The Author as Plagiarist - The Case of Machado de Assis E^a as a disciple of works like Machado's Crisalidas fl), Ressurreigao (), or Helena Novelist, poet, playwright, and short story writer Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis () is widely regarded as Brazil's greatest writer, although his w. Read Online · Download PDF; Save; Cite this Item novels—Resurrection, ;The Hand and the Glove, ; Helena, ;Iaiá Garcia, —and the later five. Since Machado de Assis (who should precede Azevedo) and Coelho .. "Yayá Garcia, like Resurreiçao and Helena, is a romantic account.
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Helena is a novel written by the Brazilian writer Machado de Assis. It was first published in . Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version . Every issue of Machado de Assis Magazine is available online in PDF and can her father and that he had come to give Dona Helena a present. Immaculada . Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis. Alternative names, Machado de Assis. Description, Brazilian writer, linguist, poet, journalist, novelist and.
Although it is very uncertain how effective was the author's knowledge of ancient languages Greek and Latin , he used to appreciate entering in his short stories and novels an unceasing dialog with the Greek and Roman Literature through quotes, imitations and appropriations of that legacy. It is visible that the past and present mingle on a tame craziness, showing, in the course of this text, that ancient Rome was present with all its signs most prominent, Virgil, Appia, Maecenas and Augustus, among characters and places from the tropical capital. By the analysis of excerpts like this, in this paper I seek to sketch some of the roles of Classical culture in Machado's work, and, at the same time, to propose a reading of Machado on the light of Classical Reception Studies. The extraordinary literary life of Machado de Assis — , arguably the greatest Brazilian writer, has recently been the subject of a significant study by David Jackson Email: brvieira fclar.
One of Brazil's literature masterpieces without doubt. Love, jealousy and betrayal are the central themes of Dom Casmurro. If it reminds you of Othello or Madame Bovary, you are not too far off the mark.
But, at the same time, it could not be more different. The novel is a memoir told in the firs I read Machado de Assis 's Dom Casmurro so many years back that if it was not for its splendor I might have forgotten it, but a brief revist was enough to remind me why I fell perilously in love with it. The novel is a memoir told in the first person by Bento or Bentinho, aka Dom Casmurro, his story of enduring love affair with Capitu.
The title character tells us of his younger self, his love, courtship, and marriage to a memorable and colorful Capitu. No image comes to mind that doesn't offend against the rules of good style, to say what they were and what they did to me. Undertow eyes? Cambridge: Basil Blackwell, Postmodernism and the Social Sciences: a Thematic Approach. Thousand Oaks, Calif. The Sociology of Developing Societies.
London: Macmillan, Machado de Assis: a Literary Life. New Haven: Yale University Press, The Postmodern Condition: a Report on Knowledge. Translated by Geoff Bennington and Brian Massumi. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, Machado de Assis in Luso-Brazilian Review, vol. Machado de Assis desconhecido. II negro nel romanzo brasiliano. Rome: Bulzoni Editore, Machado de Assis, o outsider estabelecido. Sociologias 8, n. Quarterly Conversation, December 7, Stephen Crane and Literary Impressionism.
Machado de Assis, the Brazilian Pyrrhonian. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, The Cambridge Introduction to Postmodern Fiction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Westport, Conn. Machado de Assis: o romance com pessoas. Machado de Assis em Linha 8, n. Minnesota Law Review 81, p. Racism, Modernity, and Identity: on the Western Front. Cambridge: Polity Press, , p.
O tempo no romance machadiano. Introduction: the Location of the Author. Machado de Assis: toward a Poetics of Emulation. Translated by Flora Thomson-DeVeux.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, O entre-lugar no discurso Latino-Americano. Translated by Oswaldino Marques. Interview with Roberto Schwarz.
Playing with Realism. New Leader83, n. Ao vencedor as batatas. Um mestre na periferia do capitalismo: Machado de Assis. The Nature of Narrative. London: Oxford University Press, New York: Cambridge University Press, , p. Race in Postmodern America. New York: Autonomedia, Beyond the Post-Modern Mind. Wheaton, Ill. Boston: Porter Sargent, Galante de.
Cronologia de Machado de Assis. Revista do Livro 3, p. Literary Impressionism, James, and Chekhov. Athens: University of Georgia Press, Latin American Postmodernisms. Amsterdam: Rodopi, , p. Machado de Assis: a obra entreaberta. Primos entre si: temas em Proust e Machado de Assis. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, Machado de Assis and the Myth of Brazil. Hulet ed.
London: Waugh Methuen, Introduction: Rhetoric as Liminal Practice. Accessed: September 10, A Brief History of Everything. Boston: Shambhala, An Integral Theory of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 4, n. New York: Random House, Machado, by extension, provides a scathing, if oblique and masterfully disguised, critique of the European Brazilian elite.
