Carnivalesque is a literary mode that subverts and liberates the assumptions of the dominant style or atmosphere through humor and chaos. It originated as " carnival" in Mikhail Bakhtin's Problems of Dostoevsky's . Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. This thesis examines the carnival and the carnivalesque in Nick Hornby's . by applying M.M. Bakhtin's theories of carnival, carnivalesque and. idea of the carnivalesque, based on his famous essay, “Of Carnival and Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin () is known as a philosopher, literary.
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ENG | S Carnivalesque. For the literary theorist and philosopher. Mikhail Bakhtin. 1. The carnival was not only liberating because. - for that short period. "Bakhtin's carnival, surely the most productive concept in this book, is not only not an . "The miracle and morality plays acquired a carnivalesque nature" (15). review describes Bakhtin's concept of carnivalesque and how it has been utilized in In this paper, I call for a more balanced application of Bakhtinian carnival.
While carnival acts against the established monological system, the other participants within that context can express their marginalized voice. Instead he cares about his own marginalized voice on the bases of his search for new approaches in life. Keywords: James Joyce, Bakhtin, carnival, dialogism, unfinalizability, marginalized voice, ideological becoming. This hierarchy is usually the official voice of the society Bakhtin, Rabelais and His World, Simon Dentith believes that in Bakhtinian thinking and especially in his carnival the central opposition is between the ''classic [official and traditional] and grotesque [realism of the body of society]'' , p. Embroidering on this matter, ''basically this [carnival] is uncrowning [of the official], that is, the removal of an object from the distanced plane, the destruction of epic distance, an assault on and destruction of the distanced plane [official voice] in general'' Bakhtin, , p.
Love and hate, faith and atheism, loftiness and degradation, love of life and self-destruction, purity and vice, etc: "everything in his world lives on the very border of its opposite.
Like the medieval carnival which is not merely a spectacle to be passively experienced, the carnivalized literary text implies the participation of the reader in the great dialogue. For Bakhtin, carnivalization has a long and rich historical foundation in the genre of the ancient Menippean satire. In Menippean satire, the three planes of Heaven Olympus , the Underworld Hades , and Earth are all treated with the logic and activity of Carnival. For example, in the underworld, earthly inequalities are dissolved; emperors lose their crowns and meet on equal terms with beggars.
Through carnival and carnivalesque literature, a world upside-down  is created, ideas and truths are endlessly tested and contested, and all demand equal dialogic status. The above cartoon became an important source to understand the layers of the society.
The language plays a significant role in Carnivalesque. As a philosopher, and literary scholar Bakhtin had a language obsession. We might also say a perfect understanding of language. One has to realize the truth that the greatness of Carnivalesque lies in the usage of language. As Michael Bristol said: Central to the experience of Carnival is a particular use of language, symbols, costumes and masks in which the ordinary relationship between signifier and signified is disrupted and conventional meaning of parodied Bristol In the Political Cartoons also the language, Humour, and symbols play a significant role.
The language is one of the main aspect in political cartoons. The effectiveness of a cartoon depends significantly upon the element of language it contains. Through their witty language, the absurdity, hypocrisy is exposed, and it makes reader laughs at those who are in power. The element of laughter, and the humour act as a sugar coating upon the bitter pill. The use of political language often points out the contradictions in politics in a wry way. The language often used in the text with irony; this sort of language is often seen in political cartoons.
Sometimes it is humorous, and other times it can be quite hostile.
The irony makes cartoons witty and point out the flaws in the system. Language often used in text with irony in order to convey the idea of laughter, and the inner reality; this sort of ironical language is often seen in political cartoons of Laxman.
The above cartoon of Laxman explicitly consist the ironical language, and it throws the light on poverty of India. The ironical language in the picture explicitly demonstrates the idea that one cannot imagine India without poverty, and in fact, the poverty considered as one of the major proof of the Indian citizens.
Obviously the language they use in the copycatting culture programs are spoken in a way in which the normal language rules are vibrated by challenging the general laws of language. They recombine the words with different dialects mixed together.
