I don't know if this is common knowledge, but Mr. Philip Stuart's LSO discography is available in pdf (about ronaldweinland.info case you want to print it) here. LSO Discography - London Symphony Orchestra. ) In addition to taxpayer actions, standing requirements are also relaxed in California's marriage laws. Find album reviews, stream songs, credits and award information for The London Symphony Orchestra Plays the Music of Queen - London Symphony Orchestra.
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The LSO Archive holds copies of all the orchestra's recordings apart from those in blue. IF YOU FIND THIS DISCOGRAPHY INTERESTING. AND / OR USEFUL. The discography contains details of every recording session the LSO has undertaken – where, when, who and what; Word version (4MB) | PDF version ( 7MB). LSO DISCOGRAPHY PDF - Find London Symphony Orchestra discography, albums and singles on AllMusic. S. ▻ London Symphony Orchestra soundtracks (
Fuchs writes music that LSO plays with total grasp of the idiom it's not a million miles away from film music in colour, and JoAnn Falletta understands the style perfectly. Setting 12 poems by Judith G Wolf about love, grief and emotional and spiritual progression, the cycle is cast as a triptych with framing prologue and epilogue. The 12 poems are dispersed unevenly between these sections, within which they flow seamlessly. It is a beautifully conceived cycle, the music tender and rich, the solo cellist and cor anglais the wonderful Tim Hugh and Christine Pendrill amplifying respectively the persona of the countertenor in the songs and his lost beloved. Aryeh Nussbaum Cohen sang the premiere in Virginia and has the work fully under his skin; the accompaniment by the LSO is first-rate. The concertos are all very different in format, with only that for piano, Spiritualist — named after the first of three paintings by Helen Frankenthaler — using the regular fast-slow-fast template. Both soloists are exemplary.
The LSO had begun its long historic journey as the premier film orchestra. During the First World War the public's appetite for concert-going diminished drastically, but from the start of the Second it was clear that there was a huge demand for live music. Between and there were 33 members of the LSO away on active service; between and there were more than 60, of whom seven were killed.
This renunciation of the principles for which the LSO had been founded was rejected by the players, and the offered subsidy was declined. By the orchestra was anxious to resume promoting its own concert series. His commitments in Vienna preventing him from becoming the LSO's chief conductor until , but from his first concert with the orchestra in December he influenced the playing for the better.
The principals argued that the future of the LSO lay in profitable session work for film companies, rather than in the overcrowded field of London concerts. They also wished to be free to accept such engagements individually, absenting themselves from concerts if there were a clash of dates. With the new intake the orchestra rapidly advanced in standards and status.
After Krips's resignation the orchestra had worked with a few leading conductors, including Klemperer, Stokowski, Jascha Horenstein and Pierre Monteux , but also with many less eminent ones. Fleischmann later said, "It wasn't difficult to change the list of conductors that the orchestra worked with, because one couldn't do much worse, really".
Though 86 years old, Monteux asked for, and received, a year contract with a year option of renewal. He lived for another three years, working with the LSO to within weeks of his death. He gave them extended horizons and some of his achievements with the orchestra, both at home and abroad, gave them quite a different constitution.
This was another coup for Fleischmann, who had to overcome Bernstein's scorn for the inadequate rehearsal facilities endured by London orchestras.
Most of its members were amateurs, but at first, they were reinforced by a small number of professionals. This led to disputes over the balance between amateurs and professionals. EMI took Boult's side, and the orchestra apologised. Previn would talk informally direct to camera and then turn and conduct the LSO, whose members were dressed in casual sweaters or shirts rather than formal evening clothes.
The orchestra shared in three Grammy awards for the score to Star Wars ; and the LSO "Classic Rock" recordings, in the words of the orchestra's website, became hugely popular and provided handsome royalties.
His relationship with the players was distant and he was unable to impose discipline on the orchestra in rehearsals. He insisted on conducting without a score, and many times this led to barely-avoided disaster in concerts. One of the LSO's principals commented, "Although we were sweating our guts playing those vast Mahler symphonies for Abbado, he would go and record them with other orchestras, which made us feel like second, maybe even third choice".
