The digital revolution has fundamentally changed photography. It has this is where CHIP FOTO-VIDEO comes in: practical hands-on tests & download advice . and CCD image sensors are 'color blind', a filter in front of the sensor allows the sensor to assign Early on, ordinary CMOS chips were used for imaging purposes, but the image quality was poor due to ronaldweinland.info ronaldweinland.info shift from analog to digital video surveillance. The digital revolution has led to profound changes in photography. where Chip Foto-Video comes in: Practical tests & advice on downloading cameras, lenses and.
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I wish to request for your assistance in developing a similar software for my thesis. Thx, Cal. Apparently this is based on distance information obtained from the dual camera. This distance information basically a 3D map is apparently packed into the jpg file. It would be cool to have this 3D map and then play around with the picture in another way than done by ZTE's phone software. I tried searching for some original images from the ZTE Axon Elite to analyze, but I'm not sure if the samples I saw had the additional metadata enabled.
Despite my intent, it shouldn't diminish the validity of anything that was stated.
Moving right along I first heard your name in the comment section of an article from a site that I won't give a plug, but its name has direct correlation to a 15 min. Basically, the gentleman, who's name escapes me at the moment but he created the Foto Forensics program. He mentioned you and how genuinely personable you are in his comments which has led me here. This is such a long winded, random jumbled pile of thoughts turned to words for my question, so my apologies.
My question is a simple one but i was hoping if you had the time, you could give a more detailed answser than would seem to warrant such. I have no experience, knowledge of or basically any real understanding on any aspect of your expertise. Allllllll that said, I have a stronger desire than I can express, to hopefully get to a comparable intellectual level as yourself in understanding the workings of your trade.
So my question to you is, Where should I start? Books to read, classes to take, people to follow in a non creepy way , programs to be helpful or any input at all would be amazing and sincerely appreciated. I may not be the best looking gal in the brothel metaphorically speaking in regards to intelligence and gender but you'd be hard pressed to find another, who's willing to take on the workload to satisfy the proverbial client, which is my brain. Thanks Erik for the kind words!
I'm a firm believer in learning by taking things apart and trying to figure out how they work When you hook up something to one of these terminals, you're actually connecting into the circuit itself. You can just about see the pattern of electronic components on the surface of the chip itself. Open up a television or a radio and you'll see it's built around a printed circuit board PCB : a bit like an electric street-map with small electronic components such as resistors and capacitors in place of the buildings and printed copper connections linking them together like miniature metal streets.
Circuit boards are fine in small appliances like this, but if you try to use the same technique to build a complex electronic machine, such as a computer , you quickly hit a snag. Even the simplest computer needs eight electronic switches to store a single byte character of information. So if you want to build a computer with just enough memory to store this paragraph, you're looking at about characters times 8 or about switches—for a single paragraph!
If you plump for switches like they had in the ENIAC—vacuum tubes about the size of an adult thumb—you soon end up with a whopping great big, power-hungry machine that needs its own mini electricity plant to keep it running.
When three American physicists invented transistors in , things improved somewhat. Transistors were a fraction the size of vacuum tubes and relays the electromagnetic switches that had started to replace vacuum tubes in the mids , used much less power, and were far more reliable.
But there was still the problem of linking all those transistors together in complex circuits. Even after transistors were invented, computers were still a tangled mass of wires. Photo: Integrated circuits fit into printed circuit boards PCBs like the green one you can see here. Notice the thin tracks linking the "legs" terminals of two different ICs together. Other tracks link the ICs to conventional electronic components such as resistors and capacitors.
You can think of the tracks as "streets" making paths between "buildings" where useful things are done the components themselves. There's also a miniaturized version of a circuit board inside an integrated circuit: the tracks are created in microscopic form on the surface of a silicon wafer.
Integrated circuits changed all that. The basic idea was to take a complete circuit, with all its many components and the connections between them, and recreate the whole thing in microscopically tiny form on the surface of a piece of silicon. It was an amazingly clever idea and it's made possible all kinds of "microelectronic" gadgets we now take for granted, from digital watches and pocket calculators to Moon-landing rockets and missiles with built-in satellite navigation.
