, in the next game with White, the best combinative battle of the match — a speculative Kingside attack from the Ruy Lopez, reminiscent of the sixteenth game of in London. With four games to go, Karpov could not hope to make up a twopoint deficit against an ebullient champion. There would be no last game histrionics this time. Garry had not crushed the perennial challenger, but he had settled his crown.
Characteristically, Garry Kasparov has already made his move to go beyond games, beyond politics, to be an influence in this new world. Who would have believed that the Wall Street Journal would champion a chessplayer on its editorial pages? At this writing, the World Championship cycle is in disarray. Fischer himself has reentered the arena of chess, after a self-imposed absence of precisely twenty years, to subdue his rival of Reykjavik, Boris Spassky.
And Judith Polgar, the youngest of the famous Hungarian sisters, has defeated Boris in a demonstration match, after earning the grandmaster title at an earlier age than Bobby. Nothing commends this pastime so much as the implication that it sprang up at various times throughout history and among various peoples as if a natural product of the human imagination and no mere invention. Yet the evolution of schach, scacchi, shak, sjaak, echecs, as this game is variously known around the world, is rich indeed in great figures, exotic fables, and grand encounters.
Neither is it surprising that Bishops and Knights move the way they do. Geometry and symmetry have won out — and simplicity, in spite of the innumerable inventions of new pieces and the addition of squares in several dimensions. One could almost say that the board and the pieces were decided as soon as experience showed that challenging things happened with these arrangements.
The first great codification of the rules was complete by the tenth century, when Arabic manuscripts appeared in the West and disclosed the rapid development of chess throughout the Moslem world, from India to Persia. Arab traders no doubt introduced chess to Russia in the eighth century, and Spain and Portugal were not far behind. These writers also add a historical dimension of their own by the language they choose to depict their beloved game.
In this primitive game the two opposite players were allied as partners. The piece stationed next to the King was the Elephant — an important auxiliary in Indian warfare — the Horse, which occupied the adjoining square, represented the cavalry, while the piece in the corner was the Ship — typifying the vessels which fought on the Ganges and other great rivers of the country — and the four Pawns were the infantry.
Our word Rook, for example, is no doubt the Roka, or Ship of the Hindoos The Knight and the Rook moved as they do at present, their privileges having remained undisturbed for a period of five thousand years.
The King could move one square in all directions, as he can still, time having since given him and deprived him of one move similar to that of the Knight, and allowed him the right of Castling. The move and the power of the Pawn were then the same as now, except that the right of advancing two squares on the first move did not exist. Siegbert Tarrasch, perhaps the most scholarly of all Grandmasters, was taken with the romance of chess.
The ambassador presented a letter also, which stated that if Nausirawan could in seven days discover the principles and practice of the game, the Hindoo monarch would pay him tribute, but, if he failed to do so, tribute would be demanded on the other side. From this difficulty, it is alleged, the King of Persia was delivered by the miraculous acuteness of his chief counselor These time frames refute diverse, romantic ideas about the origin of chess in the classical Greek era.
If Alexander the Great brought chess to India on his forays in the fourth century, B. Perhaps he brought Chaturanga back from India. They gave us our names for the game, via two similar routes. Chaturanga became Shatranj in their transliteration, and this became xadrez in Portuguese. There were several outstanding masters in Baghdad in the ninth century, culminating in the incomparable As-Suli about An historian of prominence, As-Suli wrote the first book-length analysis of the game and became the standard of excellence as a player for the next years.
From the studies he has left behind, this reputation seems deserved. Nothing comparable in quality of play occurred in the West. As Europe emerged from the so-called Dark Ages, shatranj or scac became the pastime of the princely classes — largely as a gambling game. The use of dice to select moves began with the birth of the game in India, and it had a practical reason.
The moves of the pieces, especially the Queen and Bishop, were so restricted that a diceless game consumed hours.
Church authorities did try to discourage chess among the clergy, largely because of the dice. Though it had nothing to do with the play of the game, this book was translated into several languages, most famously by Caxton two hundred years later — perhaps the first book printed in English. But by now the rise of the universities, the spread of printing, and the Renaissance itself were fundamentally changing the game. It would now belong to the West.
Still Going On Dice and chess were finally separated when both the Spanish and the Italians gradually began to change the rules in the middle of the fifteenth century. The Queen, restricted to a square at a time, was given its present powers, as was the Bishop. To compensate for these new attacking forces, the King was allowed to escape the center by castling.
The logjam of Pawns was partially overcome with the twomove first move and later with the en passant capture. Checkmate became eminently feasible, and the whole game more exciting. This rule change neatly coincided with the printed book, and the first chess writers appeared. In Spain there was Luis Lucena, son of an ambassador, whose Discourse on Love and the Art of Chess, , was as much a satire against the feminism of the day as a report on the openings he observed in his travels.
Their matches in were the beginning of recorded games as we know them. Lopez began the habit of naming openings after masters who promoted them. A trio of Italian masters of the following generation, Giulio Polerio, Alesandro Salvio, and Gioachino Greco, published few games but many problems and studies, which now appear in standard collections.
Both Lopez and Greco wrote textbooks on the game that remained the state of the art for the next century and a half. The eighteenth century was another benchmark in chess: the quality of play took an enormous jump with Phillip Stamma and Philidor. For the first time, France took center stage, as both men published their books there and in England.