In the first years of the residency, the orchestra came close to financial disaster, primarily because of over-ambitious programming and the poor ticket sales that resulted. Instead it put an old audience to flight. The articles were almost wholly untrue and the magazine was forced to pay substantial libel damages, but in the short term serious damage was done to the orchestra's reputation and morale.
For the first time since , the orchestra appointed one of its players to the position. He negotiated what Morrison calls "a dazzling series of mega-projects, each built around the personal enthusiasm of a 'star' conductor or soloist", producing sell-out houses. The conductors and players took part in the inaugural Pacific Music Festival in Sapporo , teaching and giving masterclasses for young musicians from 18 countries. He had first conducted the LSO in , and had been widely expected to succeed Monteux as principal conductor in The following year the orchestra celebrated its centenary, with a gala concert attended by the LSO's Patron, the Queen.
After serving as managing director for 21 years, Clive Gillinson left to become chief executive of Carnegie Hall , New York. His successor was Kathryn McDowell.
In Daniel Harding joined Michael Tilson Thomas as principal guest, and the following year Davis retired as chief conductor and was appointed president of the orchestra, its first since the death of Bernstein in Davis was succeeded as chief conductor by Valery Gergiev. Others, looking back further to Pierre Monteux's reign, think it our most French orchestra, a quality nurtured by Previn and latterly Claudio Abbado. No, the LSO remains enigmatic, unpredictable and supremely individual.
Of all the London orchestras the LSO seems to have more "personalities", more "individuals" and has given the solo world more than its fair share of "star" performers.
As an orchestra the LSO has never been prepared to submit to one principal conductor for long one thinks of Karajan in Berlin, Haitink in Amsterdam or Mravinsky in Leningrad [n 7] but one of its greatest strengths remains its ability to attract fine conductors and dedicate itself wholeheartedly to creating a genuine performance. Morrison describes the LSO of the s and s as "a rambunctious boys' club that swaggered round the globe.
Some musicians, including Davis, judged that this improved the orchestra's playing as well as its behaviour. HMV 's Fred Gaisberg , who supervised the sessions, wrote of "virtuoso playing which was unique at that time".
Regarded as the figure who saved the LSO from near bankruptcy in the early s and then went on to 'propel the orchestra to a position of unheralded prosperity' Gillinson 18, Gillinson was deeply aware of the potential of the LSO's brand.
Having been an orchestra member himself, Gillinson also understood the centrality of recording in contemporary music- making. The LSO was known around the world for its recordings. With over titles in their discography, these included soundtracks such as Star Wars19, Superman20 and Harry Potter21, among many other popular film classics, and arrangements for pop artists such as Paul McCartney22 and J Lo Records carry the LSO's brand and have a great potential in capturing diverse populations.
CD, RCA, CD, EMI, CD, Epic , Records also provide an opportunity for musicians to listen to themselves and confirm and reify their internalised sound ideal to themselves and others: as Stephen Cottrell24 has suggested in his book on professional music-making in London, 'it was important to us that we heard ourselves coming off disc as we imagined the group to sound in performance' Whether with an established record company or independently, recording was a fundamental part of successful music- making.
Gillinson needed to continue recording but had to find a way of making recording profitable again. At the helm of a world-class orchestra, Gillinson had the brand on his side. The LSO was resident at one of London's main concert halls, had regular concert seasons, and had been repeatedly voted by leading international critics as one of their favourite orchestras.
The orchestra had regular government funding, private sponsorship and a strong and forward- looking administration. Most importantly, it had a long history of recording, and through its long-standing relationship with members of the record industry, the LSO had the potential to negotiate world-wide distribution. In short, the orchestra was in a good position to engage in the business of recording. Gillinson had the foresight to appoint Chaz Jenkins to lead the label, a young producer whose main experience had been in the pop sector.
With almost no budget, Jenkins' strategy centred on recording live. As Jenkins explained to me, his challenge was to make recordings from concerts that were as good as studio recordings, if not better. Recording the concerts, which were already financially provided for, was the obvious solution. Live recording, as Cottrell, Stephen, Professional music-making in London: ethnography and experience London: Being a self-governed orchestra, the company, LSO Ltd.
In addition, Jenkins invested heavily in downloads when they were still in their early days. Finally, the combination of a world-class orchestra recording live, an innovative rights management model and the focus on the digital market, allowed him to sell the records at budget prices. His strategy led to a fresh business model, free of corporate traps, whilst drawing on the orchestra's lifetime recording experience and its contacts in the business of recording.
By , it had been in the charts of the British Phonographic Industry's BPI ten best-selling classical record companies for six years Apart from the last two labels and HNH, all others had profited to varying degrees from re-issues, compilation and crossover techniques.
HNH was widely known for extending beyond the core repertoire with lesser known and, therefore, more affordable orchestras. LSO Live created its own market niche by uniquely combining new world-class performances of core classical repertoire with budget prices. The recording model LSO Live's recording model was developed largely under the supervision of one man: classical record producer James Mallinson. Mallinson became a freelance producer in , after having earned valuable experience at Decca.
When he was asked to participate in the creation of LSO Live, he had worked with all the major record labels and with many leading classical artists.
According to Chaz Jenkins, the decision to work with James Mallinson for LSO Live came from the orchestra: James is one of the most experienced producers around, he's got years experience and tons of Grammy Awards and the orchestra worked for him for decades quite literally.
And he was just a producer who they really, really respected. And he makes them work hard, he annoys them, but that's what a producer needs to do: he needs to get results, and James gets results.
Indeed, according to his Wikipedia entry27, Mallinson had won more than a dozen such awards in his career, the first in , when he was named Classical Producer of the Year.
Mallinson's success is largely a result of his adaptability. Having recorded almost exclusively in the studio, it was with the LSO that he started recording live. Under a recording model he feels he helped to pioneer, Mallinson is adept at providing conductors, players and management with results within very tight time frames.
He started by providing a simplified version of the two traditional models of live recording. On the one hand, there was live broadcast: 'you just go to a concert, stick up some microphones, and record the concert, and then comes out a concert at the end with warts and all, with horn clams, brass clams and everybody un-together in places - that's the way it is!
For the sake of argument, Mallinson brought up the story of EMI's Gurrelieder with Simon Rattle and the Berlin Philharmonic31, which was marketed as a live recording: when the final recording came out all the soloists were different from the ones they had in the concert Transcription Unpublished: But under the economic circumstances of , Mallinson suggested, a project like this would be financially unsustainable.
The model of live recording epitomised by LSO Live, in which Mallinson played a leading role, lies somewhere in between the two previous models: recordings are based on material produced purely from concert performances and rehearsals, but edited to remove musical blemishes, audience noise and clapping.
The ideal recording model as worked out by the LSO with Mallinson's advice consisted of recording two concerts and all of the rehearsals at the Barbican, which are usually no more than three sessions.
Until then, the LSO only rarely used to repeat full programmes, so the double-programme strategy had to be set up specifically to support the production of recordings, and so had the recording of rehearsals.
The process would start by recording all the rehearsals and the first concert. Based on the results of the first performance, the orchestra would schedule an additional half hour session before the second concert: 'it's a recorded rehearsal sort of worked on between me and the conductor, and interested musicians, and we fix all the things which weren't quite as good as they should have been in the first performance' Mallinson explained in more detail: So, in the vernacular of the industry, you're 'covered' for the recording, you've actually got a recording which is up to scratch, there's nothing dreadfully wrong with it: it's a proper recording if you like.
It may not be the most wonderful recording you've ever heard in terms of intensity of performance, but it may also be. So what happens then is that the performers go into the second performance with the feeling that the job is done and that they don't have to worry about anything.
And sometimes, as a result, the second performances are absolutely electrifying, because everybody's sort of released by this process, they've covered Mallinson, Interview, 5. We don't very often use it, but we have done on occasions and it's been the making of some very fine performances [recordings]' This approach involved a particular attitude to studio techniques and, in particular, editing. Editing was widely discussed both formally, in meetings preceding the establishment of the label, and informally, during coffee breaks: would clapping and audience noise be included in the final recording?