Integrated circuits revolutionized electronics and computing during the s and s.
In , Gordon Moore of the Intel Company, a leading chip maker, noticed that the number of components on a chip was doubling roughly every one to two years. Moore's Law, as this is known, has continued to hold ever since. Interviewed by The New York Times 50 years later, in , Moore revealed his astonishment that the law has continued to hold: "The original prediction was to look at 10 years, which I thought was a stretch. This was going from about 60 elements on an integrated circuit to 60,—a thousandfold extrapolation over 10 years.
I thought that was pretty wild. The fact that something similar is going on for 50 years is truly amazing.
If you plot the number of transistors y-axis against the year of launch x-axis for some common microchips from the last few decades yellow stars , you'll get an exponential curve; plotting the logarithm instead, you'll get this straight line. Please note that the vertical y axis of this chart is logarithmic and due to the OpenOffice graphing software I used the horizontal x axis is only vaguely linear.
Source: Plotted using data from Transistor Count , Wikipedia, checked against other sources. How are integrated circuits made?
How do we make something like a memory or processor chip for a computer? It all starts with a raw chemical element such as silicon, which is chemically treated or doped to make it have different electrical properties Doping semiconductors If you've read our articles on diodes and transistors , you'll be familiar with the idea of semiconductors. Traditionally, people thought of materials fitting into two neat categories: those that allow electricity to flow through them quite readily conductors and those that don't insulators.
Metals make up most of the conductors, while nonmetals such as plastics , wood , and glass are the insulators. The accumulation of electrons at or near the surface can proceed either until image integration is over and charge begins to be transferred, or thermal equilibrium is reached. In this case, the well is said to be full. The maximum capacity of each well is known as the well depth,  typically about 10 5 electrons per pixel. The photoactive region of a CCD is, generally, an epitaxial layer of silicon.
In buried-channel devices, the type of design utilized in most modern CCDs, certain areas of the surface of the silicon are ion implanted with phosphorus , giving them an n-doped designation. This region defines the channel in which the photogenerated charge packets will travel. Simon Sze details the advantages of a buried-channel device: This structure has the advantages of higher transfer efficiency and lower dark current, from reduced surface recombination.
The penalty is smaller charge capacity, by a factor of 2—3 compared to the surface-channel CCD. The gate oxide, i.
Later in the process, polysilicon gates are deposited by chemical vapor deposition , patterned with photolithography , and etched in such a way that the separately phased gates lie perpendicular to the channels. The channels are further defined by utilization of the LOCOS process to produce the channel stop region. Channel stops are thermally grown oxides that serve to isolate the charge packets in one column from those in another. These channel stops are produced before the polysilicon gates are, as the LOCOS process utilizes a high-temperature step that would destroy the gate material.
The channel stops are parallel to, and exclusive of, the channel, or "charge carrying", regions. The clocking of the gates, alternately high and low, will forward and reverse bias the diode that is provided by the buried channel n-doped and the epitaxial layer p-doped. This will cause the CCD to deplete, near the p—n junction and will collect and move the charge packets beneath the gates—and within the channels—of the device.
CCD manufacturing and operation can be optimized for different uses. The above process describes a frame transfer CCD.
This second method, reportedly, reduces smear, dark current , and infrared and red response. This method of manufacture is used in the construction of interline-transfer devices. In a peristaltic charge-coupled device, the charge-packet transfer operation is analogous to the peristaltic contraction and dilation of the digestive system. This provides an additional driving force to aid in transfer of the charge packets.
The CCD image sensors can be implemented in several different architectures.
The most common are full-frame, frame-transfer, and interline. The distinguishing characteristic of each of these architectures is their approach to the problem of shuttering. In a full-frame device, all of the image area is active, and there is no electronic shutter. A mechanical shutter must be added to this type of sensor or the image smears as the device is clocked or read out. With a frame-transfer CCD, half of the silicon area is covered by an opaque mask typically aluminum.
