Lachman and Lieberman - The Theory and Practice of Industrial ronaldweinland.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. The Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy 3rd Edition By Leon Lachman In "Clinical Pharmacy". Industrial Pharmacy · YP - Admin; April. lachman, Vol. 3. Pages · · MB · 4, Downloads ·English. aulton pharmaceutics aulton. Preview Essentials of Chinese Medicine Volpdf.
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Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy by Lachman 4th edition pdf. For Download click here that was older edition i need 4th edition. CLICK this link TO DOWNLOAD THE full ebook . Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy by Lachman and Lieberman pdf free download. PDF is just provided for educational purposes. If you have any issue with post/ book/pdf kindly Contact us. We will edit or remove it.
Pharmaceutics book by lachman knee The Lachman test is a clinical test used to diagnose injury of the anterior cruciate ligament ACL. K free pdf download ebook pdf links. Please select whether you prefer to view the MDPI pages with a view tailored for mobile displays or to view the MDPI pages in the normal The KT arthrometer is secured over the participants leg in the ideal position with reference to the knee joint line. The Lachman and anterior drawer tests can then be performed with the KT Home; Pharmaceutics: The Science of Dosage Form Design This book therefore starts with a description of the formation of solutions and a consideration of their properties.
Injectable drug products are relatively specialized and diverse, depending on both the location and type of disease to be treated in a patient. Pharmaceutical Formulation Development Syngene has expertise, state of art infrastructure and diverse experience to provide pharmaceutical formulation development solutions for various dosage forms.
The preformulation studies are of great importance in the design of a new drug formulation and its quality control. Solubility is a major challenge for formulation scientist. Nanoparticles: With uses ranging from increasing bioavailability of poorly soluble APIs, to formulating parenteral products to tumor targeting, nanoparticles are now a standard drug delivery option. It is suspected that the liposome carrier enhances tissue sequestration, decreasing the rate of elimination. In another beaker 20 mg of drug-CD Organic solvents are constantly present in the pharmaceutical production processes.
We have developed spray-dried, microencapsulated, Jubilant Pharma Limited is a global integrated pharmaceutical company offering a wide range of products and services to our customers across geographies. Propylene glycol can also be used as solvent.
Table 5 shows the general formulation strategies for protein and peptide formulation. Basavaraj K. Herbal Drug Formulation and Evaluation, Prof. Excipients can be classified on the basis of their Bulk up the formulation in case of potent drug for assisting in formulation of an accurate dosage form. Oral solid dosage pharmaceutical formulation market research report - Oral Solid Dosage Pharmaceutical Formulation Industry, Market Research Report' is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Oral Solid Dosage Pharmaceutical Formulation industry with a focus on the Chinese market.
Your health plan may only pay for medications that are on this "preferred" list. It is also used in barrier creams. The biological activity of most recombinant proteins and protein conjugates emanates specifically from their complex 3-dimensional structure which needs to remain unaltered throughout the shelf-life of the product. In addition, drug companies are faced with the challenge of having to deliver larger volumes of biologic formulations, often beyond the capacity allowed by a syringe or an autoinjector.
Protein drug formulation is particularly challenging due to structural complexity and instability. This enhances the solubility of drug, or to increase the sweet taste. Pharmaceutical formulation is the process of combining various chemical substances with the active drug to form a final medicinal product, which is called a drug mixture or drug formulation.
Examples of drugs belonging to this group are cinnarizine and cyclizine. Exclusivity is exclusive marketing rights granted by the FDA upon approval of a drug and can run concurrently with a patent or not. An account is given of the materials which may be added to drugs in order to provide formulated products, and of the methods by which formulations are assessed.
Step -II Formulation of Final Products The final stage of pharmaceutical manufacturing is the conversion of manufactured bulk substances into final, usable forms. Alcohol is one example of an ingredient that may be active or inactive based on the specific formulation of the medication.
Help improve bioavailability of active drug: - Excipients usually help in improving the bioavailability of the active pharmaceutical Figure 2. A simple and very useful approach is to determine the pH of the innovator drug product dispersed in a small volume of pH adjusted Purified Water, and then to compare the result with that yielded by a similar dispersion of the trial formulation.
