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This document is an Editors Draft of the “HTML5 Reference” produced by the HTML the element must be either empty or contain only script documentation. Nutshell Handbook, the Nutshell Handbook logo, and the O'Reilly logo are registered trademarks of O'Reilly Media, Inc. HTML5 Pocket Reference, the image of. href: destination resource of the hyperlink hreflang: gives the language of the linked resource media: describes for which media the target docu- ment was.
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Neither the self-closing tag syntax, nor optional tags are supported. These elements can only contain raw text. This means that other content like comments , character references and other elements cannot be represented in the HTML syntax.
That is, the markup for such constructs is treated as text instead of markup. All occurrences of special characters do not need to be escaped as character references , as they otherwise would within normal elements. There is, however, one additional restriction that the text cannot contain a string that looks like the element's end tag. In the previous example, an HTML conformance checker would report the error as relating to the second end tag , believing that the first is in fact the end tag.
Care must be taken to ensure such strings do not occur within the script. In XHTML, because such elements are treated as normal elements , markup like comments, character references and other elements can be represented.
It is therefore necessary to escape all special characters using either character references or by enclosing the content within a CDATA section. However, by taking advantage of the scripting language's comment syntax, those strings can be commented so that they are ignored by the script in HTML, but still processed as markup in XHTML.
The term RCDATA elements refers to elements within which character references are supported, but all other content is treated as raw text instead of markup. These elements can only contain text or character references.
This means that only character references are treated as markup, whereas all other content like comments and other elements cannot be represented in the HTML syntax. That is, the markup for such constructs is treated as text. Occurrences of special characters may, but generally do not need to be escaped as character references , as they otherwise would within normal elements.
But this is subject to the additional restriction that the text cannot include an ambiguous ampersand. That is, an ampersand followed a sequence of characters that looks like a named character reference, but which is not valid. Another additional restriction that the text cannot contain a string that looks like the element's end tag. In XHTML, because such elements are treated as normal elements , markup like comments and other elements can also be represented. The self-closing tag syntax may be used, where the element's content model permits.
Optional tags are not supported. Normal Elements refers to all other HTML elements that are not categorised in any of the other types.
These have a start tag and an end tag. These elements do not support the self-closing tag syntax. Certain elements have optional tags , meaning that one or both tags may be omitted in specific circumstances where the presence of the tag will be implied by surrounding markup. Consult the element definitions to see which tags may be omitted. Some additional restrictions apply on a per-element basis to some specific elements.
Consult the element definitions for details. Elements may have attributes that are used to specify additional information about them. Some attributes are defined globally and can be used on any HTML element, while others are defined for specific elements only. Every attribute must have an attribute name that is used to identify it. Every attribute also has an associated attribute value , which, depending on the attribute's definition, may represent one of several different types.
The permitted syntax for each attribute depends on the given value. Attributes are placed within a start tag and are separated from the tag name and from each other by whitespace. They must not be specified within an end tag. In HTML, attribute names are case insensitive.
For custom attributes, attribute names must consist of one or more characters other than the space characters , control characters , NULL, one of the characters: It is, however, recommended that authors use the lowercase letters in the ranges a—z and 0—9.
Attribute values may contain text and character references , subject to the restriction that the text cannot contain an ambiguous ampersand , and to any additional restrictions imposed by the syntax being used. There are four slightly different syntaxes that may be used for attributes in HTML: All four syntaxes may be used in the HTML syntax, depending on what is needed for each specific attribute.
However, in the XHTML syntax, attribute values must always be quoted using either single or double quotes. An empty attribute is one where the value has been omitted. This is a syntactic shorthand for specifying the attribute with an empty value, and is commonly used for boolean attributes. However, due to legacy constraints, this has been changed in HTML5 to reflect the way implementations really work.
The previous examples are semantically equivalent to specifying the attribute with the value "disabled" , but are not exactly the same. An unquoted attribute value is one where the value is supplied, but is not surrounded by quotation marks. The attribute value must not contain any literal space characters, any of the characters: To represent those characters in an attribute value, they either need to be escaped using character references, or you need to use either the single- or double-quoted attribute values.
In the previous example, each attribute is separated from the last by a space. The slash at the end, which despite not being separated from the last value by any space characters, is not considered part of the attribute's value. Instead, the the slash indicates the use of the self-closing tag syntax.
An double-quoted attribute value is one where the supplied value is surrounded by double quotation marks ". The attribute value must delimited by double-quote characters " before and after the value, and must not contain any double-quote characters or an ambiguous ampersands in between. All other text and character references are permitted.
