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Sathya Sothanai(Tamil) - Mahatma Gandhi. Exclusive Onbooks Books To Read Online, Read Books, Reading Online, Mahatma Gandhi, Collections. The capability of reading and other personal skills get improves on reading this Sathya Sothanai by Mahatma Gandhi This book is available in Tamil with high. Tamil Books Title Search. Book Title Search Book Title Search. Recent Searches: ENGE Book Details. சத்திய சோதனை. SATHYA SOTHANAI.

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You are on page 1of 33 Search inside document S. Chennai: Manivashagar Vidukathaigal. Chennai: Sura 19am Nootrandu Thamil Ilakkiyam. Chennai: Sarada Nanneri Kathaigal. Chennai: Manivashagar Pathippagam, 7 Vulaga Adhisayangal.

Finally, he also formulated his own philosophy of political protest, called Satyagraha, which literally meant "truth-force" in Sanskrit. In practice, this practice meant protesting injustice steadfastly, but in a non-violent manner. He put this theory into practice on September 8, , when, at a large gathering of the Indian community in Transvaal, he asked the whole community to take a vow of disobedience to the law, as the Transvaal government had started an effort to register every Indian child over the age of eight, which would make them an official part of the South African population.

Setting a personal example, Gandhi became the first Indian to appear before a magistrate for his refusal to register, and he was sentenced to two months in prison. He actually asked for a heavier sentence, a request, consistent with his philosophy of self-denial. After his release, Gandhi continued his campaign and thousands of Indians burned their registration cards, crossing the Transvaal-Natal border without passes.

Many went to jail, including Gandhi, who went to jail again in Gandhi did not waiver when a South African General by the name of Jan Christiaan Smuts promised to eliminate the registration law, but broke his word. Gandhi went all the way to London in and gathered enough support among the British to convince Smuts to eliminate the law in Yet, the Transvaal Prime Minister continued to regard Indians as second-class citizens while the Cape Colony government passed another discriminatory law making all non-Christian marriages illegal, which meant that all Indian children would be considered born out of wedlock.

In addition, the government in Natal continued to impose crippling poll tax for entering Natal only upon Indians. In response to these strikingly unjust rules, Gandhi organized a large-scale satyagraha, which involved women crossing the Natal-Transvaal border illegally. When they were arrested, five thousand Indian coal miners also went on strike and Gandhi himself led them across the Natalese border, where they expected arrest.

Although Smuts and Gandhi did not agree on many points, they had respect for each other. In , Smuts relented due to the sheer number of Indians involved in protest and negotiated a settlement which provided for the legality of Indian marriages and abolished the poll tax. Further, the import of indentured laborers from India was to be phased out by In July , Gandhi sailed for Britain, now admired as "Mahatma," and known throughout the world for the success of satyagraha.

Mahatma in the Midst of World Turmoil Gandhi was in England when World War I started and he immediately began organizing a medical corps similar to the force he had led in the Boer War, but he also faced health problems that caused him to return to India, where he met the applauding crowds with enthusiasm once again.

Indians continued to refer to him as "Mahatma" or "Great Soul," an appellation reserved only for the holiest men of Hinduism. While Gandhi accepted the love and admiration of the crowds, he also insisted that all souls were equal and did not accept the implication of religious sacredness that his new name carried. In order to retreat into a life of humility and restraint, as his personal principles mandated, he decided to withdraw from public life for a while spending his first year in India focusing on his personal quest for purity and healing.

He also lived in a communal space with untouchables, a choice which many of his financial supporters resented, because they believed that the very presence of untouchables defiled higher-caste Indians. Gandhi even considered moving to a district in Ahmedabad inhabited entirely by the untouchables when a generous Muslim merchant donated enough money to keep up his current living space for another year.

By that time, Gandhi's communal life with the untouchables had become more acceptable. Although Gandhi had withdrawn from public life, he briefly met with the British Governor of Bombay and future Viceroy of India , Lord Willington, whom Gandhi promised to consult before he launched any political campaigns. Gandhi also felt the impact of another event, the passing of G. Gokhale, who had become his supporter and political mentor.

He stayed away from the political trend of Indian nationalism, which many of the members of the Indian National Congress embraced. Instead, he stayed busy resettling his family and the inhabitants of the Phoenix Settlement in South Africa, as well as the Tolstoy Settlement he had founded near Johannesburg.

For this purpose, on May 25, , he created a new settlement, which came to be known as the Satyagraha ashram derive from Sanskrit word "Satya" means "truth" near the town of Ahmedabad and close to his place of birth in the western Indian province of Gujarati. All the inhabitants of the ashram, which included one family of untouchables, swore to poverty and chastity. After a while, Gandhi became influenced by the idea of Indian independence from the British, but he dreaded the possibility that a westernized Indian elite would replace the British government.

He developed a strong conviction that Indian independence should take place as a large-scale sociopolitical reform, which would remove the old plagues of extreme poverty and caste restrictions.

In fact, he believed that Indians could not become worthy of self-government unless they all shared a concern for the poor.

