A ~ A bit much If something is excessive or annoying, it is a bit much. A fool and his money New Microsoft Word Docume. Glossary of Biological Terms. This collection of over biological terms and definitions is available for quick reference as you use The Biology Place, Classic . The High School English-Chinese Physics Glossary was developed to assist the Biology. The Social Studies Series: • Global History 1. • Global History 2.
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The Term Biology Refers To The Science Of Living Organisms. The Book "Glossary Of Biology Terms" Define And Explain The Scientific Terminology Relating To Biology. It’s A Complete Compilation of Ecology, Botany, Zoology, and Microbiology Terms. The Idaho Biology Glossary includes key scientific terminology and definitions. This information is intended to assist Idaho educators in better understanding the . Glossary. □ Entries printed in red are IB command terms. □ Entries are aides- mémoire, rather than of biology, particularly of microorganisms, enzymology.
Install The free offline Biology Dictionary application explains the meaning of Biology words Download the largest Biology Dictionary with over lakhs of Biology words. Meaning of words are provided with definition, synonyms and antonyms. Meanings are provided with usage and example sentences to understand proper translation. One can listen pronunciation of Biology words to read and speak words properly. No more complications
Oxidizes acetyl groups derived from food molecules to CO2 and H2O. In eucaryotic cells it occurs in the mitochondria. It is present on almost all cell types and presents viral peptides on the surface of virus -infected cells, where they are recognized by cytotoxic T cells. See Figure 24— Such regions are continually forming and budding off by endocytosis to form intracellular clathrin-coated vesicles containing extracellular fluid and the materials dissolved in it.
Specialized type of cell division seen in many early embryos whereby a large cell becomes subdivided into many smaller cells without growth. From a population of lymphocytes with a vast repertoire of randomly generated antigen specificities, a given foreign antigen activates selects only those cells with the corresponding antigen specificity. It is formed by the pinching off of a coated region of membrane coated pit. Some coats are made of clathrin , whereas others are made from other proteins.
See also acetyl CoA.
An abundant constituent of the extracellular matrix in many animal tissues. Exists in many forms: type I, the most common, is found in skin, tendon, and bone; type II is found in cartilage ; type IV is present in basal laminae.
Helps eliminate pathogenic microorganisms by directly causing their lysis or by promoting their phagocytosis. See Figure 13— Protein complexes perform most cell functions. Target for the M-Cdk. Includes bone, cartilage , and loose connective tissue. Part of a gap junction : connexons from two adjoining cells join to form a continuous channel between the two cells. The consensus sequence shows the nucleotide or amino acid most often found at each position.
The preservation of a consensus implies that the sequence is functionally important. Stephen Jay Gould W. Williams Carl Woese. Carroll Scott F. History of science Philosophy of biology Teleology Ethnobotany Eugenics History of the creation-evolution controversy Human Genome Project Humboldtian science Natural history Natural philosophy Natural theology Relationship between religion and science Timeline of biology and organic chemistry. Topics related to biology.
Biologist Notable biologists History of biology Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Timeline of biology and organic chemistry List of geneticists and biochemists. Bachelor of Science Publications.
Omne vivum ex ovo In vivo In vitro In utero In silico. List of conservation topics Altricial and Precocial development strategies. Natural science.
Physical science Space science Earth science Life sciences. Figure b centromere Constricted portion of a mitotic chromosome where sister chromatids are attached and from which kinetochore fibers extend toward a spindle pole; required for proper chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis.
It divides during mitosis , forming the spindle poles. Figure checkpoint Any of several points in the eukaryotic cell cycle at which progression of a cell to the next stage can be halted until conditions are suitable. Figure chemical equilibrium The state of a chemical reaction in which the concentration of all products and reactants is constant and the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal.
Figure chimera An animal or tissue composed of elements derived from genetically distinct individuals; also a protein molecule containing segments derived from different proteins. Figure chloroplast A specialized organelle in plant cells that is surrounded by a double membrane and contains internal chlorophyll-containing membranes thylakoids where the light-absorbing reactions of photosynthesis occur. Figure cholesterol An amphipathic lipid containing the four-ring steroid structure with a hydroxyl group on one ring; a major component of many eukaryotic membranes and precursor of steroid hormones.
