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Search in HASCO catalogs and technical brochures on DirectIndustry and find the information you need in 1 click. HASCO - logo Z-Standards Catalog. Downloading HASCO mould base. The following explains how to create a HASCO Mouldbase. The tutorial has two main elements. HASCO Catalog Download. HASCO Catalog · Click Here to Download the HASCO Catalog (72 pages - 8 MB).

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hasco logo. Home; >; Product catalogue · All products of this category. K. P. Z. H. About HASCO · Press · Events · Career · Professional education · CAD service. Products hasco logo. Home; >; Product catalogue. Filter by. Category. Product catalogue ( ); Z (); H (); General mould components (); Cooling. Consult HASCO's entire Z-Standards Catalog catalogue on DirectIndustry. Page: 1/

J ' Figure 6. Phosphating or similar protection of the channels or drillings is a soundinvestment to reduce the maintenance time spent on coolant systems. Leakage of fluid is prevented either by a gasket or by an '0' ring asshown in Figure 6. For deeper cores, however, the single-levelcircuit is not sufficient to permit the coolant to transfer heat away fromthe core surface fast enough. Some arrangement must, therefore, bemade to permit the circulation of coolant inside the core. There areseveral alternative ways of doing this and the method adopted will bedetermined to some extent by the actual shape of the core. Flow ways are drilled at an angle fromthe underside of the core plate so that they interconnect at a point X relatively close to the surface.

Figure 6 b shows the voltage characteristics in a steady state at constant supply voltage. Thus,care is required. When a voltage greater than the maximum continuous voltage is applied to the coil layers may short the coil may burn out, due to the temperature rise.

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Figure 7, line B refers to the relationship. Line-A is maximum continuous voltage. In order to have stable operation of relay, the APP voltage and the ambient temperature should be in the operating range. If the ambient temperature increases, pickup voltages rises, while maximum continuous voltage decrease. Care is required. Ambient Environment 1 Silicone compound atmosphere Silicone compounds such as silicone rubber,silicone paint, silicone grease, etc.

If the use of silicone compound is inevitable, use a plastic-sealed relay. Mounting of Relays Mounting direction is important for optimum relay characteristics. Furthermore, it is not desirable to switch both a large load and a low level load with a single relay. Thus the incoming coolant is directedthrough the centre of the assembly after which it passes down the spiralgroove to the outlet port. Note that a dowel pin should be incorporatedto ensure that misalignment between the respective holes does not occurdue to the possible twisting of the spiral plug during production.

A similar but alternative design is illustrated in Figure 6. This timethe spiral plug is formed from a solid cylinder, the external surface ofwhich is machined to form a two-start constant-depth thread. Fittingdetails as above.

A straight-through drilling in the backing plate connectswith the two starts of the spiral, thus forming a continuous circuit. Theincoming coolant passes down one groove of the the spiral and then backto the outlet hole via the second groove. A suitable gap must be providedbetween the top of the spiral plug and the insert drilling to provide a flowpath for the coolant between the two spirals.

Both the single- and two-start spiral plugs are available as standardparts from Hasco. This system is normally adopted for situations in whichit is impracticable to incorporate an internal fluid circulating systemwithin a core insert because of size limitations. A heat rod is basicallya cylindrical metal rod which is inserted into an accommodating holemachined in the core insert.

Its purpose is to facilitate the conduction ofheat away from the impression. OUTFigure 6. Note thatgood surface-to-surface contact between the heat-rod and the core-insertbore is an essential requirement for this design.

The heat-rod projects from the base of the core insert into a pocket X machined into front face of the core backing plate 3. Passage of a coolant ata suitable temperature and flow-rate withdraws heat from the lower endof the heat-rod.

An '0'-seal 4 is fitted into an accommodating recessin the core insert to prevent fluid leakage from between the two adjacentsurfaces.

As the system is used where it is impracticable to adopt other methodssuch as the bubbler or baffle systems, it follows that the diameter of theheat-rods are likely to be relatively small. An indication of the heattransfer capabilities of a heat-rod can be obtained by using Fourier's heatconduction equation. Note that this equation is based upon the assuptionthat the flow of heat is uni-directional and that steady state conditionsapply.

