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Relevant Polywell Material. Contribute to ThePolywellGuy/Polywell-Papers development by creating an account on GitHub. The Adam Hilger Series on Plasma Physics. Plasma Physics via Computer. Simulation. CK Birdsall. Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences Department. Computer Physics Communications 42 () —~52 North-Holland, Amsterdam BOOK REVIEW Plasma Physics via Computer Simulation C.K. Birdsall.

In addition, computer simulation is also becoming an efficient design tool to provide accurate performance predictions in plasma physics applications to fusion reactors and other devices, which are now entering the engineering phase. Computer simulation of plasmas comprises two general areas based on kinetic and fluid descriptions, as shown in Figure a. While fluid simulation proceeds by solving numerically the magnetohydrodynamic MHD equations of a plasma, assuming approximate transport coefficients, kinetic simulation considers more detailed models of the plasma involving particle interactions through the electromagnetic field. This is achieved either by solving numerically the plasma kinetic equations e. Vlasov or FokkerPlanck equations or by "particle" simulation, which simply computes the motions of a collection of charged particles, interacting with each other and with externally applied fields. Since then, the development of new algorithms and the availability of more powerful computers has allowed particle simulation to progress from simple, one-dimensional, electrostatic problems to more complex and realistic situations, involving electromagnetic fields in multiple dimensions and up to lo6 particles. Kinetic simulation has been particularly successful in dealing with basic physical problems in which the particle distributions deviate significantly from a local Maxwellian distribution, such as when wave-particle resonances, trapping, or stochastic heating occur.

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Coldfield, and B. Plasma Diagnostic Techniques, eds. Hudlestone and S. Leonard, Academic Press, Techniques and Applications of Plasma Chemistry, eds. Hollahan and A. Computational Plasma Physics T. The thought goes on, "But the carriage will serve only when one is on the highroad. He who reaches the end of the highroad will leave the carriage and walk afoot. In moments of strength, problems are solved intuitively, as if of themselves.

We have emphasized mathematical tools with which to construct algorithms with desired properties and analyze algorithms. Many of the algorithms were developed without use of such tools by people whose style and intuition leads to successful algorithms. Many useful codes have been assembled in an ad hoc manner and often work well, even though it may be impractical to calculate analytically the effects of finite A x and A t on the outcome.

This book gathers information which is valuable to simulators, some of which is scattered through published journals, and some of which is unpublished. Hence, it is intended also for reference use. Hockney and J. Eastwood , McGraw-Hill as a complementary text. Where our emphasis is on plasma simulation, they extend the techniques developed primarily for plasmas to simulations of semiconductor devices, of gravitational problems, and of solids and liquids.

Charles K. Ned Birdsall A. Acknowledgments We owe a special debt to J. The idea of finite-size particle interactions and the understanding of such physics was shared with him as well as the importance of understanding the statistical or noisy behavior of simulation plasmas. Buneman and R. Hockney go thanks for leading the way with particle integrators in magnetic fields and Poisson solvers in two dimensions.

Barnes, J. Boris, J. Denavit, J. Eastwood, M. Feix, D. Forslund, B. Godfrey, H. Lewis, E. Lindman, R. Morse, C. Nielson, K. Roberts, and K. Simon go thanks for many discussions. Okuda joined us in Berkeley in , helping produce the initial theory and verification for gridded particle models.

We are especially indebted to J. Denavit for his Foreward and his general counsel on the book. Birdsall thanks W. Mihran and S.

Yu and of P. Byers helped me on 2d Poisson solvers and linear weighting in Kamimura helped me with 2d and 3d gridded simulations in in Osaka, as did D. Fuss in , and N. Collaboration with Langdon began in and has been most challenging and productive. Langdon began plasma simulation with J. Dawson, who sets an exceptional example of the symbiosis of theory, simulation, and intuition.

Much of the theoretical understanding of simulation methods and applications was done with, or stimulated by, Birdsall, who has catalyzed many successful projects and careers.

Many collaborations have been instructive, especially the Astron simulations with J. Byers, J. Lasinski and other members of the plasma physics group, led by W. Kruer in support of the Livermore inertial-confinement fusion project. We are especially grateful to B. Cohen and M.

Mostrom for Chapters 6 and 7, and to W. Nevins for Chapter 1 1 and Appendix E. It is a real pleasure to acknowledge the contributions of students in class and in research who have used particle simulations in their studies.

The feedback from them made for better notes and better programs. Special thanks are due to L. Anderson, L. Chen, B. Cohen, R. Gordon, R. Littlejohn, C. McKee, W. Nevins, D.