An single-quoted attribute value is one where the supplied value is surrounded by single quotation marks '. The attribute value must delimited by single-quote characters ' before and after the value, and must not contain any single-quote characters or an ambiguous ampersands in between.
Discuss numeric and named character reference syntax. May link to the list of entity references in a separate document, rather than trying to list them all in here. Overview of Unicode, character repertoires, encodings, etc.
The important thing to understand is that there are valid reasons to choose both, and that authors are encouraged to make an informed decision. Polyglot documents are useful to create for situations where a document is intended to be served as either HTML or XHTML, depending on the support in particular browsers, or when it is not known at the time of creation, which MIME type the document will ultimately be served as.
In order to successfully create and maintain polyglot documents, authors need to be familiar with both the similarities and differences between the two syntaxes. This includes not only syntactic differences, but also differences in the way stylesheets, and scripts are handled, and the way in which character encodings are detected. This section will provide the details about each of these similarities and differences, and provide guidelines on the creation of polyglot documents.
Base this on the HTML vs. XHTML article. Each element in HTML falls into zero or more categories that group elements with similar characteristics together.
The following categories are used in this guide:. Metadata content includes elements for marking up document metadata; marking up or linking to resources that describe the behaviour or presentation of the document; or indicate relationships with other documents. Metadata elements appear within the head of a document. Some common examples of metadata elements include: Most elements that are used in the body of documents and applications are categorised as flow content.
Most of the elements used to mark up the main content in the body of a page are considered to be flow content. In general, this includes elements that are presented visually as either block level or inline level.
Some common flow content includes elements like div , p , em and strong. Elements categorised as heading content, phrasing content or embedded content are also considered to be flow content.
These elements can have their own outlines, but the sections and headers inside these elements do not contribute to the outlines of their ancestors. Some common sectioning root elements include, among others, body , blockquote and figure. Sectioning content is used for structuring a document into sections, each of which generally has its own heading. These elements provide a scope within which associated headers, footers and contact information apply. Some common sectioning elements include, among others, section , article and nav.
Most sectioning elements, with the exception of the body element, are also classified as flow content. Heading content includes the elements for marking up headers. Headings, in conjunction with the sectioning elements, are used to describe the the structure of the document. Heading content includes the header element and the h1 to h6 elements. Phrasing content includes text and text-level markup.
This is similar to the concept of inline level elements in HTML 4. Most elements that are categorised as phrasing content can only contain other phrasing content. Some common examples of phrasing content elements include abbr , em , strong and span. Embedded content includes elements that load external resources into the document.
Such external resources include, for example, images, videos and Flash-based content. Some embedded content elements include img , object , embed and video. Elements categorised as embedded content are considered to be phrasing content, and thus also considered to be flow content. Interactive elements are those that allow the user to interact with or activate in some way.
Some common examples of interactive content include a , audio and video when used with the controls attribute, and most form controls using input. Some elements have transparent content models, meaning that their allowed content depends upon the parent element.
They may contain any content that their parent element may contain, in addition to any other allowances or exceptions described for the element. When the element has no parent, then the content model defaults to flow content. Expect major changes to this section. Each of these needs longer descriptions and the elements should be divided into categories. The IDL for the DOM Interfaces is likely to be replaced by something a lot more reader-friendly in the future; consider it a placeholder for now.
Attributes will likely be accompanied by brief descriptions within the summary box, in addition to fuller descriptions and examples afterwards. The html element represents the root of an HTML document. The html element is the root element of a document. Every document must begin with this element, and it must contain both the head and body elements.
It is considered good practice to specify the primary language of the document on this element using the lang attribute. In the HTML syntax only, both the start and end tags are optional, and so for convenience either may be omitted, unless you wish to specify attributes on this element, in which case, at least the start tag needs to be included.
You may use either the lang or xml: Metadata is information about the document itself, such as it's title, author. Scripts and stylesheets may also be included within the head element. Every document must have a head element.
The base element is for specifying a base URL against which relative links will be resolved, and the name of the default target for opening links and form submissions. The link is for linking to other resources, such as stylesheets, favicons and syndication feeds. The LinkStyle interface must also be implemented by this element, the styling processing model defines how. The meta element is for providing various types of metadata, such as the application-name or specifying the documents character encoding.
The noscript element is used to provide alternative content for users using browsers that do not support scripting or have it disabled. The body element represents the main content of the document. The section element represents a generic document or application section.
A section, in this context, is a thematic grouping of content, typically with a header and possibly a footer. The nav element represents a section of a page containing primary navigation links to other pages or to parts within the page. The article element represents an independent section of a document, page, or site.
This could be a forum post, a magazine or newspaper article, a blog entry, a user-submitted comment, or any other independent item of content. The aside element represents a section of a page that consists of content that is tangentially related to the content around the aside element, and which could be considered separate from that content.