The inevitable confrontation between the two, in London in , could be considered the first championship match. Unfortunately for them, the popularity of chess now hinged on the ParisLondon rivalry and they could fire their salvos only in print. This Giambattista Lolli did with relish, in a page broadsheet of This epic work was the best treatise on the endgame for another century, and in nineteenth-century editions was also in algebraic.
A priest, Domenico Ponziani, followed with a finer openings book three years later, leaving his name on an opening system for White. Yet, though he had a mentor in Legal de Kemar, Philidor left no outstanding pupil. His successor as French champion, however, inaugurated a new approach to chess that would reign supreme almost to the end of the next century. He was Deschapelles. The Romantic Age of Chess Alexandre Deschapelles wrote no books, played no important matches, and is almost a footnote in chess history.
Yet he typifies — perhaps he began — the swashbuckling era of nineteenth-century chess that pleases crowds, even today. Deschapelles lost his right arm as a soldier of Napoleon, reputedly learned chess in three days, and quickly became the tyrant of the center of chess in Europe, the Cafe de la Regence in Paris. He intimidated the chess world for the first quarter of the nineteenth century, offering odds to anyone who would challenge him. His precocious student, Charles La Bourdonnais, finally called his bluff, as did John Cochrane in another short match.
Rather than risk losing without odds, he took up whist and soon became a champion at cards. He has the honor of leaving his name on an opening lead in bridge, the Deschapelles Coup. McDonnell was an Irish sea captain and, later, writer on political economics. This was also the first indication that something had to be done about the problem of time: McDonnell was extremely slow, La Bourdonnais quick. The two great fighters died within a few years of each other not long later.
It was La Bourdonnais who started the first chess magazine, La Palamede, shortly after the match. And the rivalry between Paris and London soon shaped up again in the next generation of champions, Pierre de Saint-Amant and Howard Staunton. This time, romanticism took a back seat, as the scholarly and autocratic Englishman crushed his French opponent , with 4 draws, in Yet the mere fact that draws were still a rarity at the top levels of chess says much about the ambitiousness of the play.
Staunton has been pilloried over the years for denying a match, fifteen years later, to Paul Morphy. Yet Staunton was a respected Shakespearean scholar in addition to taking on a heavy load in chess journalism and promotion: the first English-language chess magazine, in ; a long-running chess column beginning in ; two major instructional books, in and Finally, he created the first chess tournament, London, , whose extraordinary success launched the next century of tournament chess at the top levels.
Modern chess, here we come. The London tournament gave an extraordinary man the opportunity to show what romantic chess was all about. Adolph Anderssen was a mathematics teacher in his native Breslau, who took inspiration from the La Bourdonnais-McDonnell matches of He continued to compose problems — his first love — but now began to join in the burgeoning German chess revival.
No one considered him a contender, however, in the man knockout event at London. The idea of knockout tournaments, in which short matches halve the contestants in each round, has been taken up again recently, especially in World Cup events.
Staunton was probably distracted by organizational duties, but subsequent events proved Anderssen the strongest player in the world. The genial German easily won his other matches for first prize.
Bxg1 19 e5! Nxf6 23 Be7 mate. Black could have spoiled the fun by leaving the Bishop at c5 with Here Dufresne is his opponent, in an offhand encounter in Berlin. The game has been subject to much analysis, even by Lasker and Rubinstein, and stands as a monument to attacking genius.
He had played chess with his father and at the local club for several years. He had already begun to devise openings that were sharper than those he had seen in chess journals.
Like Anderssen, he was a dark horse winner. At 21, he set sail for Europe to see what he could do against the best in the world. But Morphy has seen Anderssen at once picked up the challenge, even though he had played little since He journeyed to Paris on his Christmas vacation, in effect, from his teaching duties, and plunged into the match of his life.
After another slow start, the American proved to be the superior tactician, winning with but a single draw. He continued to play chess on visits to Cuba and again to Paris, but the Civil War interrupted any consistent plan. Though he died without fulfilling his ambitions in chess or the law, he scarcely deserves the intense psychological scrutiny to which he has been subjected.
If Anderssen and Morphy were the most honest, obliging chessmasters in the history of the game, their successors necessarily suffer by comparison. But Morphy went beyond anything before him in pure talent. Philidor had played three blindfold games simultaneously: Morphy played eight at a famous exhibition in Paris while waiting for Anderssen to arrive.
A silence fell over the game when Morphy left it — a recognition that a true champion had departed. After Morphy, Anderssen still played beautifully into the s, but the era of the romantic was over.
Scientific chess — God help us! Champions and Chess Clocks The vacuum left by Morphy was filled by talent from Germany and Eastern Europe for the last half of the nineteenth century.
Siegbert Tarrasch from Breslau and Dr. Emanuel Lasker from Berlin. Chessplayers often overlook the fact that these men were exceptionally talented beyond chess. All could write effectively in a variety of fields and had careers outside chess.
Zukertort, for example, managed to cram the study of social science and several languages, soldiering for three countries, and proficiency at various sports into his 46 years — reputedly playing 6, games with Anderssen alone.
Clocks had now been accepted as essential in serious games, and London was the place to be for challenges, where Steinitz had taken up residence. The chess world at last had a theorist, and from this point on, until the time of Nimzovitsch, chess became the object of almost philosophical scrutiny. Steinitz lost four games early, but regained his form after the match moved to St.