Nicholson, G. Smith, and D. We gratefully acknowledge the support given to our effort by the Department of Energy. In particular, we wish to acknowledge the encouragement given by B. Miller, D. Nelson, D. Priester, and W. Sadowski in Washington, D. Fowler, W. Kruer, B. McNamara, and L. Birdsall was both directly and indirectly supported in various periods in Berkeley for the express purpose of developing and producing the notes for use within the Magnetic Fusion Energy effort of the Department of Energy.

Killeen, and to his associates, H. Bruijnes, and D. Birdsall is grateful to the British Science Research Council for support for part of the summer in at Reading University for time to work on Chapters 14 and 16 and to his host R. Hockney and his colleague J.

Kamimura during fall and winter when many corrections were made. Our book originated as a set of class notes intended for use by graduate students who were learning to simulate using ES1.

The first set was written about ; the second set, then in two parts Primer and Theory was finished in ; the third set, with the theory part rewritten and Practice and Appendices added, was completed in The current text thus contains sections written over most a decade during which our secretaries struggled in typing from pretty rough notes, namely Paula Bjork, Pamela Humphrey, and Michael Hoagland in Berkeley and Jill Dickinson in Reading, to whom we are most grateful.

The production team for putting the final version into camera-ready form during , was lead by Douglas W.

Potter, who developed the macros and was responsible for the final photocopies. Stephen Au-Yeung and Carolyn Overhoff typed much of the book and the corrections. Thomas King and Fiona E. Ginger Pletcher located references, handled correspondence and other tasks. Thomas L. Crystal coordinated the production during the last three years and was responsible for much of the typing and final corrections in Chapters The errors, of course, are our responsibility.

We acknowledge, with thanks, permission from authors and editors and publishers to draw on material published in journals and in books and modified to conform to our text style. Michael Slaughter, who suffered through our pioneering task of producing camera-ready copy in Berkeley. A large step forward is the advent of fast desk-top computers, with speeds equalling an appreciable fraction of that of supercomputers, at a much smaller fraction of the cost.

It is now common to develop and run codes like those in our book on such machines, moving to the supers for production runs.

Another large step is the progress in EM codes, with complicated configurations, and with elaborate user interfaces. The graphics are included, with menus for choosing the diagnostics, plus tools for measurements.

The listing of ES1 in Chapter 3 is not updated. A large number of problems may be run simply by changing the initial values using an editor without changing the code and recompiling. These programs run in real time, interactively, with instant visualization of plasma oscillations, waves, and instabilities. We have been using these versions in Berkeley and in short courses, with gratifying acceptance.

Both introductory and advanced courses appear to profit from these. Students receive the disks early on in the courses, do the assignments, and then modify the programs for their own interests. Their text is complementary to ours, as noted in our previous edition. Acknowledgments to the Adam Hilger Edition It is a pleasure to acknowledge working with James Revill of Adam Hilger on this edition, getting all of the errata in, plus the mechanics of adding the disks, and many other details.

The disk programs are primarily the product of two very capable and hardworking graduate students in Berkeley, Vahid Vahedi and John Verboncoeur. They started from an elementary program done by Tom Lasinski and improved by Tom Crystal.

Their windows are a joy to use, with easy accessibility to many diagnostics, with tools for easy re-scaling, cross-hairs, no-erase traces, and with simple print commands. They also wrote the user manual which is on the disk. We are very grateful to them for going way beyond their normal plasma research graduate student activities in order to develop these programs. Birdsall A. However, the reader with no prior plasma or numerical experience may still profit from this part, using additional texts on plasmas.

These seven chapters have been used in teaching particle simulation for roughly a decade. The lectures follow the chapters as written. The student homework, however, begins in the first week with assignment of the projects of Chapter 5. Hence, students are actively involved in running a onedimensional electrostatic code from the first day of class.

Chapter 1 is introductory, and is intended to make the reader feel comfortable with using a few hundred to a few thousand particles to simulate a laboratory plasma of perhaps to particles. It simply was not clear that taking the step from cold beams with charges all of one sign to thermal distributions with essentially equal density of charges of opposite signs and greatly different masses would be successful.

Why not? In simulating an electron beam, it is reasonable to think that the computations would be valid if some small number of particles like 16 or 32 is used per wavelength. These particles are usually disks with diameter of the beam and are followed by the computer like buttons on a string, except that they are tenuous and allowed to overtake each other during their interaction with microwave circuits say, resonant cavities or slow-wave structures over some five or ten wavelengths.

A total of 10 times 16 or 32 particles are used and followed for, say, 10 to 20 cycles a few hundred time steps from linear modulation through to nonlinear saturation. These simulations succeed with few particles because the field of one electron acts on a large fraction of the electrons; the collective interaction length is comparable to the dimensions of the electronic device.

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