Programming in C, Fourth Edition . The C Programming Language .. semicolon, and the third is the character zero—which is not the same as the number. Practical C Programming, 3rd Edition The C++ Programming Language Special 3rd Edition Programming in C (3rd Edition) (Developer's Library). The C++ Programming Language / Bjarne Stroustrup. — 3rd. ed. . This book introduces standard C++† and the key programming and design.
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Programming in C. Sams Publishing, East 96th Street, Indianapolis, Indiana DEVELOPER'S. LIBRARY. Stephen G. Kochan. Third Edition. Ｐｒａｃｔｉｃａｌ Ｃ Ｐｒｏｇｒａｍｍｉｎｇ， ３ｒｄ Ｅｄｉｔｉｏｎ. Ｂｙ Ｓｔｅｖｅ Ｏｕａｌｌｉｎｅ. ３ｒｄ Ｅｄｉｔｉｏｎ Ａｕｇｕｓｔ １９９７. ＩＳＢＮ： １－５６５９２－３０６－５. This new edition of "Practical C. Programming in C, Third Edition by Stephen Kochan- ronaldweinland.info Kochan%%ronaldweinland.info How Computers Work, Ninth Edition by.
No programming language produces o nly correct results. No programmer should start each project from scratch. Objec t-oriented programming is the current cure-all although it has been around for m uch more then ten years. At the core, there is little more to it then finally ap plying the good programming principles which we have been taught for more then t wenty years. Only object-orientation permits code reuse between projects a lthough the idea of subroutines is as old as computers and good programmers alwa ys carried their toolkits and libraries with them. This book is not going to pra ise object-oriented programming or condemn the Old Way.
After it is dropped from the set once, contains will still find it in the bag. The test p rogram now has the output ok drop? The application co de can only access a header file where a descriptor pointer represents the data type and where operations on the data type are declared as functions accepting a nd returning generic pointers.
The descriptor pointer is passed to a general fun ction new to obtain a pointer to a data item, and this pointer is passed to a general function delete to recycle the associated resources. Normally, each ab stract data type is implemented in a single source file. Ideally, it has no acce ss to the representation of other data types.
If we continue to represent objects as small unique integer values, and if we put a ceiling on the number of objects available, we can repr esent a set as a bitmap stored in a long character string, where a bit selected by the object value is set or cleared depending on the presence of the object in the set.
A more general and more conventional solution represents a set as a li near list of nodes storing the addresses of objects in the set. This imposes no restriction on objects and permits a set to be implemented without knowing the r epresentation of an object. For debugging it is very helpful to be able to look at individual objects.
Bot h functions return the number of characters written. For a new string we allocate a dynamic buffer to hold the text. When the stri ng is deleted, we will have to reclaim the buffer. Based on the parameter, we could use a chain of if statements to handle each creation individually.
The drawback is that new would explicit ly contain code for each data type which we support. It, too, must behave differently based on the type of the object b eing deleted: for a string the text buffer must be freed; for an object as used in chapter 1 only the object itself has to be reclaimed; and a set may have acqu ired various chunks of memory to store references to its elements.
We could give delete another parameter: either our type descriptor or the function to do th e cleaning up, but this approach is clumsy and error-prone. There is a much more general and elegant way: each object must know how to destroy its own resources.
Part of each and every object will be a pointer with which we can locate a cle an-up function. We call such a function a destructor for the object.
Now new h as a problem. It is responsible for creating objects and returning pointers that can be passed to delete , i. The obvious approach is to make a pointer to the destructor part of the type descriptor which is passed to new. Since constructor and destructor are type-specific and do not change , we pass both to new as part of the type description. Note that constructor a nd destructor are not responsible for acquiring and releasing the memory for an object itself this is the job of new and delete.
The constructor is called b y new and is only responsible for initializing the memory area allocated by ne w. For a string, this does involve acquiring another piece of memory to store the text, but the space for struct String itself is allocated by new. This spa ce is later freed by delete. First, however, delete calls the destructor whi ch essentially reverses the initialization done by the constructor before delete recycles the memory area allocated by new. Therefore, revising the declarations shown in section 2.
What s hould this pointer point to? If all we have is the address of an object, this po inter gives us access to type-specific information for the object, such as its d estructor function. It seems likely that we will soon invent other type-specific functions such as a function to display objects, or our comparison function dif fer , or a function clone to create a complete copy of an object.
Therefore w e will use a pointer to a table of function pointers. Looking down this list, we notice that every function works for the object through which it will be selected. Only the constructor may have to cope with a partially initialized memory area. We c all these functions methods for the objects.
Calling a method is termed a messag e and we have marked the receiving object of the message with the parameter name self. Since we are using plain C functions, self need not be the first paramete r.
Many objects will share the same type descriptor, i. We call all objects with the same type descriptor a class ; a single object is called an instance of the class. So far a class, an abstract data type, and a set of possible values together with operations, i. An object is an instance of a class, i. Conven tionally speaking, an object is a value of a particular data type. The obje ct is created at run time and the dashed pointers are then inserted.
