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URDU ISLAMIC ENCYCLOPEDIA PDF

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Postcolonial states and Islam Later in the 20th century, colonized Muslim societies except Palestine gradually achieved political independence and built new states. Two states, though established in societies that had not been colonized, exemplified contrasting paradigms. This brand of secularist government also controlled the public expression of Islam and did not separate state and religion. In Egypt , which became a constitutional monarchy after though it was under colonial control until , the question of the relation between state and Islam generated fierce political controversies between secularists and those who interpreted Islam as a system of government.

Among the latter, the Muslim Brotherhood grew from a grassroots organization into a mass movement that provided key popular support for the Revolution of the Free Officers, a military coup led by Col. Gamal Abdel Nasser that ousted the monarchy. Similar movements in Palestine, Syria , Jordan , and North Africa , the politicized heirs of earlier reformist intellectual trends, later emerged as significant actors in their respective political scenes.

Islamist movements from the s With the defeat in June of the Arab states by Israel in the Six-Day June War , socialist and Pan-Arab ideologies declined in the Islamic world while political Islam emerged as a public force. Egypt, which had been under the influence of the Soviet Union since the mids, withdrew from military and other treaties with the Soviets in the s under Pres. A new alliance between Egypt and Saudi Arabia, fostered by economic assistance to Egypt from Saudi Arabia and other oil-producing Persian Gulf states, altered the geopolitical map of Islam and led to new religious dynamics.

In the Saudi regime established the Muslim World League in Mecca with the participation of Muslim scholars and intellectuals from all over the world. The league, whose mission was to unify Muslims and promote the spread of Islam, opened offices in the Islamic world in the s and in the West in subsequent decades. With financial assistance as well as religious guidance from the league, new Islamic organizations were created by revivalist movements in the Islamic world and by immigrant Muslim communities in Europe and America.

These movements were diverse from the start and did not reach public prominence until , when an Islamic state was founded in Iran through revolution. The Iranian Revolution gave hope to many Islamist movements with similar programs by demonstrating the potential of Islam as a foundation for political mobilization and resistance.

It further provided them with a blueprint for political action against governments that they believed had betrayed authentic Islam and grown corrupt and authoritarian. The Islamic republic of Iran also competed with Saudi Arabia at the international level for influence in the Middle East. Even before the Iranian Revolution, however, offshoots of the Muslim Brotherhood were radicalizing political Islam in other parts of the Islamic world. The Islamic Assembly was reconfigured after the partition of Pakistan and India in in order to support the establishment of an Islamic state in Pakistan.

This trend was also present in North Africa and South Asia. In many cases these activists were violently repressed. In some instances conflicts with government authorities led to bloody civil wars, as in Algeria between and , or to protracted armed struggles between military forces and Islamist groups, as in Egypt from the s to the mids.

This repression resulted in the exile of many Islamist activists to Europe and the Americas and led many others to join such military fronts as the Afghan Jihad. The mainstreaming of Islamist movements From the late s, Islamist groups were the object of sustained worldwide media attention.

Yet nonviolent groups received significantly less attention than the few groups that advocated the use of violence. Nonviolent Islamists often expressed their willingness to participate in legal electoral politics. This became possible in the s, when authoritarian regimes—faced with serious socioeconomic crises and seeking to legitimize themselves in the eyes of the public—implemented policies of limited political liberalization.

The Muslim Brotherhood first engaged in electoral politics in Egypt in the s and in Jordan as early as In Morocco the Party of Justice and Development elected its first parliamentary representatives in In Indonesia the Prosperous Justice Party took part in legislative elections in Turkey allowed Islamists not only to participate in elections but also to govern at the national level.

In all these cases, mainstream opposition Islamist movements demonstrated their power to mobilize voters, a consequence of their social and charitable activism, their programs of good governance, and their fight against government corruption.

Despite their tendencies to speak about the universality of the Muslim community, mainstream Islamists remained nationalistic. Holding a conservative view of politics, they abandoned the revolutionary and utopian aspects of radical activism and instead struggled to moralize public and political life—e. Laws inspired by the Islamic legal tradition were implemented, however, in various forms in Iran after the revolution and in northern Sudan after In countries that did not practice electoral politics, movements of opposition devised other means of protest and participation.

Contemporary Islamist movements are polarized between two main trends.