The image can be quickly transferred from the image area to the opaque area or storage region with acceptable smear of a few percent. That image can then be read out slowly from the storage region while a new image is integrating or exposing in the active area.
Frame-transfer devices typically do not require a mechanical shutter and were a common architecture for early solid-state broadcast cameras. The downside to the frame-transfer architecture is that it requires twice the silicon real estate of an equivalent full-frame device; hence, it costs roughly twice as much.
The interline architecture extends this concept one step further and masks every other column of the image sensor for storage.
In this device, only one pixel shift has to occur to transfer from image area to storage area; thus, shutter times can be less than a microsecond and smear is essentially eliminated.
The advantage is not free, however, as the imaging area is now covered by opaque strips dropping the fill factor to approximately 50 percent and the effective quantum efficiency by an equivalent amount. Modern designs have addressed this deleterious characteristic by adding microlenses on the surface of the device to direct light away from the opaque regions and on the active area. Microlenses can bring the fill factor back up to 90 percent or more depending on pixel size and the overall system's optical design.
The choice of architecture comes down to one of utility. If the application cannot tolerate an expensive, failure-prone, power-intensive mechanical shutter, an interline device is the right choice. Consumer snap-shot cameras have used interline devices.
On the other hand, for those applications that require the best possible light collection and issues of money, power and time are less important, the full-frame device is the right choice. Astronomers tend to prefer full-frame devices. The frame-transfer falls in between and was a common choice before the fill-factor issue of interline devices was addressed.
Today, frame-transfer is usually chosen when an interline architecture is not available, such as in a back-illuminated device. CCDs containing grids of pixels are used in digital cameras , optical scanners , and video cameras as light-sensing devices. They commonly respond to 70 percent of the incident light meaning a quantum efficiency of about 70 percent making them far more efficient than photographic film , which captures only about 2 percent of the incident light.
For normal silicon-based detectors, the sensitivity is limited to 1. One other consequence of their sensitivity to infrared is that infrared from remote controls often appears on CCD-based digital cameras or camcorders if they do not have infrared blockers. Cooling reduces the array's dark current , improving the sensitivity of the CCD to low light intensities, even for ultraviolet and visible wavelengths.
Professional observatories often cool their detectors with liquid nitrogen to reduce the dark current, and therefore the thermal noise , to negligible levels. A frame transfer CCD is a specialized CCD, often used in astronomy and some professional video cameras , designed for high exposure efficiency and correctness.
The normal functioning of a CCD, astronomical or otherwise, can be divided into two phases: During the first phase, the CCD passively collects incoming photons , storing electrons in its cells.
After the exposure time is passed, the cells are read out one line at a time. During the readout phase, cells are shifted down the entire area of the CCD. While they are shifted, they continue to collect light. Thus, if the shifting is not fast enough, errors can result from light that falls on a cell holding charge during the transfer. These errors are referred to as "vertical smear" and cause a strong light source to create a vertical line above and below its exact location.
In addition, the CCD cannot be used to collect light while it is being read out. Unfortunately, a faster shifting requires a faster readout, and a faster readout can introduce errors in the cell charge measurement, leading to a higher noise level. A frame transfer CCD solves both problems: Typically, this area is covered by a reflective material such as aluminium.
When the exposure time is up, the cells are transferred very rapidly to the hidden area. Here, safe from any incoming light, cells can be read out at any speed one deems necessary to correctly measure the cells' charge. At the same time, the exposed part of the CCD is collecting light again, so no delay occurs between successive exposures.
The disadvantage of such a CCD is the higher cost: An image intensifier includes three functional elements: These three elements are mounted one close behind the other in the mentioned sequence. The photons which are coming from the light source fall onto the photocathode, thereby generating photoelectrons.
The photoelectrons are accelerated towards the MCP by an electrical control voltage, applied between photocathode and MCP. The electrons are multiplied inside of the MCP and thereafter accelerated towards the phosphor screen. The phosphor screen finally converts the multiplied electrons back to photons which are guided to the CCD by a fiber optic or a lens.
An image intensifier inherently includes a shutter functionality: