Generalization and specialization. • Inheritance. • Polymorphism and dynamic binding. • Java an example of an object-oriented programming language. OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING USING C++ Notes for UG C++ has object-oriented programming (OOP) capabilities similar to an earlier computer language called Simula C++ is called a hybrid language Download pdf. × Close. CS OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING LECTURE NOTES ( EVEN SEM) Prepared by ronaldweinland.info Sahaya Christina AP/CSE ronaldweinland.info Lakshmi.
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ronaldweinland.info Feza Buzlaca's Lecture Notes To introduce several programming paradigms including Object- Introduction to Object Oriented Programming. 2. Object Oriented Programming (OOP) is an approach to program organization and Object-oriented programming is the most recent concept among. For many tasks, object-oriented programming has proven to be a Second, you will walk through object-oriented programming by example; learning to use a.
The object-oriented paradigm allows us to organise software as a collection of objects that consist of both data and behaviour. This is in contrast to conventional functional programming practice that only loosely connects data and behaviour. Since the s the word 'object' has appeared in relation to programming languages, with almost all languages developed since having object-oriented features. Some languages have even had object-oriented features retro-fitted. It is widely accepted that object-oriented programming is the most important and powerful way of creating software.
It were intorduced in late 80's.
It consider the programming simulated to real world objects. It help in programming approach in order to built robust user friendly and efficient softwares and provide the efficient way to maintain real world softwares. OOps reduce the code of the program because of the extensive feature of Polymorphism.
Opps is Object oriented programming language. The main aim is to creating an Object to The Entire program and that to we can control entire program using the Object.
Some languages, like Go do not support inheritance at all. Delegation is another language feature that can be used as an alternative to inheritance. Polymorphism[ edit ] Subtyping - a form of polymorphism - is when calling code can be agnostic as to which class in the supported hierarchy it is operating on - the parent class or one of its descendants.
Meanwhile, the same operation name among objects in an inheritance hierarchy may behave differently. For example, objects of type Circle and Square are derived from a common class called Shape.
The Draw function for each type of Shape implements what is necessary to draw itself while calling code can remain indifferent to the particular type of Shape is being drawn.
This is another type of abstraction which simplifies code external to the class hierarchy and enables strong separation of concerns. Open recursion[ edit ] In languages that support open recursion , object methods can call other methods on the same object including themselves , typically using a special variable or keyword called this or self. This variable is late-bound ; it allows a method defined in one class to invoke another method that is defined later, in some subclass thereof.
History[ edit ] UML notation for a class. This Button class has variables for data, and functions. Through inheritance a subclass can be created as subset of the Button class.
Objects are instances of a class. Terminology invoking "objects" and "oriented" in the modern sense of object-oriented programming made its first appearance at MIT in the late s and early s. In the environment of the artificial intelligence group, as early as , "object" could refer to identified items LISP atoms with properties attributes ;   Alan Kay was later to cite a detailed understanding of LISP internals as a strong influence on his thinking in Alan Kay,  Another early MIT example was Sketchpad created by Ivan Sutherland in —61; in the glossary of the technical report based on his dissertation about Sketchpad, Sutherland defined notions of "object" and "instance" with the class concept covered by "master" or "definition" , albeit specialized to graphical interaction.
For programming security purposes a detection process was implemented so that through reference counts a last resort garbage collector deleted unused objects in the random-access memory RAM. Simula launched in , and was promoted by Dahl and Nygaard throughout and , leading to increasing use of the programming language in Sweden, Germany and the Soviet Union. In , the language became widely available through the Burroughs B computers , and was later also implemented on the URAL computer.
In , Dahl and Nygaard wrote a Simula compiler. They settled for a generalised process concept with record class properties, and a second layer of prefixes.
Through prefixing a process could reference its predecessor and have additional properties. Simula thus introduced the class and subclass hierarchy, and the possibility of generating objects from these classes. The Simula 1 compiler and a new version of the programming language, Simula 67, was introduced to the wider world through the research paper "Class and Subclass Declarations" at a conference.
By , the Association of Simula Users had members in 23 different countries. Early a Simula 67 compiler was released free of charge for the DecSystem mainframe family. The object-oriented Simula programming language was used mainly by researchers involved with physical modelling , such as models to study and improve the movement of ships and their content through cargo ports.
Smaltalk included a programming environment and was dynamically typed , and at first was interpreted , not compiled.
Smalltalk got noted for its application of object orientation at the language level and its graphical development environment. Smalltalk went through various versions and interest in the language grew.
Experimentation with various extensions to Lisp such as LOOPS and Flavors introducing multiple inheritance and mixins eventually led to the Common Lisp Object System , which integrates functional programming and object-oriented programming and allows extension via a Meta-object protocol.
In the s, there were a few attempts to design processor architectures that included hardware support for objects in memory but these were not successful. In , Goldberg edited the August issue of Byte Magazine , introducing Smalltalk and object-oriented programming to a wider audience.
Focused on software quality, Eiffel is a purely object-oriented programming language and a notation supporting the entire software lifecycle. Meyer described the Eiffel software development method, based on a small number of key ideas from software engineering and computer science, in Object-Oriented Software Construction.
Essential to the quality focus of Eiffel is Meyer's reliability mechanism, Design by Contract , which is an integral part of both the method and language.
In the s the object-oriented Java blue and the procedural C black competed for the top position. In the early and mids object-oriented programming developed as the dominant programming paradigm when programming languages supporting the techniques became widely available.
These included Visual FoxPro 3. Its dominance was further enhanced by the rising popularity of graphical user interfaces , which rely heavily upon object-oriented programming techniques. OOP toolkits also enhanced the popularity of event-driven programming although this concept is not limited to OOP. Modula-2 included both, and their succeeding design, Oberon , included a distinctive approach to object orientation, classes, and such. Adding these features to languages that were not initially designed for them often led to problems with compatibility and maintainability of code.
More recently, a number of languages have emerged that are primarily object-oriented, but that are also compatible with procedural methodology. Two such languages are Python and Ruby. Probably the most commercially important recent object-oriented languages are Java , developed by Sun Microsystems , as well as C and Visual Basic.
NET VB. NET , both designed for Microsoft's. NET platform. Each of these two frameworks shows, in its own way, the benefit of using OOP by creating an abstraction from implementation. NET and C support cross-language inheritance, allowing classes defined in one language to subclass classes defined in the other language.
This section does not cite any sources. The core of the pure object-oriented programming is to create an object, in code, that has certain properties and methods. For example a car is an object which has certain properties such as color, number of doors, and the like.
It also has certain methods such as accelerate, brake, and so on. This is the basic unit of object oriented programming. That is both data and function that operate on data are bundled as a unit called as object.
When you define a class, you define a blueprint for an object. This doesn't actually define any data, but it does define what the class name means, that is, what an object of the class will consist of and what operations can be performed on such an object.
Data abstraction refers to, providing only essential information to the outside world and hiding their background details, i.