Fourier's Equation.

Two points should be noted from the above equation: a The heat flow rate Q is directly proportional to the thermal con-ductivity value k. For example, copper has a thermal conductivity six1. Thus the heat flow rate obtained by using cop-per for the heat-road is six times greater than would be achieved if mildsteel were used for this application.

This means thatin the above example, the time to cool the melt to the required ejectiontemperature is greatly increased. The above comment indicates that small diameter heat-rods are not aparticularly effective method for cooling small diameter core inserts.

However, the early use of heat-rods for cooling core inserts did leadsubsequently to the use of heat-pipes for the same application, and theseheat-pipes are a very much more effective cooling system.

When viewed side by side, the heat-pipe and the heat-rod appear to be identical in form. Thus the heat-pipe may be fitted inan identical manner to that of the heat-rod, and this point is furtheremphasized by the drawing shown in Figure 6.

This drawing illus-trates a heat-pipe fitted for an identical application to that discussedabove in vii compare Figures 6. However, the similarityends at this point. The heat-pipe is a commercially available heat transferdevice which is capable of transmitting heat energy at relatively highvelocities. Uniike the heat-rod, it does not rely upon the thermal conduc-tivity of the metal used. The principle of the heat-pipe has been used in many chemical engin-eering heat transfer applications for several decades.

They have provenin practice to be both a reliable and effective method of heattransmission. Heat-pipes are available as standard parts from several manufacturers,in a range of sizes. The fitting arrangements vary slightly between thesemanufacturers, and for this reason the respective catalogue should beconsulted before incorporating a heat-pipe into a design.

The heat-pipe design is based upon a physical fact that the boiling pointof a fluid depends upon the pressure of its environment. As the pressure isreduced within a closed chamber, that is a vacuum is applied the boilingpoint falls correspondingly.

Taking a few examples to illustrate this point:Vacuum mm in Boiling temperature oc CF 26 27 51 28 29 45 38 Having assim-ilated the above physical fact, the principle of the design of the heat-pipewill now be more meaningful to the novice. The air in the vesselis evacuated by applying a vacuum. A schematic drawing of the assemblyis shown in Figure 6. In order to simplify a functional description ofthe heat pipe, the operation is illustrated as a number of distinct phasesin Figure 6.

However, in practice these phases occurs almost simul-taneously, and this point should be borne in mind throughout thefollowing description. As noted above, the heat-pipe is fitted to the mould in an identicalmanner to that of the heat rod. It is normal practice, however, to incor-porate a heat transfer medium such as silicon between the wall of theheat-pipe and the core insert bore. This practice is adopted to ensure thatthere are no small pockets of entrapped air between the two surfaceswhich would act as a barrier to the transfer of heat.

The specific heattransfer medium used varies between manufacturers and the relevantmanufacturer's catalogue should be consulted.

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Phase a. This increase in temperature,thereby causing the fluid in the wick to boil and evaporate, to form avapour. Phase b. As a temperature differential exists between the two ends ofthe heat-pipe the vapour will flow towards the cooler end and in so doingtransfer heat away from the impression.

Phase c. The vapour, upon reaching the lower end of the heat-pipe,which is in contact with the cooling water, condenses. Phase d. Finally, the fluid syphons back along the wick to the front endof the heat-pipe to recommence the cycle. The major advantage of the heat-pipe over the heat-rod system is thatit does not rely upon the thermal conductivity characteristics of a metalfor the heat transmission process. The heat-pipe operating principle isthat a large quantity of latent heat is absorbed during the vaporisationphase at the 'impression' end.

This absorbed energy is subsequentlyreleased when the vapour condenses at the cooled end. Thus large quan-tities of heat energy may be transferred at high velocity through relativelysmall holes. The effective 'thermal conductivity' of a heat-pipe is said to be times that of copper, and even if this is an exaggeration, this method of transmitting energy through a small orifice should not beoverlooked.


When the heat-rod is mounted horizontally, and that is usually the case for injection moulds, the difference in temperature between the two ends varies by only a few degrees.