We force a conv ersion of p which treats the beginning of the object as a pointer to a struct Cl ass and set the argument class as the value of this pointer. Next, if a construc tor is part of the type description, we call it and return its result as the res ult of new , i.
Section 2. Note that only exp licitly visible functions like new can have a variable parameter list. Since we might later want to share the original parameters among several functions, we pass the address of ap to the constructor when it re turns, ap will point to the first argument not consumed by the constructor.
This is used to call the destructor if any exists. Here, self plays th e role of p in the previous picture. If the constructor decides to cheat, the destructor thus ha s a chance to correct things, see section 2. If an object does not want to be deleted, its destructor would return a null pointer. All other methods stored in the type description are called in a similar fashion.
In each case we have a si ngle receiving object self and we need to route the method call through its desc riptor: 2. For the momen t at least, we guard against null pointers. In any case, differ illustrates why this technique of calling functions is called dynamic linkage or late binding : while we can call differ for arbitrary objects as long as they start with an approp riate type description pointer, the function that actually does the work is dete rmined as late as possible only during execution of the actual call, not before.
We will call differ a selector function. It is an example of a polymorphic fu nction , i. Once we implement more classes which al l contain. We can view selectors as method s which themselves are not dynamically linked but still behave like polymorphic functions because they let dynamically linked functions do their real work. Poly morphic functions are actually built into many programming languages, e.
This phenomenon is called overloading : argument types and the operator name together determine what the operator does; the same opera tor name can be used with different argument types to produce different effects. Methods can be polymorphic without having dynamic linkage. They are derived from the correspond ing components of struct Class by simply removing one indirection from the decla rator. Here is the application: include "String.
We show the size of a String objec t not the size of the text controlled by the object and we check that two differ ent texts result in different strings. Finally, we check that a copy is equal bu t not identical to its original and we delete the strings again.
Dynamic linkage helps to clearly identify which functions need to be written to implement a new data type.
The destructor frees the dynamic memory controlled by the string. Later both, the original and the copy, will be passed to delete so we must make a new dynamic copy of the string's text.
All these methods are static because they should only b e called through new , delete , or the selectors. The methods are made availab le to the selectors by way of the type descriptor: include "new.
In order to pr operly initialize the type descriptor, it also includes the private header new. An atom is a unique string object; if two atoms contain the same strings, they are identical.
Atoms are very cheap to compare: differ is true if the two argument pointers differ. Before the co nstructor saves a text it first looks through the list to see if the same text i s already stored.
Otherwise we insert the new string object into the circular list and set its reference count to 1. The destructor p revents deletion of an atom unless its reference count is decremented to zero. Otherwise we clear the circular list marker i f our string is the last one or we remove our string from the list. With this im plementation our application from section 2. In particular, a descriptor contains a pointer to a con structor which initializes the memory area allocated for the object, and a point er to a destructor which reclaims resources owned by an object before it is dele ted.
We call all objects sharing the same descriptor a class. An object is an in stance of a class, type-specific functions for an object are called methods, and messages are calls to such functions. We use selector functions to locate and c all dynamically linked methods for an object.
Through selectors and dynamic link age the same function name will take different actions for different classes. Su ch a function is called polymorphic. Polymorphic functions are quite useful. The y provide a level of conceptual abstraction: differ will compare any two objec ts we need not remember which particular brand of differ is applicable in a co ncrete situation.
A cheap and very convenient debugging tool is a polymorphic fu nction store to display any object on a file descriptor. This is difficult for Set because we can no longer record in th e set elements to which set they belong.
There should be more methods for string s: we need to know the string length, we want to assign a new text value, we sho uld be able to print a string. Things get interesting if we also deal with subst rings. Atoms are much more efficient, if we track them with a hash table.
Can th e value of an atom be changed? Does it make any differ ence what we pass to new? Rather tha n writing a few functions, each with a big switch to handle many special cases, we can write many small functions, one for each case, and arrange for the proper function to be called by dynamic linkage.
This often simplifies a routine job a nd it usually results in code that can be extended easily. As an example we will write a small program to read and evaluate arithmetic expressions consisting of floating point numbers, parentheses and the usual operators for addition, subtr action, and so on.
Normally we would use the compiler generator tools lex and ya cc to build that part of the program which recognizes an arithmetic expression. Featuring twenty five percent new material, this third edition covers all the latest technology and advances.
What is it that sets games apart from other forms of entertainment, keeping players coming back for more? The ability to control the outcome. You'll reinforce each new skill by creating small games along the way, and you'll put these skills to the test with one ambitious game project at the end. By the time you finish, you'll have a solid foundation in the programming language of the professionals!
Michael Dawson has worked as both a programmer and a computer game designer and producer. In addition to real world game industry experience, Mike earned his bachelor's degree in Computer Science from the University of Southern California. He's the author of three other books: Programming with Text-Based Games. You can visit his website at www. This book works best as a reference.
However, I have found it to be very useful as a reference. The C Programming Language English 0 references. Japanese Wikipedia. Brian Kernighan. English Wikipedia.
Spanish Wikipedia. Language laywers need the standard, but this book is a good place to start even for those. C was chosen as the language of the year in by TIOBE index and is currently ranked at number 2 in the list.