High-quality malaria diagnosis is important in all settings as misd The Drugs And Cosmetics Rules, - Rajswasthya. The solubility of the molecules in various solvents is determined as a first step. List reasons for the incorporation of drugs into various dosage forms 2. To prevent accidental swallowing of drugs adhesive mucosal The company, a contract research organization CRO provides formulation and drug-delivery services, with an emphasis on difficult modes of delivery, such as intraocular and intranasal.
Liposomes were prepared by Solvent Injection Method using different formulations as shown in Table 1 and here drug-CD complexes are used which are prepared by Kneading method. Edited By: Mark Gibson. Clinical or comparative bioavailability studies may be used to assure this. A special version is the so-called osmotic pump. Novel Drug Delivery System Novel Drug delivery is often approached via a drug's chemical formulation, but it may also involve medical devices or drug-device combination products.
The idea body weight of a 6-month old child is 7. Any drug to be absorbed must be present in the form of solution at the site of absorption. This book is intended to be a guide to assist the student compounder in practising exercises relating to the key dosage forms encountered within extemporaneous dispensing. Drug Formulation Development.
But while speed to market is a crucial element, applying a structured approach starting at an early stage can help de-risk the drug development process and avoid costly late-stage failures. Many other factors can affect the duration of a patent. In one aspect of the invention a formulation as described here in with a compound of formula I , or an acid addition salt thereof, in crystalline formreleases drug under a range of pH conditions.
Formulation Development…. Patients may have allergic reactions or other adverse effects to inactive ingredients. An acquiring company or partner could change the dosage form composition or process with minimal risk up to Phase 3.
Inactive Ingredients. Acid value Preparation of 0. On the other hand, oral and colonic delivery have the advantage of delivering drugs through the intestinal tract to the hepatic portal vein, and then to the systemic circulation. It is primarily used as a lubricant in capsule and tablet manufacture at concentrations between 0. Iontophoresis Iontophoresis passes a few milliamperes of current to a few square centimeters of skin through the electrode placed in contact with the formulation, which facilitates drug delivery across the barrier.
The neutral conditions within the cytoplasm enable the preservative to dissociate, leading to acidification of the cytoplasm and inhibition of growth. It is expected that a 10 mg tablet for example will provide half the amount of drug that a 20 mg tablet provides, and at a similar rate. A wide scope of drug formulation and delivery is covered, ranging from physical pharmacy, basic pharmaceutics, excipients and quality assurance to pharmaceutical technology and manufacturing, and selected aspects of biopharmaceutics, drug delivery and drug targeting.
Sample Drug Squad Report Background.
The final formulation design is optimized to take into account the pharmacokinetic properties of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Elixirs can be prepared more easily than syrups they contain less amount of ingredients that are to be dissolved.
Finally, the potential for an extended duration of effect is a key consideration when choosing drug formulations. Particle Sciences is the nano-technology expert with decades of experience and a full range of equipment for dry and wet milling, physical pharmacy, drug product formulation, and pharmaceutical ingredients. At Thermo Fisher Scientific, our people pride themselves on solving your pharmaceutical drug development challenges.
Often a pharmaceutical product may be susceptible to physical and chemical degradation when stored as a ready-to-use solution. Improve patient acceptance. Cyclizine is useful only during acute attacks and is given in doses of 50 mg thrice a day. Drug Solubility: Importance and Enhancement Techniques. Applications in Pharmaceutical Formulation: Magnesium stearate is widely used in cosmetics, foods and pharmaceutical formulations.
In the development of lyophilized formulations, the choice Pharmacology Pharmacology is the study of medicines, including: The source of the drug The composition of the drug The effects of the drug Drug Groups The Veterinary Medicines Regulations classify all animal medicines into one of four categories: POM-V Prescription Only Medicine — Veterinarian — must be prescribed by a veterinary surgeon, and can be dispensed by any veterinary surgeon or pharmacist Examples of POM-V medications include vaccinations or antibiotics.
Most DPI formulations consist of micronized drug blended with larger carrier particles, which enhance flow, reduce aggregation, and aid in dispersion. In the formulation of pharmaceutical Glycerin and syrup may also used in the formulation. Liquid and Semi-Solid Formulations. Determination of heavy metals — e. Nongranular suspensions can be administered via enteral feeding tubes but may require further dilution owing to the viscosity and osmolarity. Excipients may be char-acterized as buffers and pH ad-justers, bulking agents, stabilizers, and tonicity modifiers.