Figure chromatid One copy of a duplicated chromosome , formed during the S phase of the cell cycle , that is still joined at the centromere to the other copy; also called sister chromatid. During mitosis , the two chromatids separate, each becoming a chromosome of one of the two daughter cells. Condensation of chromatin during mitosis yields the visible metaphase chromosomes. Figure chromatography, liquid Group of biochemical techniques for separating mixtures of molecules based on their mass gel-filtration chromatography , charge ion-exchange chromatography , or ability to bind specifically to other molecules affinity chromatography.
Commonly used technique for separating and purifying proteins. Figure chromosome In eukaryotes , the structural unit of the genetic material consisting of a single, linear double-stranded DNA molecule and associated proteins. During mitosis , chromosomes condense into compact structures visible in the light microscope. In prokaryotes , a single, circular double-stranded DNA molecule constitutes the bulk of the genetic material.
See also karyotype. Cilia usually occur in groups and beat rhythmically to move a cell e. See also axoneme and flagellum.
In bacteria, cis-acting elements are adjacent or proximal to the gene s they control, whereas in eukaryotes they may also be far away.
See also trans-acting. Figure clathrin A fibrous protein that with the aid of assembly proteins polymerizes into a lattice-like network at specific regions on the cytosolic side of a membrane , thereby forming a clathrin-coated pit, which buds off to form a vesicle. Figures and clone A population of identical cells or DNA molecules descended from a single progenitor.
Also viruses or organisms that are genetically identical and descended from a single progenitor. Commonly used vectors are bacterial plasmids and modified bacteriophage genomes. Figures and codon Sequence of three nucleotides in DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid during protein synthesis; also called triplet.
Of the 64 possible codons, three are stop codons, which do not specify amino acids. Table coenzyme Small organic molecule that associates with an enzyme and participates in the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme; also called cofactor. Some coenzymes form a transient covalent bond to the substrate ; others function as carriers of electrons, acyl groups, or other activated groups.
Generally, a coenzyme is bound less firmly to a protein than a prosthetic group. Figure a collagen A triple-helical protein that forms fibrils of great tensile strength; a major component of the extracellular matrix and connective tissues. The numerous collagen subtypes differ in their tissue distribution and the extracellular components and cell-surface proteins with which they associate.
If two mutants with the same mutant phenotype e. Figure conformation The precise shape of a protein or other macromolecule in three dimensions resulting from the spatial location of the atoms in the molecule. A small change in the conformations of some proteins affects their activity considerably. See also homology. Figure cotransport Protein-mediated transport of an ion or small molecule across a membrane against a concentration gradient driven by coupling to movement of a second molecule down its concentration gradient.
See also antiport and symport. Table crossing over Exchange of genetic material between maternal and paternal chromatids during meiosis to produce recombined chromosomes. Figure See also recombination. Figure cyclin Any of several related proteins whose concentrations rise and fall during the course of the eukaryotic cell cycle. Cyclins form complexes with cyclin-dependent kinases, thereby activating and determining the substrate specificity of these enzymes.
Various Cdk-cyclin complexes trigger progression through different stages of the eukaryotic cell cycle by phosphorylating specific target proteins. Figure cytochromes A group of colored, heme-containing proteins that transfer electrons during cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Figure cytokine Any of numerous secreted, small proteins e.
The cytoskeleton provides structural support for the cell and permits directed movement of organelles, chromosomes, and the cell itself. Figure D dalton Unit of molecular mass approximately equal to the mass of a hydrogen atom 1.
Figure deoxyribonucleic acid See DNA. Figure determination In embryogenesis , a change in a cell that commits the cell to a particular developmental pathway. Figures and differentiation Process usually involving changes in gene expression by which a precursor cell becomes a distinct specialized cell type.
Somatic cells contain the diploid number of chromosomes 2n characteristic of a species. See also haploid. Common examples are lactose milk sugar and sucrose, a major photosynthetic product in higher plants.