For the effective operation of a heat-pipe in an injection mould, a few design points should be noted: 1. Use as large a heat-pipe as practicable without weakening the struc- ture of the core insert. Insert the heat-pipe as deep as possible, again without weakening the structure of the core insert.

Most commercially available heat-pipes either have a flat end or slightly convex end. The heated zone of the heat-pipe should be about half of its effectivelength this is not always easy to achieve on deep multi-plate moulds. In practice, however, a shorter contact length must often beaccepted if the depth of the backing plate is not to be adversely effected.

This method is particularly suitable for very small diametercores. Heat-pipes are commercially available in the following diameters Available lengths range from25 mm 1 in to mm 10 in.

Thedesign details are identical and will therefore not be repeated. Inparticular, the stripper plate in a stripper plate mould, and the feed platein a mould of the underfeed type.

Separate control of the temperatureof these plates is necessary to achieve the optimum production cycle. In general, the maintenance of temperature of these plates is achievedin a manner identical to that described for cavity plates of integer type Section 6. Flow ways are drilled and interconnected so that acoolant can he circulated through the plate6. It is desirable, therefore, to provide facilitiesfor the dissipation of heat from this component.

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Several designs are illustrated. In the first Figure 6. The stem of the valve ejector is bored to accommodatea water junction unit. The connectors are coupled to the supply andreturn lines via flexible hoses to allow for the ejector valve movement. The coolant passes via the inlet down the centre of the pipe, and backto the outlet via the outside of the pipe. This is the simplest method ofcooling the valve-type ejector, particularly if a commercial water junctionunit is used. If it is desired to pass the coolant through the head of the valve ejectora more complex circuit is necessary.

Thecoolant, to and from the head, passes through suitable drillings in thestem. Another design is shown in Figure 6. In this the head is designedas a two-part construction: channels are machined into one part as shownat a. Baffles are fitted into end-milled slots. The coolant, to and fromthe head, passes through suitable drillings in the stem as in the previouscase. It is thereforedesirable to incorporate a separate sprue bush cooling circuit so that heatcan be transferred from this member as efficiently as possible.

The shape of the sprue bush is similar to that of circular inserts, so themethods illustrated for cooling circular inserts Figure 6. These drillings areconnected to the supply and return lines via adaptors.

The adaptor is astandard mould pipe fitting whch can be obtained in a number of alterna-tive designs and sizes. One endof the adaptor is threaded to correspond to that of the flow-way tappedhole, the other end incorporates either: i External serrations as illustrated for use with PVC hose, utilisinghose clips for attachment purposes; ii Threads, for use with a corrugated metal hose system with in-builtthreaded couplings.

This system offers advantages in that it is moreleak free in operation, and it will withstand higher pressures. Naturally the initial overall cost of this water connector system isgreater than that of i above. In method 'a' the tapped hole size governs the diameter ofthe water-way used. This permits the minimum size of adaptor to be usedfor a particular diameter of water-way. As the minimum spacing betweenadjacent water-ways depends on the space required to insert and removethe adaptor using an appropriate spanner the smaller adaptor is useful.

However, this method has the disadvantage that the flow of the coolantis restricted by the relatively small-diameter hole in the adaptor. In the second method b an adaptor is chosen which has an internalbore which closely matches that of the water-way. Thus with this designthe flow-way aperture is not restricted by the adaptor.

For large mould plates, where theindividual water-ways are not positioned too close together, method 'b'is the preferred design. In an emergency where a standard adaptor is not readily available, apiece of copper pipe suitably threaded at one end may be used as atemporary expedient.

The first point results in an extension of the setting time, while thesecond point makes the mould setting just a little more difficult in thatthe projecting adaptors tend to get in the mould setter's way.

To overcome these disadvantages various quick connecting adaptorshave been designed and are commercially available so as to minimisemould setting time.

Those shown in Figure 6. There are two types in this range called 'Jiffy-tile' and 'Jiffy-matic' respectively.