We address the cost parameters and regulatory requirements for formulating new drugs, and we look for simple, economical solutions to dosage design challenges. The prepared 0. The developed transdermal patches increase the therapeutic efficacy and reduced toxic effect of Clopidogrel bisulfate. Keywords: Nasal Spray, Nasal drug delivery system, formulation and in-vitro characterization.
Manufacturing also includes the preparation and promotion of commercially available products from bulk compounds for resale by the pharmacies, drugs, as with intra-articular administration of corticosteroids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Whether you have a small molecule API or large molecule biologics project, our objective is to help speed your molecule through early phase trials and prepare you for commercial success, faster.
Drug release is achieved by diffusion of the drug through the coating or after the erosion of the polymer coating. The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content. Injectable formulations of lipophilic water-insoluble drugs frequently consist of mixtures of water, organic cosolvents and surfactants.
Such studies help to evaluate the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of the drug substance, its stability, and interaction with other chemical ingredients. Chapter 5 Pharmaceutical formulation and its evaluation. Drugs used in otology and their formulations.
Our pharmaceutical chemists work closely with customers to determine the objectives and benefits of incorporating specific active pharmaceutical ingredients APIs into our adhesive and dissolvable film drug delivery systems.
Common forms of pharmaceutical products include tablets, capsules, liquids, creams and ointments, aerosols, patches, and injectable dosages. Smaller particles Page 34 Table 5 Effect of Particle Size on Powder Flow Particle Type of flowa Reason size Flow is usually good if Mass of individual particles is shape is not interfering relatively large mm b mesh Flow properties may be a Mass of individual particles is small problem with many pure and increased surface area amplifies mm substances and mixtures effects of surface forces 60 mesh mm Figure 22 Effect of electrical forces on fine particles.
Page 35 the agglomerated particles behave as a single large mass particle Fig. Flow may be better in this case, but the dynamics of distributing these small particles during mixing is very poor. Fine powder particles also create potential dust conditions which may require operators to wear respirators for safe handling, and may also create potentially dangerous dust explosion hazards.
Particle size distribution of unit particles as suggested in the above discussion may also have an effect on the flow of a powder, i. Although it has been stated that cohesive forces are strong in powders composed of particles 10 mm or less in size, each powder has a critical size where cohesive forces begin to affect the powder flow properties.
An example of this is shown in Table 7. The angle of repose a or the angle of slip is a relative measure of the friction between powder particles but also is a measure, for the most part, of the cohesiveness of fine particles.
The angle of repose may be measured in several ways as shown in Figure Methods 1 and 2 are both dynamic angle of repose measurements: the powder in Method 1 flows from a filled powder funnel onto a smooth surface where the angle is measured as illustrated, and in Method 2 the powder is moving in a rotating drum while the angle is measured as shown. Method 3 gives the static angle of repose, because the powder container is removed and the powder does not, or is not flowing before the measurement.
Since many factors enter into the angle of repose such as particle size, shape, moisture content, etc. However, certain generalizations can be made regarding the angle of repose: 1. Material is hygroscopic which decreases flowability Very dusty. Material is hygroscopic which decreases flowability Fluid powder The two density powders are slippery and very dusty. Material Fluid cohesive powder is hygroscopic which decreases flowability Cohesive powder Flow becomes extremely poor if packed 0.
Flow becomes poor when packed. Some 0. Flow becomes poorer when packed Source: Carr, R. Page 38 Figure 23 Angle of repose. Page 39 Table 7 Critical Particle Size of Raw Materials Raw material Critical particlea Wheat starch mm Boric acid mm aCohesive forces diminish at this particle size range and have little affect on raw material flow properties as the particle size increases above this range. Size distribution of a powder also has an effect on the packing characteristics, and therefore the bulk density of the powder.
This is illustrated in Figure 24, which shows how the smaller particles of a size distribution occupies interstices between the larger particles creating a more densely packed powder. Densely packed powders usually have flow difficulties. Particle shape affects powder inter-particle friction, and consequently the flow properties of the powder.
Figure 25 shows general particle shapes and their effects on powder flow. Materials composed of particles with rounded edges such as a and b in Figure 25, will flow more readily than those with sharper edges c , or two dimensional flat, flake-like particles e.
