Black Holes and Time Warps: Einstein's Outrageous Legacy by Kip S. Thorne Download eBook Black Holes and Time Warps: Einstein's. Black Holes and Time Warps: Einstein's Outrageous Legacy. Kip S. Thorne ronaldweinland.info ISBN. Learn more about Black Holes & Time Warps in the ronaldweinland.info digital collection. Title details for Black Holes & Time Warps by Kip Thorne - Wait list.
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Books Download Black Holes and Time Warps (PDF, ePub, Docs) by Kip S. Thorne Read Online Full Free. “The ideal book for those fascinated by space, the cosmos, black holes, and all.. “dark matter Death black holes time warps. Pages·· MB· Black Holes & Time Warps Einstein's Outrageous Legacy by Kip S. Thorne, Stephen Hawking (Foreword by), Frederick Seitz (Introduction).
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If that doesn't work, there may be a network issue, and you can use our self test page to see what's preventing the page from loading. Learn more about possible network issues or contact support for more help. Search Search Search Browse menu. Sign in. Recent updates. Description Creators Details Reviews Winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics Ever since Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity burst upon the world in some of the most brilliant minds of our century have sought to decipher the mysteries bequeathed by that theory, a legacy so unthinkable in some respects that even Einstein himself rejected them.
Kip Thorne - Author Stephen W. Hawking - Author of introduction, etc. Einstein's Outrageous Legacy Kip S.
Thorne Publisher: Norton, W. If this list only whets your appetite for more, we recommend you have a gander at the book from which we excerpted this glossary: Einstein's Outrageous Legacy, by Kip S.
Thorne, Black Holes and Time Warps: New Notes: In the s, while writing Contact, Carl Sagan needed help with a plot point. And then they collide and they throw out the source of an array of, of electromagnetic counterpart observations, uh, in this really dramatic, this dramatic kind of event that we now, for the first time observed. For example, there are three quarks that make up a proton and so on, and in this case, you really reach those densities where the quarks seem to interact with each other and so on.
How do we get to the situation which, you know, then we have something to collide. So, um, over the years we, uh, we have developed some hypothesis for how this can happen in nature. What we know for sure is that it happens in nature. We know that these binary systems, two black holes in orbit, one around the other, just like the earth is going around the sun. But now imagine two black holes or two neutron stars, like as dense as Jocelyn was describing in orbit one around the other exist in nature, and the way they might form, um, is, uh, there are two classes of potential formation mechanisms.
One is you take two stars that, that form, they are born in pairs. They are born one going around the other, unlike our sun, which is a single star as we are. So we know from observations with regular telescopes that most of the stars out there actually are born in pairs.
So they are born in pairs and they start burning the nuclear fuel. Uh, so this can happen with black holes or neutron stars. But there are parts of the galaxy where stars are extremely packed together in a small volume. So you have a collection of stars, we call them clusters of stars.
Neutron stars or black holes. Those, especially the black holes, are going to be, end up being the heaviest objects in that cluster. So you have pairs that were born as stars together and they stayed together all their lives and others that went through the dance floor.
They had many, many partners along the time, the time of their lifetime. And eventually they collided with some partner. LIVIO: Let me just add one thing to both of their comments and that is, I mean, they both describes stellar evolution, in stellar evolution and stars basically spend their lives trying to fight gravity. So stars spend their life trying to fight gravity, and they do that by doing nuclear reactions that produce a lot of energy and they, which builds a lot of pressure and that holds them against gravity.
But as they go through their nuclear fuels, at some point they ran out of fuels and then gravity finally has the upper hand.
And that leads it eventually to these collapse, which forms, neutron stars or black holes. You, you are at the closest from these groups to the experimental side. What does LIGO do, and how does it do it? And to give you an idea of how precise, think about the, you know, you have these two black holes or neutron stars going around each other, many, many, many billions of light years away, producing these ripples in space time.
And the physical effect of these ripples in space time is to stretch and squeeze space itself. BROWN: so the, the, the stretching and squeezing. And so LIGO itself is both simple and complicated. BROWN: You put another mirror at the end, another mirror this end in this L shape, you bounce the light back so the light comes back towards the what we call the beam splitter. This, this mirror that split the beam, and then the light leaks out towards a a, a, a light detector here, a photodetector right here, and if you set this up so the lengths of those two arms are perfectly balanced, then you can set it up.
So if in LIGO we think classically we think of light as a wave and you set this up so the the peaks and troughs of the waves line up and so you get what we call constructive interference coming back towards the laser and destructive interference going towards the photo detector. LIVIO: Constructive interference is when the light from the two things amplifies each other and destructive is when it kills each other.
BROWN: Right, and so all the light comes back towards the laser when the thing is perfectly balanced, as the gravitational wave passes through, it stretches one arm and squeezes the other arm, and so it upsets that perfect length balance between these two arms. Now in reality, these arms are two and a half miles long with 40 kilogram mirrors at the end of each arm, so as a gravitational wave goes past, it changes this delicate balance of the two arm lengths and some light just leaks out towards this photo detector and that light.
This is the experiment. This is why I said if you tell somebody we have achieved this, you know, there is nothing more dramatic that you can say that we have achieved from a technological perspective.
Humans in any, in any field of science. You know, we, I think everyone believes that there was firm evidence for black holes, for observing the light given off as material falls into black holes or the light given off by stars orbiting black holes. But with LIGO, you actually, those gravitational waves, those ripples in space came from the black holes themselves. So this machine reached out and touched the event horizon of those black holes with a machine that we built here on earth.
And these are these perturbation in spacetime.
Tell us a little bit about that, and also tell us a little bit about how do you simulate what happens in these things. So I guess as people have talked about and Duncan, so these gravitational waves or ripples in space and time.
So, you know, like what Mario described in the beginning. I mean if you think something like the earth or the sun is producing this sort of bend sheet, which sort of represents the curvature of spacetime. But when, uh, when objects accelerate, when they move.
And one example of acceleration is two black holes or two stars orbiting each other, well the earth going around the sun, would actually be producing gravitational wave right now, but that kind of acceleration produces these little ripples in the geometry of space and time. That produces a very nice sinusoidal pattern in the wave. Let me just stop you for one second. It propagates at the speed of light, so these disturbances propagate at the speed of light.
Perhaps a better analog is a seismometer. What does that mean? What does it represent?
And then when then for the events at LIGO saw, we take these waveforms, these little ripples, and we try to match them up to our various predictions and when we get good matches we can say that the parameters acquainted the simulations.
That is how we interpret the ripples. So here we have these two objects and they spiral around each other and you can see that they are getting closer and closer. And they emit these ripples which are these gravitational waves. And the frequency of the waves becomes higher and higher the closer they get together.
And eventually boom, they merge together. So please go on. So for example, to do an actual simulation, like something like that, which lasts for perhaps a few dozen orbits, the merger calculates how the gravitational waves propagate.
It might take anywhere from say , to a few million CPU hours.
So your typical, like the power in your cell phone these days, cellphones are. Can you just address this? I mean there is this thing that is known as the Chirp.