In tradition with its democratic self- governing structure, the board and orchestral committee of the orchestra decided to call for an election to ease the debate. The vast majority voted for the removal of the audience's clapping and coughs: 'Coughing is not part of the performance, a door slamming, something falling', one performer told me, 'these things are not at the same place every night, so you can choose: it's a practical decision.
I think that editing these things out gives rise to a better musical experience'. But not everyone agreed. As another performer said, 34 Ibid. People should accept that a natural part of live recordings is that it has coughs and minor noises.
Also when a great solo is performed, and somebody coughs, that's normal, it happens, you know? Of course, if there's something that really disturbs then it should be cut off But as yet another orchestra member pointed out, 'once you start cutting, where do you draw the line? Then you want also the flaws cut out—the audience tends to be very harsh on flaws So what do you do?
Luke's, which provides enough space to seat the whole orchestra, but not enough to create the right ambient sound. Therefore no microphones were put up on the reading rehearsals I witnessed, but I Mallinson, Interview, As he described it, once he starts recording, an overall image builds up in his head: Through years of training I have a very good short-term memory, and sometimes quite a long-term As we're going through a particular piece I have a sort of visual neurological way of remembering what worked and what didn't over a number of takes, so at the end of the day I know what's covered where, and I also have a sort of picture of how it all fits together, how it will in the end fit together.
This involves working closely with the musicians, at every step of the performance, while creating a mental image of the ideally pursued performance. His observations at rehearsals and concert performances are marked on the score.
Mallinson then assesses whether an additional patching session is needed or not. Late-night patching sessions are unpopular amongst the orchestra and if they go ahead, the musicians expect to go straight to the missing patches. Mallinson's marked-up scores are useful also in the process of editing, which—along with all aspects of post-production—is outsourced by LSO Live and provided by Classic Sound.
Here, the division of labour replicates that practised in the recording studio. Mallinson, Interview, 8. As a performer explained to me: You know, I love music, so I'm always amazed at what slips through.
They get the important things right, but miss others. It's based on human ears. I mean, we are a group and it's a compromise. We don't know what material they have to work with! The musicians' involvement in the final edit of the recordings didn't necessarily yield better results, but it provided confidence, as this orchestra member related: I guess it's just an extension of LSO Live, rather than an improvement or an alteration. But if you all feel that you've got some kind of collective responsibility, then it's The members of the listening committee were not elected: rather, 'you usually have to sort of ask around and then try and encourage someone', as this musician explained.
But ultimately, the management of LSO Live made sure that there were always eight or nine players on the committee representing all of the greater sections—that is, the strings, the wood and brass winds, percussion and so on.
She mainly listened to tuning, ensemble and attack, she explained, not so much to the technical details of sound production. I asked her if she commented on the basis of an ideal or against something she remembered: 'Both.
Sometimes I think something could be better and I ask the producer if there's anything to cover that part. Other times I suggest a part that we definitely played better'.
Where possible, the musicians' comments were then taken into account before the final edit. But suggestions were not limited to those of the committee. Technically, everyone in the orchestra, including the conductor, had access to all of the stages of the recording process, as one performer confided: 'Like this morning.
The conductor was joking, talking, people say this and that and then you have to start suddenly, now, without warning. To achieve this, the orchestra agreed with the production team to use the material from the concerts as the main framework to build into and employ the remaining takes only as subsidiary material. This arrangement is flexible and subject to new proposals, like, for instance, the introduction of the listening committee.
This complex interaction between teams and skills offers the musicians a necessary degree of control over their production. However, it also suspends the traditionally separated roles as performed in the studio environment, where each team brings their own specialist set of skills without interfering with the other.
Thus, the close interaction amongst teams is frequently cause for friction. This is accentuated by the often less than ideal 20 recording situation: the picture of the production of a record, as described above through the voices of the different actors involved, is an idealised one.
Everyday realities challenged the originally planned schedules, fractured communication and shattered motivations. In the next section, I examine the performers' daily schedules and practices more closely, illustrating the various concerns and anxieties that were caused by the arrangement. But not all expressions were of concern. While performers learned to live with a situation imposed by external factors, interesting discourses came into the fore, revealing their passion for music-making and their convictions of what music meant to them.