Poor flow is usually encountered with particles having Figure 24 Effects of particle size distribution on the bulk density of a powder. Page 40 Figure 25 General particle shapes and their effect on power flow. Bridging refers to the stoppage of powder flow as a result of particles which have formed a semirigid or rigid structure within the powder bulk.
It is apparent that particle shape affects the angle of repose of a powder, particularly powders with low magnitude surface forces as found with particles greater than mm, and some low free-surface energy-fine powders such as talc hydrous magnesium silicate and cornstarch . It must be remembered that all of the properties discussed above are intimately interrelated, and, although each one must be considered individually, they must also be considered as an entire group of variables when evaluating powder flow properties.
Mixing Equipment A general classification of mixers is shown in Table 8. Types of mixers can be divided first into two broad categories: a batch type, and b continuous.
By far and large, the most prevalent type used in the pharmaceutical industry today is the batch type that mixes a sublot or total lot of a formula at one time, i. The continuous mixer, on the other hand, is usually dedicated to a single high-volume product. Ingredients are continuously proportioned into the mixer and collected from the continuous discharge. The lot size is usually determined by a specified length of mixing time which may range from 8 to 24 hr, depending on the process.
Batch-Type Mixers. The first general class of mixers are those that create particle movement by rotation of the entire mixer shell or body. A schematic of four types listed in Table 8 is seen in Figure 26, while a slant, double-cone mixer a modification of the double cone is shown in Figure Batch Type 1. Rotation of the entire mixer shell or body with no agitator or mixing blade a. Barrel b. Cube c. V-shaped d. Double cone e. Slant double cone 2.
Rotation of the entire mixer shell or body with a rotating highshear agitator blade a.
V-shaped processor b. Double cone formulator c. Slant double cone formulator 3. Stationary shell or body with a rotating mixing blade a. Ribbon b. Sigma blade c. Planetary d. Conical screw 4.
High-speed granulations stationary shell or body with a rotating mixing blade and high-speed agitator blade a. Bowl 5. Air mixerstationary shell or body using moving air as agitator a. Fluid bed granulator b. Fluid bed drier B. Page 43 Figure 27 The twin shell V-blender. However, the V-shaped blender Fig. The term blending is used in relation to these pieces of equipment because they mix the dry powders with a minimum of energy imparted to the powder bed as a result of tumbling the powders.
The rotating shell blenders with no high speed agitator bar are used only for dry mixes and have no packing glands seals around shafts entering the chamber to cause potential problems.
Modifications, such as the addition of baffles, to increase mixing shear have been made to these types of blenders. The slant, double cone design is unique in that it eliminates the dead spot that may occur in the double cone mixer Fig. The advantage of using the V-shaped, doublecone, and slant double-cone blenders include: Page 44 Figure 28 Double-cone blender.
Minimal attrition when blending fragile granules 2. Large capacity equipment available 3. Easy to load and unload 4. Easy to clean 5. Minimal maintenance The primary disadvantages are: 1. High head space needed for installation particularly with V-shaped mixers 2. Segregation problems with mixtures having wide particle size distribution and large differences in particle densities 3. Tumbling-type blenders not suitable for fine particulate systems because there may not be enough shear to reduce particle agglomeration 4.
Serial dilution required for the addition of low dose active ingredients if powders are free flowing Page 45 Figure 29 Slant double-cone mixer. Courtesy Gemco, Middlesex, New Jersey. Blending efficiency is affected by the load volume factor as shown in Table 9. Blender speed may also be a key to mixing efficiency in that the slower the blender, the lower the shear forces. Although higher blending speeds provide more shear, more dusting may be prevalent causing segregation of fines, i.
There is also a critical speed which, if approached, will diminish blending efficiency of the mixer considerably. As the revolutions per minute rpm increase, the centifugal forces at the extreme points of the mixing chamber will exceed the gravitation forces required for blending, and the powder will gravitate to the outer walls of the blender shell. It should be noted that bench scale blenders turn at much higher rpm than the large blenders, usually in proportion to the peripheral velocity of blender extremes.