Both types consist of two parts: thefirst part, shown on the left of the drawing, is the 'connecting plug' andit is screwed into the mould like a conventional adaptor. The second part,termed the 'socket', is attached to the rubber hose. By a suitable pushaction the two parts can be connected or disconnected very simply.

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With the 'Jiffy-tite'system the coolant flow must be shut off at the source. The connecting plug with either type may be sunk below the surfaceof the mould wall, so that it does not protrude above the relevant surface. This design feature prevents the plug from being damaged during thesetting operation.

Accommodating a large number of hoses mounted adjacent to eachother often creates a fitting problem. To assist the fitter in this respect,several alternative designs of connector are available. The designs incommon use arc illustrated in Figure 6.

Connections at the fronttend to get in the operator's way. With connections at the top of themould, should leakage occur, water may get on to the polished face ofthe impression.

It is desirable that the position of all water connections this includesholes which arc interconnected externally is such that the associated I I II II a b I I c Figure 6. The plugs are available rom theabove manufacturers as standard parts in the following size range: Metric: M8; MlO; M12; M Note that the above size range is not necessarily available from oneparticular manufacturer.

The tapping size and length of thread h is thesame as that indicated for adaptors Figure 6. The plug has a squareor hexagonal projection or depression so that a suitable key or wrenchcan be used to ensure a leakfree joint when the plug is screwed into themould. By convention, plugs are shown with a dotted cross-hatch on theplan view of mould drawings Figure 6. This simplifies the tracing ofthe required coolant flow path. For this function to be achieved effectively, the 0-ring mustbe suitably compressed by a specific amount in order to achieve therequired leak-free joint.

While two alternative cross-sectional shapes areavailable, namely circular and rectangular, the circular cross sectional G-ring is the one that is normally adopted in mound design practice.

An0-ring is primarily used in one of the following cases: i To prevent fluid leakage from between two adjacent plates. Typical examples of this case is illustrated in Figures 6. This is the simpler of the two cases in that the 0-ring is simply laid into a recess in one plate and when the second plate is secured to the first, the 0-seal is compressed the required amount.

An enlarged view of the fitting details is shown in Figure 6. Note: Continental comma used instead of decimal point in Figures 6. This is the case which results when a cavity or core insert incor- porates an annulus for the circulation of the coolant fluid refer to Figure 6. This necessitates a pair of 0-rings being mounted, one on either side of the annulus, as shown. An enlarged view of this second case, with relevant fitting details is shown in Figure 6.

Note that the assembly operation involves the 0-ring being expanded over the outside diameter of the cavity or core insert in order to fit it into its accommodating groove. All other symbols are designated above. An alternative and less complex method of fitting the lower 0-ring isshown in Figure 6.

In this design the lower 0-ring is accommodatedin a recess machined into the mould plate adjacent to the fitting diameterof the insert. Note that this design necessitates a larger than normalflange. The advantage of this design is that it eliminates the necessity ofstretching the 0-ring in order to fit it into its accomodating groove asdiscussed for design 'a'. An 0-ring which fails in operation does so for one of the followingreasons: i The 0-ring has been fitted into an accommodating recess, the dimensions of which are not suitable.

Whenever possible the designer should refer to the supplier's catalogue for the specific dimensions of the recess. Note that the dimensions for the recess, given in Figure 6. This usually occurs if the internal and external corners are left sharp. With Reference to Figures 6. The majority of the designs discussed in the text fall withinthe category of two-part two-plate moulds. The other designs are ofeither three-part or four-part construction. Because of this similarity in the structural build-up of the majority ofmoulds it is desirable that some form of standardisation be adopted topermit the mould parts to be produced in quantity and thereby reducemanufacturing costs.

Logically it is advantageous for the mould-maker todownload a complete set of basic mould parts at reasonable cost, ratherthan to be actively engaged on this relatively unimportant aspect ofmould manufacture. A mould system may be defined as an assemblage of mould parts, theplates of which conform to an accepted structural shape and size. Themould system may be downloadd either in kit form or as an assembledmould unit.