As a consequence, language helps to construct ideology. Along with the concept of Laughter, Bakhtin significantly describes about the Grotesque Realism. The concept of grotesque realism put forward by Bakhtin in his study of Francois Rabelais and His World.
The physical functions with which grotesque imagery is preoccupied are all dynamic processes of interaction between the body and the world, and between the old and the new. Grotesque is a kind of artistic imagery, based on a comic, caricature, burlesque and quirky effect. Grotesque is perceived as a significant distortion of the known or recognized regulatory forms.
The Carnivalesque represents a separate reality, which independent of the ordinary hierarchical world, which offers alternatives to it and brings change, a process of liberation, and destruction and renewal.
Through the use of grotesque body in his work, Rabelais related political conflicts to human anatomy. Bakhtin explains that in Rabelais's grotesque realism "the bodily element is deeply positive it is opposed to severance from the material and bodily roots of the world" The exaggeration, hyperbolism, excessive, and the excess is admittedly, one of the main signs of the grotesque style.
In grotesque realism, the body plays a pivotal role. Grotesque imagery also had an important connection with laughter; however, laughter played a central role in the Carnivalesque cultural practices of the middle Ages. Grotesque realism enlarges a peculiar shape, and appearance to the body.
The ultimate aim of grotesque realism is to project the great personalities in a peculiar, and comic manner.
Political cartoons are significantly focuses on the concept of Grotesque realism. In fact, Grotesque Realism is heart of the political cartoons.
K Laxman gave life to his political cartoons by adding the Grotesque Realism. Exaggeration and distortion are the primary tools employed by a cartoonist who shows someone's power or weakness, the importance or the insignificance, and dangerousness or helplessness of a person, group, or social force. In other words, distortion and exaggeration help to emphasise extremes in personalities or actions. The above Cartoons of Laxman depicts the idea of grotesque realism.
The depiction of peculiar looks in some way demonstrates the idea of grotesque realism. James Joyce creates a carnivalesque th narrative discourse through breaking down the major political, social, and ideological trends in the Irish society during the 19 th and 20 century through depicting a protagonist who is not going to accept any of these major trends of his society.
Elaborating on the voices opposing the official voice in carnival Peter Good asserts that: Bakhtin's work on the carnival suggests that other levels of meaning are in constant attendance on the official voice. Expressed in bodily terms, the high voice of the head is always complimented by the different realities of the lower bodily strata , p.
As a carnivalesque character, Stephen Dedalus does not approach the major hierarchies of his society in a blindfolded way and he actually keeps analyzing them as an act of dialogism as Peter Good says ''at some stage in the process of a revolving inner dialogue the practitioner patient arrives at an intersection where his or her private voice begins to make encounter with an outer, more public, stream of consciousness'' , p.
Stephen almost completely rejects to be an adherent follower of any of these monologic voices around him. Stephen's position as an individual is marginalized in relation to the ideological, political, and social hierarchies within the society throughout the novel. This marginalization of individuals reflects the monologic feature of the hierarchal system. Until near the end of the second chapter of the novel Stephen has no sharp social and political position or direction in his reaction toward the trends around him.
This school is run by a powerful Jesuit authority that always tries to force the individuals to submit to their defined hierarchies through creating a strict environment.
As an example, before going to bed He [Stephen] blessed himself and climbed quickly into bed and, tucking the end of the nightshirt under his feet, curled himself together under the cold white sheets, shaking and trembling. But he would not go to hell when he died; and the shaking would stop Joyce, , p. A carnivalesque discourse operates as a reaction to this submission and marginalization Bakhtin, Actually it is through his interactions with his surroundings that we can see the operation of dialogism and the fact that Stephen starts to search for his place as an individual and also as a member of society.
For Bakhtin the discourse on the whole is constructed as a result of being responsive and moves in the direction to be responsive and it will never reach a finalized spot ibid.