As members of a society that for all its virtuous pretenses was in fact sustained by African slavery, they were themselves enslaved by materialist rationalism, egoism, and greed BORGES, The Recognition of Afro-Brazilian Symbols and Ideas, p. Realism and Naturalism involve linear narratives that reflect an objectivist orientation.
Naturalism takes this orientation to an extreme where facts are reported with detailed scientific clinicality. Fiction becomes a kind of microscope slide upon which the author places certain organisms — some healthy, most diseased — and then observes and describes their interaction with an objectivity devoid of moral judgments.
Consequently, characters generally bear some responsibility for their actions. Aside from Carolina, his only companion was literature, which substituted for an active public life after their marriage in To construct a philosophical and fictional world 6 The Literary World of Machado de Assis became his lifetime literary project, and he dedicated himself to the arts: Long live the muses. Those ancient, beautiful young ladies neither grow old nor lose their beauty. After all, its whats most solid under the sun March11, In Brazil, where he was a singular presence, his pure exceptionality as a writer and learned man conferred on him an exalted status.
In the view of the Brazilian poet and essayist Haroldo de Campos, Machados presence could have been neither explained nor foreseen: a Ulysses, he became the mythological founder of modern Brazil, a devourer of tradition who led a constant dialogue between the national and the uni- versal.
A recent biography by Daniel Piza described Machado in only one word: Genius. Machado de Assiss stature as an unexpected yet definitive figure in Brazilian letters of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and one of the greatest writers produced by the Americas is a challenge to any com- prehensive critical understanding of his literary and cultural background, his writings, and his legacy to world literature.
Machado was careful to keep details of his life private, such that for scholars and biographers at the cen- tenary of his birth in he retained the charm of an old, faded photo- graph and the mystery of a writer who had made his life into a work of art. A new appreciation of Machados works is all the more imperative because he is still not widely known outside of Brazil, where a dominant school of interpretation has focused primarily on his role as a social critic and na- tionalist, yet has not satisfactorily explained his modernity and creativity or how such an improbable writer succeeded in transforming the novel and short story.
In her book on Brazil , , Elizabeth Bishop attrib- uted the inattention to his work to lack of competition and serious criti- cism even more than from the relatively limited audience for Portuguese literature or from the deadening effects of facile journalism. Machados inventiveness and craft, developed in over thirty years of apprenticeship and practiced in another thirty as a professional, set him apart as a writer who was ahead of his time, one who was extremely well read and capable of drawing on an exceptionally wide repertoire of sources The Wizard of Cosme Velho 7 as well as of assembling them in surprising ways that challenged and al- tered the practices of literary realism of his day.
This interpretation of his fiction departs from an investigation of principles and dynamics ob- served in his literary world, judging from the works themselves. Within selected parameters of analysis, my book seeks to contribute to the rein- terpretation of Machado after the centenary of his death by reconfiguring the function and meaning of his special genius as a thinker and writer, rede- fining him as one of the fundamental authors of world literature.
Most notable in Machado are the many contradictions that provided him with an unusual perspective as an outside insider or an inside outsider. His singularity as a writer can be attributed in part to the way he selected, combined, and synthesized the myriad literary sources of a long literary apprenticeship, then folded them into an individual style that was at the same time very much part of his time and place, reflecting not only Bra- zils language and society in the Americas but also its long dialogue with the classics, Europe, and the Portuguese maritime empire.
Machado found sources for his writing by observing the contradictory nature of life: Lifes contrasts are works of the imagination right next to you August 23, Contradictions and tensions were the building blocks of his literary world. He treated them with philosophical equanimity and even humor, recognizing in his words that contradiction is part of this world and that truth is incongruous. Machados picaresque narrator Brs Cubas confesses that he was not made for complex situations: That pushing and shoving of opposite things was getting me off balance chapter; hereafter in ref- erences to the novels the numbers will refer to chapters.
Campos found that Machado assimilated his multiple sources and contrasting genres in a complicated chemistry in which it was no longer possible to distinguish the assimilating organism from the stuff assimilated. In his book on Mach- ado, however, the critic Agrippino Grieco identified multiple specific au- thors and works, particularly in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century European literatures, from whom Machado had borrowed, reshaped, and altered content in his stories and novels, yet never copying directly from any of the plethora of influential sources.
Grieco cites his powerful origi- nality coupled with his diabolical imitation; because of this unusual com- bination he was, continues Grieco, never completely himself but made all the materials that he assimilated his own. His original alteration of citations, the constant presence of aphorisms, the construction of subtle inference, and the persuasiveness of the unreliable narrator all contribute both to ren- ovate literary form and to disguise and alter the authorial self.
Machados later description of the making of fine furniture in Brazil parallels his own creative appropriation of European models: Exquisite furniture. The expert shaping of national wood by means of European models describes a process that produced new modes of language and variable use of genre as well. In arguing that the tax on theatrical companies should be the same for national and interna- tional productions alike, Machado points out that the Teutonic-Brazilian from the South is neither German nor Brazilian but a mixture: Franco- Brazilian art exists not because of the place of birth of the artists, but by a combination of Rio with Paris or Bordeaux.
Neither the late Mme. Doche nor D. Estela would recognize that art because it no longer possesses the particular features of one or the other of the respective languages. It is le- gitimate in accordance with the fusion of elements from both its origins.
It is a living thing, I dont ask for any other birth certificate.
It is a local fruit December 13, Examples of creative appropriation, rather than import of foreign goods, will contribute to the nations progress, Machado writes in a commentary on an industrial exposition in We do not lack capacity; perhaps some indolence and certainly the mania of preferring for- eign things, thats what has been an obstacle to the development of our in- dustrial genius. And, it must be said that it is not a simple lack, it is an impediment, to have such an opulent country and waste the gifts that it of- fers us, without preparing ourselves for the peaceful existence at work that the future offers to nations December 1, The juxtaposition of European background with the world of Rio de Janeiro is highlighted in his first novel, when the character Lvia tells of her desire to go beyond the splendors of Paris and the elegance of Euro- pean life: I want to get to know Italy and Germany, to remember our Gua- nabara on the shores of the Arno or Rhine 3.
His vast world of reference, reflecting the geographical dimensions of the oceanic Portuguese world, creates inevitable tensions with local circumstances and characters that can be fully understood only when placed in the light of preceding models and archetypes, to which the author at times only obliquely alludes.
When a Western literary form treats the diversity of Brazil over a long period of col- ony and empire, it can produce both an uncannily familiar and a strangely 10 The Literary World of Machado de Assis deceptive effect. Readers must become detectives to uncover clues that, in the language of Sherlock Holmes, Arthur Conan Doyles character who was Machados contemporary, they see but most often do not observe.
Machados Brazilian literary world is both an image of its European predecessors seen through a distorting mirror and a lesson on the eternal human condition in a miscegenated, slaveholding, imperial society.
Even his characters and narrators are often deceived about the true nature of sit- uations and events in which they are involved. Machado, the devourer of antecedents, made sure that his writings and even his identity as a writer could be fully defined and comprehended only through other literatures, which he made relevant to his own purposes.
He created his literary world through the lens of what he had read, resulting in a style of his own that could be called mannerist because of the lack of a dominant stylistic model. Charles Rosen in Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven comments on the general lack of direction in the period between the baroque and neo- classical, an absence he attributed to the contradiction between them and to composers deficiencies of technique.
As the literary composer of a pro- ficient, synthetic style that borrowed qualities from authors and compos- ers in each of those artistic periods and practices, Machado was able to marshal their differences and contradictions by juxtaposing them outside their normal contexts and incorporating them into what passed for realis- tic prose fiction of his day.
But his deception went much deeper: He com- bined neobaroque drama of plot and theme with neoclassical symmetry in prose writing. To continue the parallel with Rosens musical analysis of style, one may say that Machado was able to coordinate differences in the liter- ary equivalents of phrase, rhythm, and harmony so as to command a style that could carry the weight of his entire literary production.
Tensions be- tween story and reference, author and narrator, source and originality, tell- ing and meaning, sensuality and recusal, voluptuousness and abstinence were the basic chemistry of Machados literary syntheses. Machado fi lls his major novels with self-conscious play on writing, the book at hand, and problems of reality and representation developed in close dialogue and questioning with readers: What dominates the narra- tive discourse of Machado is his doubting tone, the deceptive and equivo- The Wizard of Cosme Velho 11 cating way of telling, reticent and distrustful, if not deceitful and misleading, questioning his capacity to represent reality.
Like a chess master, Machado frequently misleads and even entraps inattentive readers by concealing deeper intentions through inferences, un- reliable narrators and irony, characteristics intensified in Brs Cubass posthumous memoirs. His intentions are satirical and not infrequently ma- licious. Machado works to throw readers off track, whether male readers of his day mainly interested in elucidating the symbolic universe that seems to lie just below what is being told or feminine readers thought to be more interested in the story at hand.
Between the two, Machado plays the role of learned narrator-diplomat, an expert like his Counselor Ayres in the arts of discovering as well as covering his true meaning: All diplomacy exists in these two related verbs Esau and Jacob, He cynically excuses himself for restricting content restricted only so as not to tire the female reader , deceiving impatient readers reasons that I withheld from the hurried reader , and hiding his intended meaning If no one understands me, I can wait.