An excerpt from my fieldwork notes illustrates what a Mahler recording involved: On Saturday, 22 September at , the LSO arrives from Bucharest. Musicians have just enough time to get back to their homes and get ready for the first of the Mahler cycle's rehearsals at They are not yet entirely familiar with Gergiev's particular conducting style. They have played with him only a couple of times since he started his position as principal conductor a few months ago.
The rehearsal takes place at LSO St. Luke's, which provides a warm and comfortable rehearsal space but is too small for orchestral recording. Recording takes place in the Barbican. Thus, their mood is easy and relaxed: players have magazines on their stands, play with their mobiles, read books. Percussion players joke around, tease each other or lie down at the back during long intervals. Yet 21 they always know their entrance and music flows smoothly, as if they had played it thousands of times.
But not all of them have played this symphony before, and those who have, may have played it fifteen years ago. In this first three-hour rehearsal of Mahler's Third Symphony, they play movements 1 and 3. The following morning the orchestra is ready to start at The second of three rehearsal days also takes place at LSO St. As I will find out later, this is unusual and probably linked to the Barbican's busy schedule.
In the morning the orchestra rehearses the 2nd and 6th movements. In the afternoon session, the orchestra is joined by alto Anna Larsson, the female voices of the London Symphony Chorus and the Tiffin Boy's Choir to rehearse the 4 th and 5th movements.
After all musicians are free for the day. Next morning at the Barbican, just before , I find the musicians focussed on warming up, tuning their instruments and rehearsing fast passages. The recording engineers use the first half an hour to balance the sound. Gergiev runs through the minutes symphony before focussing on the chorus.
There is no time for an afternoon rehearsal: the concert is at and musicians have to rest. At , 15 minutes after the concert, the musicians come back in for a one-hour patching session. At they are free to go home. To sum up, four rehearsal sessions were programmed for the concert, of which only one was recorded.
Time and recording schedules are tightly controlled by the Musicians' Union: the rule is one three-hour session per 20 minutes on record.
In a studio setting, an average one-hour record requires three recording sessions, which are usually spread over one day. In order to ensure some rehearsal time, studio recordings are ideally planned to take place alongside the same concert, as in the 'Sunday concert, Monday Abbey Road' pattern to which 22 I referred.
Thus, rehearsals are technically financed by the orchestra and not included in the recording contract with the label. This contrasts with the LSO Live recording model, where rehearsals became an essential part of the recorded material and were therefore treated as recording sessions, regulated by the same terms set out by the MU.
In the LSO Live case just described, recording was limited to, firstly, a single three-hour rehearsal session, secondly, one concert performance and, thirdly, a one-hour patching session. This was an extremely short schedule as compared with the model envisaged by Mallinson and the LSO.
As an interviewee explained to me, 'Gergiev is a busy man. When Sir Colin Davis was the principal conductor, he was based here, we could go through things again if we had to.
So we're trying to adapt to his busy schedule and see what comes out of it! Consequently all but two recordings of the ten symphonies were based on only one concert. This meant that the orchestra often had to stay for late night patching sessions after having been surrounded all day by microphones. So nearly every attempt the performers made at the score stayed on record. When asked about the new recording conditions, some of the LSO's members accepted them as part of their jobs as orchestral musicians, but all acknowledged some level of anxiety caused by the relentless presence of microphones.
This anxiety could be perceived in the Barbican concert hall, particularly when compared to the relaxed atmosphere when rehearsing at LSO St. The following excerpts from interviews express their views: 'The Mahler cycle has been even more difficult, because we have played only one concert rather than two.
So generally speaking, it has been more stressful. Having a patching session after the concert when you are exhausted is not easy. We have been 23 up for twelve hours, and you know, when you play a concert you get all accelerated and it's good, it helps you to focus, but it's also exhausting, and once you finish you have to play again!
