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By William Shakespeare. ROMEO BENVOLIO nephew to Montague, and friend to Romeo. TYBALT .. SERVANT Perhaps you have learned it without book. Romeo and Juliet - William Shakespeare (–) was an English poet, Romeo and Juliet - William Shakespeare - PDF Download Book Livro Baixar. Free PDF, epub, Kindle ebook. Romeo Romeo and Juliet By William Shakespeare I run this site alone and spend an awful lot of time creating these books.
Romeo and Juliet - William Shakespeare in English About the author: William Shakespeare — was an English poet, playwright, and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet, and the Bard of Avon. His extant works, including collaborations, consist of approximately 38 plays, sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright. Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire.
So, they kiss, without knowing who they are. The truth about their identities upsets them later on — but it is too late, they are already in love. Romeo, not knowing what to do, goes to seek advice from Friar Lawrence, who when Romeo tells him his story agrees to marry him with Juliet in secret.
He does it most of all because he believes that such a marriage could put an end to the fight between their families.
The next day, Romeo and Juliet are married. However, tragedy is just around the corner. Romeo begs to stop the duel, but one of the men from his family is disgusted by such a plea and starts the duel. Romeo, trying to stop the fight, finds himself in between, and kills Tybalt. As a result, he is banished from Verona for his crime, as the ruler has promised. He spends his last night in the city with his love, Juliet. She is worried and does not know what to do, since her father wants to marry her off, not knowing she is already married.
She first tries to talk to her nurse, but she is not satisfied with her advice — to marry Paris since he is a better match, and decides to ask for help from Friar Lawrence.
He has a plan that is supposed to reunite the lovers. The night before she is to be wed to Paris, Juliet must drink a poison that will only make her look dead for some time. The only thing he hears is that his love is dead. He cannot imagine living without her, so he decides to end his life as well. There, he meets Paris, whom he kills in a fight. Just a moment too late, Juliet awakes. She realizes the tragedy that has occurred and does not see a point in living anymore.
The two families arrive at the tomb and are torn apart by the sight. Realizing that their rage made their children unhappy , they decide to bury the hatchet and build a new, peaceful Verona. Mercutio is fatally wounded when Romeo attempts to break up the fight.
Grief-stricken and wracked with guilt, Romeo confronts and slays Tybalt. Benvolio argues that Romeo has justly executed Tybalt for the murder of Mercutio. The Prince, now having lost a kinsman in the warring families' feud, exiles Romeo from Verona, under penalty of death if he ever returns. Romeo secretly spends the night in Juliet's chamber, where they consummate their marriage.
Capulet, misinterpreting Juliet's grief, agrees to marry her to Count Paris and threatens to disown her when she refuses to become Paris's "joyful bride". Juliet visits Friar Laurence for help, and he offers her a potion that will put her into a deathlike coma for "two and forty hours".
On the night before the wedding, she takes the drug and, when discovered apparently dead, she is laid in the family crypt. The messenger, however, does not reach Romeo and, instead, Romeo learns of Juliet's apparent death from his servant, Balthasar. Heartbroken, Romeo downloads poison from an apothecary and goes to the Capulet crypt.
He encounters Paris who has come to mourn Juliet privately. Believing Romeo to be a vandal, Paris confronts him and, in the ensuing battle, Romeo kills Paris. Still believing Juliet to be dead, he drinks the poison. Juliet then awakens and, discovering that Romeo is dead, stabs herself with his dagger and joins him in death. The feuding families and the Prince meet at the tomb to find all three dead.
Friar Laurence recounts the story of the two "star-cross'd lovers". The families are reconciled by their children's deaths and agree to end their violent feud. Romeo and Juliet borrows from a tradition of tragic love stories dating back to antiquity.
One of these is Pyramus and Thisbe , from Ovid 's Metamorphoses , which contains parallels to Shakespeare's story: the lovers' parents despise each other, and Pyramus falsely believes his lover Thisbe is dead. History records the name of the family Montague as being lent to such a political party in Verona , but that of the Capulets as from a Cremonese family, both of whom play out their conflict in Lombardy as a whole rather than within the confines of Verona.
The earliest known version of the Romeo and Juliet tale akin to Shakespeare's play is the story of Mariotto and Gianozza by Masuccio Salernitano , in the 33rd novel of his Il Novellino published in His version of the story includes the secret marriage, the colluding friar, the fray where a prominent citizen is killed, Mariotto's exile, Gianozza's forced marriage, the potion plot, and the crucial message that goes astray.
In this version, Mariotto is caught and beheaded and Gianozza dies of grief. The next morning, the Savorgnans led an attack on the city , and many members of the Strumieri were murdered.
When years later, half-paralyzed from a battle-wound, he wrote Giulietta e Romeo in Montorso Vicentino from where he could see the "castles" of Verona , he dedicated the novella to bellisima e leggiadra madonna Lucina Savorgnan.
Da Porto gave Romeo and Juliet most of its modern form, including the names of the lovers, the rival families of Montecchi and Capuleti, and the location in Verona. Da Porto originated the remaining basic elements of the story: the feuding families, Romeo — left by his mistress — meeting Giulietta at a dance at her house, the love scenes including the balcony scene , the periods of despair, Romeo killing Giulietta's cousin Tebaldo , and the families' reconciliation after the lovers' suicides.
Bandello lengthened and weighed down the plot while leaving the storyline basically unchanged though he did introduce Benvolio. Boaistuau adds much moralising and sentiment, and the characters indulge in rhetorical outbursts. Romeo and Juliet is a dramatisation of Brooke's translation, and Shakespeare follows the poem closely but adds extra detail to both major and minor characters in particular the Nurse and Mercutio. Juliet's nurse refers to an earthquake she says occurred 11 years ago.