Pdf encyclopedia urdu islamic

On the one hand, most movements are mainstream and pragmatic, seeking eventually to govern through participation in the political system and public debate. On the other hand, more-radical opposition groups reject electoral politics and seek revolutionary change, sometimes violently. Beginning in the last decade of the 20th century, some groups disconnected themselves from national politics in order to join transnational movements. Dimensions of the Islamic revival Various scholars have argued that Islamist movements emerged in reaction to the failure of state-led modernization projects and to general socioeconomic problems such as youth unemployment and poverty.

Yet Islamist movements are not limited to poor countries or to disadvantaged, marginalized groups. In fact, members of these movements are generally highly educated, predominantly in secular fields, as a result of state-led modernization projects. In particular, mainstream Islamist parties are typically led by young men and women who are successful professionals with college or university degrees.

Pdf encyclopedia urdu islamic

As their Arab or national self-identifications break down, according to this view, people living in those countries turn to Islamism as a replacement. This is a misconception for two reasons. First, earlier forms of nationalism in Islamic countries were not devoid of religious ideas. Second, state institutions in those countries regulated and influenced the legal and public manifestations of Islam, in particular through their systems of public education.

In addition to becoming politicized in the hands of opposition movements and governments in the second half of the 20th century, Islam also followed a dynamic of revival that was deeply linked to sweeping educational, demographic , and social transformations.

Sun Series

A young generation came of age in the s, a time of rural exodus and urbanization, without having experienced colonial times. In West Africa a series of activist movements appeared from the 18th century into the 19th. There, as in Arabia, Islamic activism was directed less at non-Muslims than at Muslims who had gone astray. Such Muslims were inspired by reformist scholars from numerous times and places—e.

Jihad activity continued for a century; it again became millennial near the turn of the next Muslim century, in ah ce , as the need to resist European occupation became more urgent. In the Indian Ocean area Islamic activism was more often intellectual and educational. During his lifetime the collapse of Muslim political power was painfully evident.

Once again the study of Hadith provided a rich array of precedents and inspired a positive spirit of social reconstruction akin to that of the Prophet Muhammad.

Dictionary of Islamic Names

Richard Allen Thompson The rise of British colonialism to the end of the Ottoman Empire The many efforts to revive and resist were largely unsuccessful. By British hegemony over India was complete, and many other colonies and mandates followed between then and the aftermath of World War I. Not all Muslim territories were colonized, but nearly all experienced some kind of dependency, be it psychological, political, technological, cultural, or economic.

Perhaps only the Saudi regime in the central parts of the Arabian Peninsula could be said to have escaped any kind of dependency, but even there oil exploration, begun in the s, brought European interference. In the 19th century Westernization and Islamic activism coexisted and competed.

By the turn of the 20th century secular ethnic nationalism had become the most common mode of protest in Islamdom, but the spirit of Islamic reconstruction was also kept alive, either in conjunction with secular nationalism or in opposition to it.

In the 19th-century Ottoman Empire, selective Westernization coexisted with a reconsideration of Islam. The program of reform known as the Tanzimat , which was in effect from to , aimed to emulate European law and administration by giving all Ottoman subjects, regardless of religious confession, equal legal standing and by limiting the powers of the monarch.

In the s a group known as the Young Ottomans tried to identify the basic principles of European liberalism—and even love of nation—with Islam itself. Underlying much of this activity was a Pan-Islamic sentiment that drew on very old conceptions of the ummah Muslim community as the ultimate solidarity group for Muslims. All warned against the blind pursuit of Westernization, arguing that blame for the weaknesses of Muslims lay not with Islam but rather with Muslims themselves, because they had lost touch with the progressive spirit of social, moral, and intellectual reconstruction that had made early Islamicate civilization one of the greatest in human history.

He further argued that Western technology could advance Muslims only if they retained and cultivated their own spiritual and cultural heritage. This aggressive recovery of the past became a permanent theme of Islamic reconstruction.

The Young Turk Revolution of was followed by a period in which similarly complex views of national identity were discussed in the Ottoman Empire. The early 20th century to the present Reform and revival in the colonial period The tension between Islamic and national identification remained crucial for Muslims at the start of the 20th century.

In countries under Western colonial rule, the struggle for national independence often went hand in hand with an effort by reformist intellectuals to recover what they thought was the authentic message of the original Muslim community. Between the two World Wars, two distinct interpretations of Islam emerged from the Salafiyyah movement.