As Gandhi resumed his public life in India in , he delivered a speech at the opening of the new Hindu University in the city of Benares, where he discussed his understanding of independence and reform. He also provided specific examples of the abhorrent living conditions of the lower classes that he had observed during his travels around India and focused specifically on sanitation. Although the Indians of the higher-castes did not readily embrace the ideas in the speech, Gandhi had now returned to public life and he felt ready to convert these ideas to actions.

Facing the possibility of arrest, just like he always did in South Africa, Gandhi first spoke for the rights of impoverished indigo-cultivators in the Champaran district. His efforts eventually led to the appointment of a government commission to investigate abuses by the indigo planters.

He also interefered whenever he saw violence. When a group of Ahmedabad mill workers went on strike and became violent, he resolved to fast until they returned to peace.

Though some political commentators condemned Gandhi's behavior as a form of blackmail, the fast only lasted three days before the workers and their employers negotiated an agreement. Through this situation, Gandhi discovered the fast as one of his most effective weapons in late years and set a precedent for later action as part of satyagraha. As the First World War continued, Gandhi also became involved in recruiting men for the British Army, an involvement which his followers had a difficult time accepting, after listening to his passionate speeches about resisting injustice in a non-violent manner.

Not surprisingly, at this point, although Gandhi still remained loyal to Britain and enamored with the ideals of the British constitution, his desire to support and independent home rule became stronger.

As time passed, Gandhi became exhausted from his long journey around the country and fell ill with dysentery. He refused conventional treatment and chose to practice his own healing methods, relying on diet and spending a long time bedridden, while in recovery in his ashram.

While the British alleged that they fought to protect the rights of small states and independent peoples from tyranny, in India, an increasing number of people found this alleged commitment less than genuine.

After the end of the war, the British government decided to follow the recommendations of the Rowlatt Committee, which advocated the retention of various wartime restrictions in India, including curfews and measures to suppress free speech. Gandhi was still sick when these events took place and, although he could not protest actively, he felt his loyalty to the British Empire weaken significantly.

Later, when the Rowlatt Act actually became law, Gandhi proposed that the entire country observe a day of prayer, fasting, and abstention from physical labor as a peaceful protest against the injustice of the oppressive law. Gandhi's plea generated an overwhelming response as millions of Indians did not go to work on April 6, As the entire country stood still, the British arrested Gandhi, which provoked angry crowds to fill the streets of India's cities and, much to Gandhi's dislike, violence erupted everywhere.

Gandhi could not tolerate violence so he called off his campaign and asked that everyone return to their homes. He acted in accordance with his firm belief that if satyagraha could not be carried out without violence, it should not take place at all. Unfortunately, not all protesters shared Gandhi's conviction as ardently.

In Amritsar, capital of the region known as the Punjab, where the alarmed British authorities had deported the local Hindu and Muslim members of the Congress, the street mobs became very violent and the British summoned Brigadier-General Reginald E.

Dyer to restore order.

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Dyer prohibited all public meetings and instituted public whippings for Indians who approached British policemen. Despite these new regulations, a crowd of over ten thousand protesters gathered in the center of Armitsar, and Dyer responded with bringing his troops there and opening fire without warning.

Tightly packed together, the protesters had nowhere to run from the fire, even when they threw themselves down on the ground the fire was then directed on the ground, ceasing only when the British troops no longer had ammunition. Hundreds died and many more were wounded.

This unfortunate occurrence became known as the Amritsar Massacre, it outraged the British public almost as much as Indian society. The authorities in London eventually condemned Dyer's conduct, forcing him to resign in disgrace. The effect the massacre had on Indian society became even more profound as more moderate politicians, like Gandhi, now began to wholeheartedly support the idea of Indian independence, creating an intense climate of mutual hostility.

After the massacre, Gandhi eventually obtained permission to travel to Amritsar and conduct his own investigation. He produced a report months later and his work on the report motivated him to contact a number of Indian politicians, who advocated for the idea of independence from British rule.

Muslims considered the Caliphs as heirs of Mohammed and spiritual heads of Islam. While the British considered such suppression a necessary effort to restore order after World War I, the Muslim populations viewed it as slap in the face. Gandhi urged them not to accept the actions of the British.

He proposed a boycott of British goods, and stated that if the British continued to insist on the elimination of the Caliphate, Indian Muslims should take even more drastic measures of non-cooperation, involving areas such as government employment and taxes.

During the months that followed, Gandhi continued to advocate for peace and caution, however, since Britain and Turkey were still negotiating their peace terms. Unlike more nationalistic politicians, he also supported the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms for India, as they laid the foundation for constitutional self-government.

Eventually, other politicians who thought the reforms did not go far enough had to agree with Gandhi simply because his popularity and influence had become so great that the Congress could accomplish little without him. As the British remained determined to put an end to the Muslim Caliphate, they enforced the Rowlatt Act resolutely. Even Gandhi became less tolerant towards British practices and in April , he urged all Indians, Muslim and Hindu, to begin a "non-cooperation" protest against the British rule by giving up their Western clothing and British jobs.