Page 46 Table 9 Effect of Powder Fill on Blending Time of Double-Cone Blendersa Volume percent of blender Approximate blend time minutes filled with powder charge in production-size blenders 50 10 65 14 70 18 75 24 80b 40b aBlending done in double-cone blenders and times measured to obtain comparable blends bUniform blend not attainable with this fill level Source: Sweitzer, G. The double-cone blender is usually charged and discharged through the same port, whereas the V-shaped blender may be loaded through either of the shell hatches or the apex port.
Emptying the V-shaped blender is normally done through the apex port. The second general class of mixers is a modification of the tumbling blenders shown schematically in Figure 30 with the addition of a high-speed rpm agitator mixing blade. This agitator blade is situated as shown in Figure 31, and gives added versatility to the tumbling blenders by virtue of the high shear attainable. The advantages with the addition of the agitator bar to the tumbling blender include: 1.
Good versatility in that both wet and dry mixing can be accomplished in the blender. Figure 31 V-shaped blender with agitator mixing assembly. Courtesy of Gemco, Middlesex, New Jersey. Page 48 2. A wide range of shearing force may be obtained with the agitator bar design permitting the intimate mixing of very fine as well as coarse powder compositions. Serial dilution more than likely may not be needed when incorporating low dose active ingredients into the mixture. The disadvantages include: 1.
Possible attrition of large more friable particles or granules in a mixture as a result of the high-speed agitator mixer. Scale-up can prove to be a problem in that direct scale-up based on geometry, size, and peripheral velocity in many cases does not work.
Experimental work is advised on the size mixer planned for the process if possible. Cleaning may be a problem depending on design, since the agitator assembly must be removed and packings changed for a product changeover.
Potential packing seal problems packings are used to prevent leakage through the shaft entrance into the mixing chamber and to prevent the blender contents from contaminating the bearings.
The mixers with agitator bars, in most cases, are also available with a separate liquid dispensing system Fig.
These units, known as processors or formulators may also have a steam jacket around the shell of the blender for heating the wet powder or granulation, and a vacuum system to remove the granulating liquid vapors during drying. In essence, the entire granulating and drying step may be accomplished in one piece of equipment. A schematic of this operation is shown in Figure A typical sequence of operating steps for the processor or formulator would read as follows: 1.
Prepare granulating solution and adjust feed rate through pump. Charge the blender with ingredients to be granulated. Turn on vacuum to 15 in. Premix the dry solids at normal processor shell rpm and run agitator mixer during blending.
Pump granulating solution into processor or formulator with agitator bar running and turn on full vacuum in. Mix until granulation is properly wet up stop processor or formulator, relieve vacuum, and open to examine granulation. Shut off agitator mixer and reduce the blender shell speed to minimum rpm for drying. Dry until solvent collector contains the specified quantity of solvent to be removed from the granulation do a material balance of solvent in and solvent out.
The difference equals solvent remaining in chamber. Check the loss of drying LOD after drying is completed. Empty granulation into a hopper or drums for further processing.
Page 49 Figure 32 Separate liquid dispensing system. Page 50 Figure 33 Schematic of V-shaped blender, processor. The problems encountered with the operation include packing gland seal leakage under vacuum, and the granulation sticking to the sides of the blender shell.
These problems can be often overcome by careful packing of the agitator mixer packing gland s , optimizing the shell temperature and granulation composition and optimizing the granulating solution addition rate, and developing the proper sequence of steps during granulating.
The processors and formulators are loaded and unloaded the same way as the V-shaped and double-cone blenders. The third category of mixers is mechanically different from the tumbling shell-type blenders, i. The blades naturally have different configurations for each of the specific designs, and move the solid-solid or liquid-solid mixtures by the force exerted through a motor driven drive shaft.
Schematics of the more commonly used designs are seen in Figure The ribbon mixer derives its name from the ribbon shaped blades which transverse the entire length of the U-trough and are attached to the drive shaft by struts not shown in the side view of the Figure 34a schematic. The ribbon mixer Fig. The top of the mixer is covered during mixing because considerable dust may be created during dry blending, and granulating solution may evaporate during wet granulating.
The normal procedure is to open the discharge spout several times during Page 51 Figure 34 Schematic of fixed-shell, moving-blade mixers. Page 52 Figure 35 The ribbon mixer. Courtesy of Day Mixing, Cincinnati, Ohio. This eliminates unmixed material from becoming trapped in this spout. This is a good all-purpose mixer, but has one main disadvantage which is the possibility of dead spots areas that remain unmixed at the ends and in the corners of the mixer.
For the same mixer volume, head room requirements are less for the ribbon mixer. The ribbon mixer is top loading with a bottom discharge port. The sigma blade mixer Fig. The mixer is therefore an excellent choice for wet granulating where heavy wetted powders require kneading for good liquid-solid distribution.
The mixer is probably the most heavily constructed of the mixers and has close tolerances between the side walls and bottom of the mixer shell.
This creates a minimum of dead space during mixing. The sigma blade mixer is used primarily for liquid-solids blending, although it can be used for solids-solids blending. The mixer is top loading, and is emptied by tilting the entire shell, via a rack and pinion drive. Page 53 Figure 36 Schematic of liquid or shot drive. Both the ribbon and sigma blade mixers are a fixed speed drive, and on large units that motor drive is usually connected to the blade shaft through either a fluid drive or a shot drive Fig.
This prevents the high torque developed by the drive motor from breaking gears or twisting drive shafts if the mixer is turned on while loaded with a wet granulation.
Each of these drives absorbs the initial torque while the blades begin to move against the granulation. The planetary mixer Fig. As the small planetary gear, attached to the mixing blade, is driven in the indicated direction around the ring gear, it rotates the mixer blade. Therefore, the mixer blade shaft position is rotational as well as the mixer blade itself. This mixer is also a high-shear mixer and is normally built with a variable speed drive.
This allows slow blade speed for pre-mixing dry powder minimizes dusting and faster speeds for the required kneading action in wet granulating. The mixer shell is a mixing bowl which is removed from the mixer by either lowering it beneath the blade, or raising the blade above the bowl, or both, as is the case with the larger size quart planetary mixers.
There are literally no dead spaces in the mixing bowl, and extra bowls permit the mixing of one sub-lot after another if so desired. The big disadvantage with this equipment is the limited size batch which can be made at one time. The common practice is to mix several sub-lots and then make a final blend of the sub-lots in a large tumbling mixer.
For small batch work this may fit the need very well, but the granulation of large lots may be done more easily in largevolume granulating equipment such as found with the processor or formulator, the ribbon and sigma blade mixers.
It must be noted that since the mixer blade is mounted from above the mixer bowl, there are no packing glands in contact with the product, eliminating the need for repacking between lots and product changes. Emptying the bowls may be done by hand scooping or by obtaining a dumping mechanism which lifts and dumps. The last of the more commonly used stationary shell mixers is the conical screw type Fig. Again, as with the planetary mixer, the Page 54 Figure 37 Schematic of planetary gear.
This mixer provides a very mild shearing action and was, at one time, used only for solidssolids blending. However, with several modifications, the mixer may also be used for liquidsolids blending in wet granulating. Probably the biggest drawback to the conical screw mixer is the high head space required for installation of commercial size ft3 units. The big advantage with the unit is that when filled to any height, the same mixing action is obtained.
For example, if a 10 ft3 lot of material is to be scaled up to 50 ft3, the 10 ft3 lot may be blended in the 50 ft3 blender, and the same mixing action that a 50 ft3 lot receives will be obtained.
The conical screw mixer is top loading with a bottom discharge port. The fourth category of mixers is the high-speed granulators. These are stationary shell mixers with a large mixer-scraper blade that mixes the ingredients, eliminates dead spots in the mixer container, and presents the mixer contents to a high-speed chopper blade which intimately mixes the ingredients.
The high-speed chopper is driven by a motor separate from that driving the larger more slowly rotating mixer-scraper blade, and is located at the side of the mixing bowl or chamber.
Schematics of the barrel type and bowl type are illustrated in Figure The advantage of this equipment is extremely rapid, intimate solids-solids mixing or liquid-solids mixing. Granulating times may be only min long, which includes dry blending and wet granulating. The product is usually a fairly Page 55 Figure 38 The conical screw mixer.
Page 56 Figure 39 Schematic of high-speed granulators. Page 57 uniform wet granule size of mesh mm that needs no further wet milling or screening. The granules are usually emptied directly into a fluid bed drier. Disadvantages may include product contamination from the packing gland where the shaft passes through the mixer shell.