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Causes[ edit ] The usual cause of tetany is a deficiency of calcium. An excess of phosphate high phosphate-to-calcium ratio can also trigger the spasms. Low levels of carbon dioxide cause tetany by altering the albumin binding of calcium such that the ionized physiologically influencing fraction of calcium is reduced; one common reason for low carbon dioxide levels is hyperventilation. Cow grazing on rapidly grown pasture with tetany of the neck suggesting grass tetany  An excess of potassium in grass hay or pasture can trigger winter tetany, or grass tetany , in ruminants. Osteomalacia and rickets due to deficiency of vitamin D Pathophysiology[ edit ] Hypocalcemia is the primary cause of tetany. Low ionized calcium levels in the extracellular fluid increase the permeability of neuronal membranes to sodium ion, causing a progressive depolarization, which increases the possibility of action potentials.
When calcium ions are absent the voltage level required to open voltage gated sodium channels is significantly altered less excitation is required. Hypocalcemia is not a term for tetany but is rather a cause of tetany.
Diagnosis[ edit ] French Professor Armand Trousseau — devised the maneuver of occluding the brachial artery by squeezing, to trigger cramps in the fingers. This is now known as the Trousseau sign of latent tetany.
Also, tetany can be demonstrated by tapping anterior to the ear, at the emergence of the facial nerve.
A resultant twitch of the nose or lips suggests low calcium levels. This is now known as the Chvostek sign. EMG studies reveal single or often grouped motor unit discharges at low discharge frequency during tetany episodes. Sep Schweiz Med Wochenschr. Oct J Am Soc Nephrol. Diagnostic Imaging. Gross Anatomy. Infectious Disease. Medical Exams. Medical Terminology. Occupational Therapy. Passive Care. Physical Therapy.
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