Concerning the social dimension of these interactions within the society, Freedman and Ball assert that ''Bakhtinian theories support the study of social processes, not isolated individuals. Ideology is part of a social process, and can only be understood by analyzing its social and interactive essence'' , p. Although Stephen has an active mind and does not submit to any ideological hierarchy, his voice has no powerful echo as an individual that shows the strict ruling system suppressing the individuals by empowering the hegemonies.
For example concerning this authoritative force of officials Stephen thinks that: Was that a sin for Father Arnall to be in a wax or was he allowed to get into a wax when the boys were idle because that made them study better or was he only letting on to be in a wax?
It was because he was allowed because a priest would know what a sin was and would not do it. But if he did it one time by mistake what would he do to go to confession? Perhaps he would go to confession to the minister Joyce, , p. As Stephen grows up he becomes more aware of being in such a marginalized position. For example when MacCan asks Stephen to sign the testimonial Stephen responds angrily that ''my signature is of no account, he said politely.
You are right to go your way. Leave me to go mine'' ibid, p. Stephen is not able to properly adopt himself with the school's environment. At school Stephen feels nervous and cold most of the times as we read that ''the cold slime of the ditch covered his whole body; and, when the bell rang for study and the lines filed out of the playrooms, he felt the cold air of the corridor and staircase inside his clothes'' ibid, p.
He kept his hands in the side pockets of his belted grey suit. That was a belt round his pocket. And belt was also to give a fellow a belt'' ibid, p. Probably one of the best scenes in which we can see this inflexible dominating force of school is the time Stephen does not practice like other students in the class because he has broken his glasses, and the perfect of studies yells at him and he says ''lazy idle little loafer! Broke my glasses! An old schoolboy trick!
Out with your hand this moment'' Joyce, , p. Then he applies corporal punishment. This uncomfortable feeling is not only limited to the authoritative figure of the school but also he finds himself uncomfortable as well with other students. He does not usually enjoy joining other students. In his mind Stephen imagines MacCan telling him ''Dedalus, you're an anti-social being, wrapped up in yourself I'm not. I'm a democrat: and I'll work and act for social liberty and equality among all classes and sexes…'' ibid, p.
This sense of not being happy with both the authority and other members of his society leads him to be a carnivalesque character and at times rebellious. When Stephen goes to the manager to tell on the perfect of studies that he had been unjustly punished, he boldly stands against the authority for the first time.
Considering the features of carnival, what is important here is that he has tried to tell on one of the most fearsome authorities at the school. For Bakhtin ''the epic and tragic hero is the hero who, by his very nature, must perish. Popular masks, on the contrary never perish…'' , p. Here Stephen acts as a popular hero standing against the hierarchy.
This school is located in Ireland. January, [students] caught their caps and sent them up again spinning sky high and cried again: -Hurroo! Dedalus Stephen's father and Mr. For Bakhtin carnival is ''a pageant without footlights and without a division into performers and spectators'' Bakhtin, , p. This is what exactly happens when the respected position of Dante Mrs. Riordan as a strict believer in officials' divine rights is undermined.
The most important aspect of carnival for Bakhtin is to weaken the authoritative figure while the Jesuits' authority here represents the official authority. Often the mighty were ridiculed and a fool was crowned and uncrowned In the dinner party Dante speaks for the Jesuits' authority while Mr. Casey representing the Romantic nationalism says: - Let him [Stephen] remember too, cried Mr. Casey to her [Dante] from across the table, the language with which 1 the priests and the priests' pawns broke Parnell's heart and hounded him into his grave.
Joyce, , p. And Mr. Dedalus backs up Mr. Casey by saying ''-…When he [Parnell] was down they turned on him to betray him and rend him like rats in a sewer'' Ibid.
While Mr. Casey gets even more angry and accuses bishops of betraying their country in many occasions in order to save their own chairs by being loyal to the British Empire. In addition Mr. Casey says: -Didn't the bishops of Ireland betray us in the time of the union when Bishop Lanigan presented an address of loyalty to the Marquess Cornwallis?