Other earthquakes—both in England and in Verona—have been proposed in support of the different dates. These are referred to as Q1 and Q2. The first printed edition, Q1, appeared in early , printed by John Danter. Because its text contains numerous differences from the later editions, it is labelled a so-called ' bad quarto '; the 20th-century editor T. Spencer described it as "a detestable text, probably a reconstruction of the play from the imperfect memories of one or two of the actors", suggesting that it had been pirated for publication.
Alternative theories are that some or all of 'the bad quartos' are early versions by Shakespeare or abbreviations made either for Shakespeare's company or for other companies. It was printed in by Thomas Creede and published by Cuthbert Burby. Q2 is about lines longer than Q1. Scholars believe that Q2 was based on Shakespeare's pre-performance draft called his foul papers since there are textual oddities such as variable tags for characters and "false starts" for speeches that were presumably struck through by the author but erroneously preserved by the typesetter.
It is a much more complete and reliable text and was reprinted in Q3 , Q4 and Q5. Pope began a tradition of editing the play to add information such as stage directions missing in Q2 by locating them in Q1. This tradition continued late into the Romantic period. Fully annotated editions first appeared in the Victorian period and continue to be produced today, printing the text of the play with footnotes describing the sources and culture behind the play.
Proposals for a main theme include a discovery by the characters that human beings are neither wholly good nor wholly evil, but instead are more or less alike,  awaking out of a dream and into reality, the danger of hasty action, or the power of tragic fate.
None of these have widespread support. However, even if an overall theme cannot be found it is clear that the play is full of several small, thematic elements that intertwine in complex ways. Several of those most often debated by scholars are discussed below. Juliet Good pilgrim, you do wrong your hand too much, Which mannerly devotion shows in this; For saints have hands that pilgrims' hands do touch, And palm to palm is holy palmers' kiss. Since it is such an obvious subject of the play, several scholars have explored the language and historical context behind the romance of the play.
By using metaphors of saints and sins, Romeo was able to test Juliet's feelings for him in a non-threatening way. This method was recommended by Baldassare Castiglione whose works had been translated into English by this time. He pointed out that if a man used a metaphor as an invitation, the woman could pretend she did not understand him, and he could retreat without losing honour.
Juliet, however, participates in the metaphor and expands on it. The religious metaphors of "shrine", "pilgrim", and "saint" were fashionable in the poetry of the time and more likely to be understood as romantic rather than blasphemous, as the concept of sainthood was associated with the Catholicism of an earlier age.
In the later balcony scene, Shakespeare has Romeo overhear Juliet's soliloquy, but in Brooke's version of the story, her declaration is done alone. By bringing Romeo into the scene to eavesdrop, Shakespeare breaks from the normal sequence of courtship. Usually, a woman was required to be modest and shy to make sure that her suitor was sincere, but breaking this rule serves to speed along the plot.
The lovers are able to skip courting and move on to plain talk about their relationship— agreeing to be married after knowing each other for only one night. Romeo and Juliet's love seems to be expressing the "Religion of Love" view rather than the Catholic view. Another point is that although their love is passionate, it is only consummated in marriage, which keeps them from losing the audience's sympathy.
Throughout the story, both Romeo and Juliet, along with the other characters, fantasise about it as a dark being , often equating it with a lover. Capulet, for example, when he first discovers Juliet's faked death, describes it as having deflowered his daughter.
Right before her suicide, she grabs Romeo's dagger, saying "O happy dagger! This is thy sheath. There rust, and let me die. No consensus exists on whether the characters are truly fated to die together or whether the events take place by a series of unlucky chances. Arguments in favour of fate often refer to the description of the lovers as " star-cross'd ".
This phrase seems to hint that the stars have predetermined the lovers' future. Draper points out the parallels between the Elizabethan belief in the four humours and the main characters of the play for example, Tybalt as a choleric. Interpreting the text in the light of humours reduces the amount of plot attributed to chance by modern audiences.
For example, Romeo's challenging Tybalt is not impulsive; it is, after Mercutio's death, the expected action to take. In this scene, Nevo reads Romeo as being aware of the dangers of flouting social norms , identity, and commitments. He makes the choice to kill, not because of a tragic flaw , but because of circumstance. O heavy lightness, serious vanity, Misshapen chaos of well-seeming forms, Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health, Still-waking sleep, that is not what it is!
Caroline Spurgeon considers the theme of light as "symbolic of the natural beauty of young love" and later critics have expanded on this interpretation. Romeo describes Juliet as being like the sun,  brighter than a torch,  a jewel sparkling in the night,  and a bright angel among dark clouds. For example, Romeo and Juliet's love is a light in the midst of the darkness of the hate around them, but all of their activity together is done in night and darkness while all of the feuding is done in broad daylight.
This paradox of imagery adds atmosphere to the moral dilemma facing the two lovers: loyalty to family or loyalty to love.
At the end of the story, when the morning is gloomy and the sun hiding its face for sorrow, light and dark have returned to their proper places, the outward darkness reflecting the true, inner darkness of the family feud out of sorrow for the lovers. All characters now recognise their folly in light of recent events, and things return to the natural order, thanks to the love and death of Romeo and Juliet.
Both Romeo and Juliet struggle to maintain an imaginary world void of time in the face of the harsh realities that surround them. Stars were thought to control the fates of humanity, and as time passed, stars would move along their course in the sky, also charting the course of human lives below. Romeo speaks of a foreboding he feels in the stars' movements early in the play, and when he learns of Juliet's death, he defies the stars' course for him. Thomas Tanselle believe that time was "especially important to Shakespeare" in this play, as he used references to "short-time" for the young lovers as opposed to references to "long-time" for the "older generation" to highlight "a headlong rush towards doom".
In the end, the only way they seem to defeat time is through a death that makes them immortal through art.