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Read Society & Environment book reviews & author details and more at site. in. Society And Environment by Naik, Oxford & Ibh, , Paperback. AD - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. AD Society And Environment AN Society And Environment Group A Society Societal Structures and Dynamics: Recommended Books • SC Naik and T N Tiwari. hi friend here is the list of Study notes/Material of AMIE Section A for Society and Environment to download those Study notes/Material click on.
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P K Tiwari. Praful R Naik, Ph. R—10 Society and Environment.
Environment and Society. We are of course seeing the full consequences of such failings across the country today, and an accounting for in terms of environmental justice and related injustices remains to be urgently carried out.
Framing issues in the language of environmental justice therefore allows us to excavate these silences in the mainstream discourses of sustainable development, which in turn makes possible a more informed critique of how power operates in the political and legal systems in India that govern the environment.
Page 2 of 16 Further, India currently faces multiple environmental and social crises that have directly resulted from the unjust political and economic systems that operate in the country. A coherent political account of how we could respond to these challenges for law and sustainable development in India requires the conceptual arsenal provided by environmental justice theory and practice. The entire environmental administrative regulatory system in India largely comprised of central and state-level pollution control boards, the central and state-level environmental ministries, and specialized central and state-level regulators for coastal zones, biodiversity, groundwater, wildlife, animal welfare, genetic engineering, etc.
Systematic monitoring and enforcement are rare to non-existent.
The Bhopal gas tragedy at the Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal in December is only one of many such examples. The Sterlite plant, with the support of the local authorities and the central environmental ministry, continued operations for over 20 years including commencing operations on an expansion plan to double its capacity in recent times despite massive public protests spanning decades, regular and compelling evidence of high environmental pollution and health hazards released by civil society groups and independent researchers, and a continuous series of litigations against the company in multiple legal forums initiated by multiple petitioners in the Madras High Court as early as Economic considerations clearly trumped environmental justice considerations here!
Quite often, governmental agencies in India and international funding agencies such as the World Bank are primarily responsible for railroading through projects that cause extreme environmental damage and social injustice.
Take for example, the highly controversial Sardar Sarovar Dam Project on the Narmada river in Gujarat, which has devastated the local environmental landscape, drawn sustained protests from environmentalists and human rights activists across India and the world, and displaced hundreds of thousands of tribal and marginalised agricultural communities.
Despite the heroic multi-decade campaign of the Narmada Bachao Andolan a movement of tribal communities, farmers, environmental and human rights activists, artists, etc.
Environmental policy processes in India for example, policies relating to rivers and hydroelectric mega-projects or policies relating to nuclear energy are routinely criticized for being secretive, ill-planned, technocratic, anti-people and anti-democratic, top-down, and obsolete. Quite often, environmental policy processes for example, the Environment Impact Assessment framework that governs environmental clearances at the national and state-level for a range of development projects are systematically hijacked by corporate lobbying that seeks a continual dilution or abandonment of environmental and social justice safeguards.
The central and state governments, and large corporations operating in India, are extremely secretive about environmental information relating to developmental projects. Despite some progressive judgments on access to environmental information from the Supreme Court, the National Green Tribunal and the Central Information Commission, the actual implementation of access to environmental information is almost non-existent in India.
As a result of this informational ecosystem, environmental decisions in India are routinely taken on the basis of incomplete or false environmental information even as helpless communities and outraged environmental civil society organisations protest and petition the beleaguered courts and environmental tribunals for justice. Public consultation exercises that do exist, for example, the mandatory public hearings for some kinds of developmental projects under the Environment Impact Assessment regime, are largely hurried, one- off measures, and are primarily considered by both the government and the project proponents as a formality to be completed rather than an opportunity to genuinely evaluate the proposed project in light of its potential environmental and social impact.
In many other areas, despite massive environmental and social impacts, public participation in decision-making is simply not sought or considered. Violence, intimidation, misinformation, and bribery in support of a proposed project are almost always inevitable whenever there is any popular resistance to a planned project on environmental grounds. Reforming the Environmental System Page 8 of 16 The record of environmental justice in India from exposes the inadequacy of existing laws, policies, courts, legislatures, government administration mechanisms, and civil society networks in independent India.
It is important to note that for a long time one of the main factors responsible for a stunted campaign for environment justice in India has been the lack of a common voice including a common paradigm, motivation, consensus, vision, platform, and vocabulary among communities, environmentalists, scientists, educators, policy makers, lawyers, judges, artists and philosophers studying and working on environmental issues.
Coinciding with these new civil society initiatives at the regional and local levels, questions on the scope of environmental rights and environmental justice in India are now being openly and consistently raised in multilateral international fora, in courts and tribunals across India, in legislatures and executive committee meetings,in rural village councils, in public opposition to lending policies and practices of multilateral and regional organisations including the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, in legal Page 9 of 16 empowerment and resilience building programs, in popular media and journalistic accounts of indiscriminate displacement caused by development, and in discussions of revolutionary poetry exposing the predatory rapaciousness of the corporate-state nexus.