Machado dismisses the masculine reader who holds fixed ideas on the other side of the page, whose interest is limited to literary precedents, and he further taunts the feminine reader who wishes to share the sentimental eff usiveness of the plots: Let my female reader guess, if she can: Ill give her twenty chapters to catch on.
Machado obliges the reader to reread by referring to previous chapters lost from memory and to certain key chapters that produce the illusion of comprehending the allegorical or symbolic content, whereas the reader becomes lost as a result in the eter- nally recurring and self-referential structures of the text.
Entrapment is a narrative technique Machado could have learned from eighteenth-century novels and journals or from his reading of Henry Fielding. In a study of Fieldings Journal of a Voyage to Lisbon , Me- linda Rabb finds that the simplicity of the account is troubled by irony, 12 The Literary World of Machado de Assis self-representation, and fictionalization.
The account is complicated by its multiple layersas fact, metaphor, rhetoric, structure, and themeand by the passage from ideal to real, from the narrators mind to the readers, and from linguistic signs and rhetorical devices to meaning. The narrator shifts between different subjects and styles, with countermovements, opposing ideas, and theories.
Such advance and regress serve to encourage the reader to sympathize with the narrators dilemmas. The reader is further entrapped by Fieldings claim to truth, whereas the journal was contrived in retrospect; by subject matter that does not fit the topic at hand; and by the existence of a subtext throughout, in this case a journey whose destination is not Lisbon but to reach the inevitability of death.
Metaliterary play begins in his first novel, when he corrects the im- patient reader who wants the ending to come at the halfway point with the marriage of two couples, by pointing out that one of the couples was not in love, an impediment that could not be blamed on love itself and cer- tainly not on the author Resurrection, The narrators often declare their independence and truthfulness while criticizing the habits of common read- ers who skip chapters and forget what has gone before.
Brs Cubas rewards displeased readers with a snap of the fingers and a good-bye before blaming them for the tediousness of his memoirs: The main defect of this book is you, reader.
Youre in a hurry to grow old and the book moves slowly. You love direct and continuous narration, a regular and fluid style, and this book and my style are like drunkards, they stagger left and right, they walk and stop, mumble, yell, cackle, shake their fists at the sky, stumble, and fall The narrator of Esau and Jacob eschews structure in announcing the novels final two chapters with a theatrical flair reminiscent of commedia dellarte: All stories, if one cuts them into slices, end with a last chapter and a next-to-last chapter, but no author admits that.
All prefer to give them their own titles. I adopt the opposite method. On top of each one of the next chapters, I write their precise names, their concluding role, and, with- out announcing their particular subject matter, I indicate the milepost at which we find ourselves The Wizard of Cosme Velho 13 In Dom Casmurro, Bento Santiago addresses readers as a crafty law- yer would a jury in a criminal trial: First, let us go over the motives which placed a pen in my hand 2. He seeks to gain the readers trust and soli- darity, especially at the most unbelievable junctures of his story: Shake your head, reader.
Make all the gestures of incredulity there are. Even throw away this book, if its tediousness has not already driven you to this long since; anything is possible. But if you have done so only now, rather than before, I trust you will pick it up again and open to the same page, without necessarily believing in the veracity of the author.
And yet there is nothing more exact If Quincas Borba is a story told to a reader, Esau and Jacob is a dialogue and conversation: I know there is an obscure point in the previous chapter.
I write this one to clarify it The reader be- comes a confidant, which is also a form of entrapment: I would not write this chapter if it were really about the shopping trip, but it is not; It is necessary to say one thing before I forget Addressing the reader di- rectly creates mutual sympathy: I know, I know, I know, that there are many visions on those pages there Machado reaches the pinnacle of metaliterary play in his last novel, a found and edited manuscript in which Counselor Ayres acts as author, character, narrator, and self-conscious diarist.
The reader is absorbed into his meditations and annotations as in an operatic performance, with its range of scenes, plots, motifs, and sub- plots. The work oscillates from immediate events to expansive symbolic planes and references, and the open structure of its written history expands the definition and possibility of the modern novel, as Ayres dissimulates, If I were writing a novel I would strike the pages of the 12th and22nd of this month.
A work of fiction would not permit such an equivalence of events Memorial, September If one looks at the advertencies Machado wrote to draw the read- ers attention to his works, there is a progressive development of irony over time, evidence of an ever more sophisticated and complex relationship be- tween truth and fiction, reality and representation.
Machado gives his charac- ters progressively more independence to narrate, as Helen Caldwell ob- served: With succeeding novels author and personage grew farther apart. By turning narration over to pseudo-omniscient author- narrators, the stories gain narrative power because the association of the narrator with the author makes readers more likely to believe what he says.