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The hypothesis we expect children witnessed violence on the streets get higher scores on scales of depression than the control group, which did not witness any violence. The remaining 30 were part of the control group. The results found that the depression scale CDI were higher in the study group than in the control group. Key words: violence in the street, depression, children. Estudio preliminar. Boney-McCoy, S. Is youth victimization related to trauma symptoms and depression after controlling for prior symptoms and family relationships?
May Learn how and when to remove this template message Institutionalization would continue to improve throughout the 19th and 20th century due to work of many humanitarians such as Dorethea Dix , and the mental hygiene movement which promoted the physical well-being of the mental patients.
Mental hospitals began to grow substantially in numbers during the 20th century as care for the mentally ill increased in them. By there were over , patients in state mental hospitals in the USA. These hospitals while better than the asylums of the past were still lacking in the means of effective treatment for the patients, and even though the reform movement had occurred; patients were often still met with cruel and inhumane treatment.
The book called attention to the conditions which mental patients faced and helped to spark concern in the general public to create more humane mental health care in these overcrowded hospitals. During this period the Hill-Burton Acts was also passed which was a program that funded mental health hospitals. Along with the Community Health Services Act of , the Hill-Burton Acts helped with the creation of outpatient psychiatric clinics, inpatient general hospitals, and rehabilitation and community consultation centers.
Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. May Learn how and when to remove this template message In the late twentieth century however, a large number of mental hospitals were closed due to lack of funding and overpopulation. In England for example only 14 of the psychiatric institutions that had been created in the early 20th century remained open at the start of the 21st century.
In the span of 40 years, the United States was able to see an about 90 percent drop in the number of patients in Psychiatric hospitals. Recent studies have found that the prevalence of mental illness has not decreased significantly in the past 10 years, and has in fact increased in frequency regarding specific conditions such as anxiety and mood disorders.
This became known as the phenomenon of deinstitutionalization. This movement had noble goals of treating the individuals outside of the isolated mental hospital by placing them into communities and support systems.
Another goal of this movement was to avoid the potential negative adaptations that can come with long term hospital confinements.
Many professionals for example were concerned that patients would find permanent refuge in mental hospitals which would take them up when the demands of everyday life were too difficult. It also has had the unfortunate effect of placing many of the patients in homelessness. Many safe havens for the deinstitutionalized mentally ill have been created, but it is nevertheless estimated that around In fact while some of the homeless who are able to find some temporary relief in the form of shelters, many of the homeless with a mental illness "lack safe and decent shelter".
Historically, there have been three main approaches to abnormal behavior: the supernatural , biological , and psychological traditions. The psychological paradigm focuses more on the humanistic, cognitive and behavioral causes and effects of psychopathology. The biological paradigm includes the theories that focus more on physical factors, such as genetics and neurochemistry. Supernatural explanations[ edit ] In the first supernatural tradition, also called the demonological method, abnormal behaviors are attributed to agents outside human bodies.
According to this model, abnormal behaviors are caused by demons , spirits , or the influences of moon , planets , and stars. When wives are left behind, they often experience various fears about their partners, which begins with their departure, such as: wondering whether they will be able to reach their destination; whether they will be healthy, where they are going to live or with whom; whether they will abandon their families or fail to send remittances and whether they will form a new family, or become involved in drugs or alcohol.
In this case, they are the ones who deal with any problems that occur at home, while coping with the economic situation in the first few months before the first remittances arrive Salgado, and Maldonado, ; Salgado, , As one can see, when one parent migrates, other members of the nuclear family assume roles they are not usually qualified to perform. In the event that both parents leave, children may be looked after by other family members or neighbors, creating a feeling of abandonment, frustration, anger, depression in children and adolescents, reflected in a decline in school performance or dropping out, or feeling attracted by peer groups with whom they share ways of thinking, feeling, attitudes and unhealthy forms of expression such as vandalism, drugs, and other self-destructive behaviors as noted by Mummert On his return, the spouse creates emotional tension in the family, since during his absence, family members' roles were adjusted.
The mother, who is usually distressed, tries to restore the father to the same role he had before he emigrated and serves as a mediator between him and the children. This situation is rejected by the teenagers since they are no longer willing for the father to take control of their lives. Another source of distress for wives is that they may become pregnant only to be abandoned again Rouse, The feeling of abandonment experienced by migrants' children and its respective consequences, exacts a high emotional toll in exchange for the family's economic well-being since maternal or paternal figures cannot be replaced by other relatives or guardians.
This situation is responsible for another of the costs of migration: lack of references. Not having family models or the transmission of their cultural values coupled with the absence of guidance and support for healthy psychosocial development, as noted by Pinazo, and Ferrer , creates inadequate socialization that alters social networks and the learning of socialization. The new cognitive-behavioral patterns impact family members who experience changes in the way they dress, which is uncommon in rural Mexico or use drugs Pinazo, and Ferrer, The next session refers specifically to family relationships as well as the impact of parental migration on the family's mental health.
Family Relations From the time of the formation of the couple, the family undergoes a series of processes that can strengthen or destroy it, which include various factors that affect the family group and each of its members: the process whereby the couple meets, the stages of family development, the interpersonal relationships of the couple and between them and their children, the forms of communication and the expression of emotions will all determine whether the family is functional or dysfunctional.
Depending on its composition, the family is either called nuclear, with parents and children, or extended, with parents, children and other relatives.
In the past, the coexistence of both types of families was common. Nowadays, parents decide to live alone with their children in order to be responsible for raising them. Although this is ideal, in many households where migration occurs, children, or children and their mothers, may make the decision to cohabit with the extended family in order to help them with their children as regards responsibilities, decision-making and financial aspects.
Another key factor in families' lives concerns the rules of coexistence. These constitute their inner strength, which enables them to indicate the path to be taken to achieve the harmonious development of the family as a group and of each of its members. Some of these rules are for general observance and others are private.
However, it is important that they all emanate from the family nucleus, mainly from the parents who convey them to those involved, regardless of age. There are also implicit rules particularly related to the transmission of culture and social norms that should be explained to prevent misunderstandings and achieve the personal commitment of each member of the group.
This situation may or may not be adversely affected by the absence of one or both parents.
The psychosocial functions performed by a family should not be overlooked; Macias distinguishes the following: 1 satisfaction of biological needs of subsistence and physical well-being; 2 promoting ties of affection and social union; 3 facilitating the development of individual identity linked to family identity; 4 providing models of psychosexual identification; 5 acquisition and integration of the social roles associated with social structure and organization; 6 initiating and promoting learning and creativity in children; 7 transmission of values, ideology and culture.
It should be noted that values are learned through experience, particularly in the family of origin. It is not enough to teach them or talk about them; they must be lived on a daily basis and, as some authors such as Yarce have pointed out, they are still alive in our society and are necessary to ensure quality of life in people and families.
In addition to this, there are certain situations faced by today's families: the variety and availability of addictive substances which teenagers may use from an early age, exacerbated by the phenomenon of the migration of one or both parents. Use of Addictive Substances The status of addictive substance use in Mexico is similar to that in the rest of the world and the city of Xalapa is no different, as shown by the data reported by Villatoro, and Medina-Mora , who report a consistent increase in drug use, especially cocaine, tranquilizers and amphetamines among the student population and show how this problem has evolved over the past fifteen years.
For many, onset occurs before the legal age for purchasing products such as tobacco and alcohol, and it has been recognized that increased consumption occurs among students ages 16 or older, except for those who use inhalants, whose consumption is common among those under In the first half of , alcohol continued to be the most commonly consumed substance This preference was maintained in all the six-month periods investigated, both for ever use and for consumption in the past 30 days.
According to Pinazo, and Ferrer risk factors can be found in at least four levels: individual, family, peer group and community.
Regarding the first, they mention drug use by models such as parents ; seeking new sensations; low religiosity; low self-acceptance; poor academic performance and unawareness of the harmful consequences of drug abuse. Regarding the family level, they mention: ineffective family influences; a history of alcoholism, drug use by parents and older siblings, and lack of warmth between parents and children.
Likewise, these authors note that social and environmental variables may be predictors of drug use, noting that family breakdown can lead to inadequate socialization by altering the variables related to social learning.
School Environment Schools have been recognized as one of the key micro-social areas due to the considerable number of hours teenagers spend in them every day. Attention should be paid to aspects of students' performance and development that may be indicative of certain problematic situations, such as: lack of motivation to study, dropping out, marginalization, problematic family situations and, in general, problems of social adjustment of their population, in order to be able to guide them toward healthy behavior.
Moradillo argues that school becomes a powerful development factor for teenagers when interpersonal relations between teachers and pupils are good, with an active, participatory style of work and clear regulations involving democratic values and discipline.
Method A quantitative, cross-cutting method was used to analyze issues with a psychosocial impact on the migrant's family, the behavioral and social problems of the teenage children of migrants and non-migrants; the impact on the family and family relationships, and their impact on the school environment.
The data were subjected to a chi square X2 statistical test and univariate and bivariate analysis. Subjects The total population of high schools in Xalapa consisted of 54 schools divided into four categories: telejunior high schools, official junior high schools, private schools, technical schools and others.
In order to obtain a significant statistical sample, a random method was used with the following formula: The sample consisted of 2 teenagers from the city of Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico, whose ages ranged between 12 and 17, belonging to different geographical areas in the city. The result was a sample of 36 high schools with a reliability of 95 percent, distributed as follows: 13 telejunior high school, five official junior high schools, 11 private high schools, five technical colleges and two other types of school.
After obtaining the sample of schools, the sample of students was obtained by using the same formula, with a result of 2 of the 15 students enrolled.
On the basis of these results, the questionnaires were proportionally distributed by schools and by shift morning and evening where appropriate. The student sample was distributed as follows: at telejunior high schools, at official junior high schools, at private schools, at technical and at other schools.
Overall, As for age, Instrument Two instruments were used for the data collection: 1. Questionnaire on the behavior of children ages 11 to 18 years, drawn up by Thomas Achenbach The checklist for child behavior used in this research is a item questionnaire to be answered by the young people themselves.
It is designed to identify syndromes of problems that tend to occur together. The names of the seven syndromes are considered brief descriptions of the items comprising them rather than diagnostic labels. Table 1 shows the syndromes and their respective behaviors.
Questionnaire on factors related to behavior problems and migration. This instrument consists of an introduction-explanation to place the person answering the survey. The first part contained questions concerning general information about the informant while the second consisted of 16 open and closed questions grouped into three dimensions: school environment, family relations and migration.
Both instruments the Achenbach questionnaire and the questionnaire on factors related to problem behaviors and migration were administered to each of the participants at their schools. Cruz, J. De Arellano, M. Behavioral Psychology, 17 1 , Del Barrio, V.
Girard, M. Graham-Bermann, S. The social functioning of preschool-age children whose mothers are emotionally and physically abused. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 1 1 , Guerrero, E.
Recuperado el 10 de diciembre del Four Factor Index of Social Status. Kovacs, M. New York: Multi-Health Systems. Leiner, M. Children's mental health and collective violence: a binational study on the United States-Mexico border.