Such sections are often represented as sidebars in printed typography. The header element represents the header of a section, typically containing headings and subheadings, and other metadata about the section. The footer element represents a footer of a section, typically containing information such as who wrote it, links to related documents, and copyright notices.
The address element represents the contact information for the section it applies to. If it applies to the body element , then it instead applies to the document as a whole. A typical document is often structured into different sections and subsections, with each potentially having its own heading and possibly a subheading. These heading and sectioning elements provide a way for this structure to be conveyed to the reader.
The p element represents a paragraph. The hr element represents a paragraph -level thematic break, e. The pre element represents a block of preformatted text, in which structure is represented by typographic conventions rather than by elements. The dialog element represents a conversation. The blockquote element represents a section that is quoted from another source. The ol element represents an ordered list. The ul element represents an unordered list.
The dl element introduces an association list containing groups of terms and associated descriptions. The dt element represents the term, or name, part of a term-description group in a description list dl element , and the talker, or speaker, part of a talker-discourse pair in a conversation dialog element.
The dd element represents the description, definition, or value, part of a term-description group in a description list dl element , and the discourse, or quote, part in a conversation dialog element. If the a element has an href attribute, then it represents a hyperlink.
The Command interface must also be implemented by this element. The q element represents a phrase quoted from another source. The cite element represents the title of a work, such as an article, a book, a poem, a song, a film, or any other creative work. The em element represents stress emphasis of its contents. The strong element represents strong importance for its contents.
The small element represents small print part of a document often describing legal restrictions, such as copyrights or other disadvantages , or other side comments. The mark element represents a run of text in one document marked or highlighted for reference purposes, due to its relevance in another context.
The dfn element represents the defining instance of a term, where its definition is provided nearby. The abbr element represents an abbreviation or acronym, optionally with its expansion. The progress element represents the completion progress of a task. If you set autoProcessQueue to false, then.
This means that you have to call it yourself when you want to upload all files currently queued. In the latter case, data-dz-errormessage will contain the text returned by the server. To overwrite the default template, use the previewTemplate config. You can access the HTML of the file preview in any of the events with file.
If you want some specific link to remove a file instead of the built in addRemoveLinks config , you can simply insert elements in the template with the data-dz-remove attribute. If you override all the default event listeners you can completely rebuild your layout from scratch. See the installation section on how to add the stylesheet and spritemaps if you want your dropzone to look like the one on this page.
It can also be the destination for streamed media, using a MediaStream. Forms improvements A look at the constraint validation API , several new attributes, new values for the element is used to create interactive controls for web-based forms in order to accept data from the user; a wide variety of types of input data and control widgets are available, depending on the device and user agent. New semantic elements Beside sections, media and forms elements, there are numerous new elements, like represents text which is marked or highlighted for reference or notation purposes, due to the marked passage's relevance or importance in the enclosing context.
The main content area consists of content that is directly related to or expands upon the central topic of a document, or the central functionality of an application. Improvement in represents a nested browsing context, embedding another HTML page into the current one. MathML Allows directly embedding mathematical formulas. This leads to far greater predictability and interoperability between HTML5-compliant browsers. Connectivity Web Sockets Allows creating a permanent connection between the page and the server and to exchange non-HTML data through that means.
Server-sent events Allows a server to push events to a client, rather than the classical paradigm where the server could send data only in response to a client's request. WebRTC This technology, where RTC stands for Real-Time Communication, allows connecting to other people and controlling videoconferencing directly in the browser, without the need for a plugin or an external application.
Most others have offline resource support at some level. Online and offline events Firefox 3 supports WHATWG online and offline events, which let applications and extensions detect whether or not there's an active Internet connection, as well as to detect when the connection goes up and down.
WHATWG client-side session and persistent storage aka DOM storage Client-side session and persistent storage allows web applications to store structured data on the client side. IndexedDB IndexedDB is a web standard for the storage of significant amounts of structured data in the browser and for high performance searches on this data using indexes.
This includes support for selecting multiple files using the element is used to create interactive controls for web-based forms in order to accept data from the user; a wide variety of types of input data and control widgets are available, depending on the device and user agent.
There also is FileReader.
It lets you specify timed text tracks or time-based data , for example to automatically handle subtitles. The tracks are formatted in WebVTT format. WebVTT is a text track format. XMLHttpRequest level 2 Allows fetching asynchronously some parts of the page, allowing it to display dynamic content, varying according to the time and user actions. This is the technology behind Ajax. History API Allows the manipulation of the browser history. This is especially useful for pages loading interactively new information.