Naturally the mould plates in the above mould kit or mouldunit do not contain impression form, as this aspect of mould manufacturemust be left to the specialist mould-maker. The two-part mould is adopted as the standard mould system by mostmanufacturers because this particular mould construction is the mostwidely used design in industrial practice. The system comprises twomould plates a cavity plate and a core plate plus an ejector system,guide pillars, guide bushes etc.

The design is illustrated in Figure 7. More complex structures such as three and four mould plate types canbe achieved by using the two-part mould system concept as a structuralbase and adding or substracting plates to suit.

The majority of theconventional mould types can be obtained in this way. Figure 7. For quick referencepurposes, seven alternative types of mould are shown in the closed andopen positions respectively.


Various standard part suppliers are mentioned in this chapter. An asterisk,following a company's name, indicates that the name has been abbreviated. The company'sfull title and address can be found in the Appendix. The designsillustrated are as follows: b Stripper plate mould system standard type ; c Stripper plate mould system basic type ; d Underfeed mould system; e Underfeed mould system incorporating a feed stripper plate; f Underfeed mould system incorporating a stripper plate; g Underfeed system incorporating both a feed stripper plate andstripper plate ejection.

The various plates are distinguished by a specific hatching system whichis designated in the box below the illustrations. The designs b - g arediscussed in later sections. Note that the names given to these mould types, used here for consist-ency within this book, are not necessarily those used by the mould systemsupplier.

It is important for the beginner to appreciate that the majority ofmould designs can be broadly classified within one of these mould types. For example, a side-core type mould can be considered as a two-partmould with an additional side-core assembly.

Even more complex mould structures can be envisaged with theaddition of further extra plates but this type of structure is beyond thescope of this book. The novice should aim to be conversant with therange of standard mould systems that are available so that he is in aposition to use these systems whenever the opportunity occurs.

The advantages and disadvantages of using standard mould units maybe compared to those of downloading a ready-made suit from a reputable shop. We know that there are many disadvantages in downloading a suit in this way.

For example, the fit may not be perfect; there is a limit to the numberof styles and cloths available; some alteration to the suit may benecessary. Considered overall, however, good value is obtained and thesuit is satisfactory for most occasions. The above comments apply equally to the standard mould system. Thedesigner may have to accept a compromise in mould size; the number ofmould types and the range of sizes is limited; for certain moulds somemodification to the mould unit is necessary to accommodate a specificfeature.

Considered overall, however, the advantages of using standardmould units outweigh the disadvantages and for a large number of moulddesigns the standard mould system can be beneficially used by both themould designer and mould-maker.

Nevertheless, on many occasions it isnecessary to have a 'made-to-measure' mould in order that a specialfeature may be incorporated or a specific coolant flow-way systemadopted, or simply because a standard mould system of a suitable shapeor size is not available.

Only the impression inserts need to be changed. Extra support blocks may have to be fitted if deflection of the mould plate is to be avoided. To expose the ejector assembly, the mould half must be disassembled. Naturally in this earlyperiod only a relatively few sizes of mould system were available and,because of this, their acceptance by the mould-making industry was notimmediate.

Mould designers were reluctant to specify mould units for their designsfor several reasons, which included: i the range of sizes was limited; ii delivery of mould systems were often unpredictable; iii mould-makers would not use mould systems because of theirunfamiliarity. However, over the ensuing years the range of sizes has increased,delivery has improved, and the mould-maker now adopts this innovationto his technology, whenever he can.

Several companies provide a major service in standard mould systemin the UK at the present time. Thisis a British company with registered offices in London and afactory in Devon. This is a well-established company which wasoriginally formed for the production of standard parts for thepress-tool industry.

The company has now expanded to includestandard mould systems in addition to its primary product. In the following discussion the above manufacturers titles will hereduced for reasons of convenience and common usage to the following: i DMS; ii DME; iii Hasco; iv Uddform; v Desouttcr. To specify a particular system issimply a matter of quoting the catalogue number. The catalogue also listsmany other mould components which are produ,ced as standards. A typical cross-sectionaldrawing of this 'SMS' is illustrated in Figure 7.

Basically, thesize of mould system varies in three dimensions, i. Thus there are a consider-able number of variables in a mould structure to be considered.