One interpretation, drawing upon Pan-Islamism, politicized Islam by taking its scriptures to be the proper foundation of the social and political order. He insisted, moreover, that such a renovation entailed the implementation of Islamic precepts in social and political life. The Brotherhood later influenced other militant Islamic groups. The caliphate was merely a political construction and not an essential aspect of Islam.

Its disappearance with the end of the Ottoman Empire , therefore, was not a matter of concern.

Department of Urdu Encyclopaedia of Islam

Henceforward, each predominantly Muslim country would be free to determine its own political system. The question of whether Islam should be the foundation of a national culture and politics dominated political discourse in Islamic countries throughout the 20th century and beyond. In particular, the political interpretation of Islam emerged alongside resistance to Western acculturation.

Between the two World Wars, these scholars established several Islamic private schools offering Arabic-language instruction for boys and girls. Islamic intellectuals and movements often put their educational endeavours at the centre of their projects to bring Islam into agreement with their times.

Thus, the question of the transmission of Islamic knowledge versus secular and Westernized education became crucial.

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Many Islamic thinkers viewed the two systems of education as compatible, arguing that they should be integrated and could complement each other. The Indonesian Nahdatul Ulama, for instance, favoured a system of Islamic schooling along modernized lines that would integrate religious and secular knowledge.

Postcolonial states and Islam Later in the 20th century, colonized Muslim societies except Palestine gradually achieved political independence and built new states.

Two states, though established in societies that had not been colonized, exemplified contrasting paradigms. This brand of secularist government also controlled the public expression of Islam and did not separate state and religion. In Egypt , which became a constitutional monarchy after though it was under colonial control until , the question of the relation between state and Islam generated fierce political controversies between secularists and those who interpreted Islam as a system of government.

Among the latter, the Muslim Brotherhood grew from a grassroots organization into a mass movement that provided key popular support for the Revolution of the Free Officers, a military coup led by Col.

Gamal Abdel Nasser that ousted the monarchy. Similar movements in Palestine, Syria , Jordan , and North Africa , the politicized heirs of earlier reformist intellectual trends, later emerged as significant actors in their respective political scenes. Islamist movements from the s With the defeat in June of the Arab states by Israel in the Six-Day June War , socialist and Pan-Arab ideologies declined in the Islamic world while political Islam emerged as a public force.

Egypt, which had been under the influence of the Soviet Union since the mids, withdrew from military and other treaties with the Soviets in the s under Pres.

A new alliance between Egypt and Saudi Arabia, fostered by economic assistance to Egypt from Saudi Arabia and other oil-producing Persian Gulf states, altered the geopolitical map of Islam and led to new religious dynamics. In the Saudi regime established the Muslim World League in Mecca with the participation of Muslim scholars and intellectuals from all over the world. The league, whose mission was to unify Muslims and promote the spread of Islam, opened offices in the Islamic world in the s and in the West in subsequent decades.

With financial assistance as well as religious guidance from the league, new Islamic organizations were created by revivalist movements in the Islamic world and by immigrant Muslim communities in Europe and America.

Aaab To: Ifragha Year of Published: Afranje To: Beven, A A Year of Published: Affiliated Colleges. HEC Approved Supervisors. Department of Urdu Encyclopaedia of Islam. Teaching Faculty Dr. Muhammad Arshad,; Abul Hassan Nidvi: Muhammad Arshad,; Dr. Hafsa Nasreen,; Orientalists on Qur'an: Syed Abdullah , Mabahis, Lahore , 1, Tehsin Firaqi,; Maktubat-e- Dr. Hamidullah Banam Dr.

Laeeq Babari , Mabahis, Lahore , Vol. Ikram Chaghatai,; Historical and cultural relations between Austria and South Asian Subcontinent, with special reference to Iqbal , , , Last Three Year Books.

Tehseen Firaqi,; Title: Mir Taqi Mir Publisher: Maqtadra-e-Qumi Zaban, Islamabad, Year: Afzal Haq Qureshi,; Title: Iqbaliyat e Taseer Publisher: Iqbal Academy Pakistan, Year: Faculty Islamic Studies. All rights reserved. Click here for Under Process Projects. Syed Abdullah , Mabahis, Lahore , 1, 2- M.