As a personal example, on August 1, he returned the kasar-i-hind medal that he had received for providing medical service to the Boer War's wounded British army in South Africa. He also became the first president of the Home Rule League, a largely symbolic position which confirmed his position as an advocate for Indian Independence. In September , Gandhi also passed an official constitution for the Congress, which created a system of two national committees and numerous local units, all working to mobilize a spirit of non-cooperation across India.

Gandhi and other volunteers traveled around India further establishing this new grass roots organization, which achieved great success. By , Gandhi decided that the initiative of non-cooperation had to transform into open civil disobedience, but in March , Lord Reading finally ordered Gandhi's arrest after a crowd in the city of Chauri Chaura attacked and killed the local representatives of British authority.

Gandhi, who had never encouraged or sanctioned this type of conduct, condemned the actions of the violent crowds and retreated into a period of fasting and prayer as a response to this violent outburst. However, the British saw the event as a trigger point and a reason for his arrest.

Part V[ edit ] The British authorities placed Gandhi on trial for sedition and sentenced him to six years in prison, marking the first time that he faced prosecution in India.

Because of Gandhi's fame, the judge, C. Broomfield, hesitated to impose a harsher punishment. He considered Gandhi clearly guilty as charged, despite the fact that Gandhi admitted his guilt and even went as far as requesting the heaviest possible sentence.

Such willingness to accept imprisonment conformed to his philosophy of satyagraha, so Gandhi felt that his time in prison only furthered his commitment and goals.

He often goes away on work trips. Fraulein Rottenmeier, the mother of Klara, is a very strict woman who does not like rules to be disobeyed. She is very strict to particularly to Heidi. However, Heidi is very respectful to her. One of them is the mountains and the other is a city in Frankfurt.

The mountains and the meadows are the place where the Uncle lives. He and Heidi love them very much as they look so peaceful and beautiful.

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Heidi loves the sound of the wind blowing in the fir trees behind their hut. At the base of the mountains, you can almost smell the fresh grass and the fragrant flowers blooming farther up the mountain. It is very hot in summer and very cold during the winter. After one hour of climbing up the mountains, you will reach the Little Village, true to its name. In the valley and the meadows, there are tiny bunches of pink blossoms growing by the rocks. The hills far away are covered with dots of blue and specks of yellow.

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In the evening, while the sun sets, the snow high up on the hills turns rosy red. In the evenings, the valleys below are covered in mist. When Heidi's aunt takes her away, the place she goes to is Frankfurt. Herr Sesemann's house is in a small town in Frankfurt and is very big.

When Heidi first arrives, she stares in awe at the big house. The house has many rooms and Heidi has her own room.

The place is so elegant that Heidi feels as if she doesn't belong there at all. All around the house, there are stony streets and walls which Heidi doesn't like. Her aunt takes her up the mountains to live with her grandfather and she loves to be there. She soon wins her grandfather's affection and love. She loves to wander freely about the mountains with Peter, the goatherd, and the goats.

During the winter months, Peter has to go to school and Heidi stays at home with her grandfather. One day, Peter invites her home to meet his grandmother. Heidi spends her days playing with her grandfather and visiting Peter's house. The Alm-Uncle gets upset and tells Dete that she and Heidi should not come to his house again.

Dete tricks Heidi saying she will come back tomorrow and persuades her into leaving. Heidi goes to Herr Sesemann's house and assists Klara, Herr Sesemann's daughter, to study but she herself does not learn to read.

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Heidi keeps thinking that she will go home but she never does. One day, when Herr Sesemann comes home, he brings Heidi a book with many bright pictures. One picture catches Heidi's eyes as it is a picture of the meadows and mountains. She is inspired by this to learn to read and soon she masters it.

A few weeks after Herr Sesemann leaves, some strange things happen in the house. First, Fraulein Rottenmeier thinks it is a thief but soon finds out it isn't because there was nothing missing. One night, one of the servants decides he has to get to the bottom of it. He sees a pale white figure and gets really scared. He tells Fraulein Rottenmeier that a ghost is there in the house. Klara also comes to know of it and says that she needs Herr Sesemann in the house. Herr Sesemann comes back and decides to call his old friend, the doctor, to his house to search for the ghost.

They too see the white figure and later find that it's Heidi! The doctor brings Heidi back to her room and asks her how she got down.

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She says that she doesn't know and also says she dreams that she is with her grandfather every night and when she wakes up she is down there. Heidi goes to sleep and the doctor goes to talk with Herr Sesemann.

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He tells him that Heidi had been sleepwalking and she really needed to go home for her health. Herr Sesemann was really upset because a child had been wasting time at his house and nobody had noticed it.

He decides to send Heidi home with Sebastian, the servant, that day itself. She goes to the mountains and first goes to meet "The Grandmother" and reads some of the hymns in her book. Next she goes to her grandfather and hugs him.

Sothanai book sathiya tamil

The Alm-Uncle goes to check on her ten times in the night. Her grandfather had read in the letter Herr Sesemann had sent him that she was sleepwalking and didn't want her to hurt herself.

But she was sleeping peacefully. Her wandering was finally over. She was at home. I did not want to put the book down after I started reading it.