It's a bit hectic. However we play, it gets in the can. Wind instruments generally play solo, which doesn't make it easier. It's much more stressful. There's a double-bass who thinks it's good, it's healthy, that we have to push our limits, that we can't live in our comfort zones forever. I can't agree with him! But it's a big ask. You have to make it perfect every time you play. This is unnecessary pressure. Everyone is on the edge, and for no extra money.
But we agreed to do recordings only on repeated concerts, which hasn't happened.
You play and it's gone. But you have to take a chance; you don't wanna sit thinking 'microphone', you wanna sit thinking 'music'. It's a lot of pressure, but then playing with the LSO is a lot of pressure anyway. And people might be more used to it than before. But everybody will feel exposed anyway. The good thing is that we have a listening committee. People can ask 'please find a better take' and they are more reconciled with that.
We have to maintain our international profile. Recording means going on tour. It's a mix of an artistically driven project with urgent commercial imperatives.
And as long as the profile is kept high, it is worthwhile. But it is at a cost: hard work! I hope you don't hear the work! I don't think you do, because the orchestra finds the energy. Energy to make great music.
These comments express the musicians' unease with the way recording has percolated every aspect of their professional life without any additional motivation. While it could be said that they resent the new business model, they are also sharply aware of the economic circumstances that led to its conception. The last comment particularly succeeds in encapsulating some of the complex issues at stake in the decision to create LSO Live.
Firstly, the comment entails the understanding that recording is necessary to foster and maintain an international profile. As discussed earlier, a record provides 'a tangible expression of the group identity'38 that can be distributed far beyond the immediate socio-musical network, drawing attention not only to a wider circle of potential buyers, but also to potential agents interested in hiring them for more recordings or concerts.
In other words, the record is not just a product to be sold, but also a calling Cottrell, Professional music-making in London, With or without the support of the record industry, the LSO needed to record in order to maintain its profile.
And recording live was the financially most viable solution to continue the orchestra's long-standing and comprehensive recording history. Secondly, like the previous excerpts, this comment makes reference to the inherent value of live recording. While all the comments reveal some anxiety about the idea of continuously being surrounded by microphones, there seems to be a sense that the implicit risk involved in this type of recording is a driver for the making of great music.
Even the most sceptical, like the performer in the first excerpt, admit that the concert situation is 'good, it helps you to focus'. As I will illustrate below with further examples, live performance is preferred over studio recording, and the extent of this preference is such that it has helped musicians to come to terms with the uncertainties of the record industry and the consequent acceptance of LSO Live's business model. Finally, although in passing, the comment addresses the orchestra's attitude to editing.
As explained above, this was widely discussed both formally and informally, until the LSO agreed to edit out clapping and other audience noise, and use the material from rehearsals and two concerts as back-ups.
Editing allows musicians to make mistakes in the knowledge that it can be replaced by a better take. A mutual arrangement between the musicians and recording team was put in place to support this. On the one hand, musicians are free to talk to the producer about a certain passage during the concert, perhaps suggesting other takes to patch their flaws. On the other, a selected team of musicians gets to listen to the first edited version, and with their feedback, the recording team prepare a final version.
This arrangement provides some confidence for musicians and a sense of control over the final product. Without leaving aside issues relating to the maintenance and development of the orchestra's international profile in a complex economic environment, I wish to focus in the 26 remainder of this article on the tension between the last two aspects of music-making highlighted in the previous comment: live recording and editing.
Each was deeply ingrained in both LSO Live's marketing strategy and the orchestra's recording practices, and finely woven together to create a discourse of music-making that was at the heart of the orchestra's aesthetic imperatives. It is at this point that I return to Lydia Goehr's39 distinction between the 'perfect performance of music' and the 'perfect musical performance' to draw a parallel with the techniques and practices of studio and live recording. As we will see, the tension between live recording and the techniques and practices associated with studio recording, such as editing and sound manipulation, provided a fertile ground to foster and maintain, yet at the same time transform, the values of classical music.
Live versus studio Throughout the production of LSO Live, the two types of recording models, live and studio, lived in constant tension, often overlapping with each other. As we have seen, Mallinson elaborated a discourse of the LSO Live model that depended on the juxtaposition of live broadcast and the studio element of traditional live recording. Editing, a process associated with the studio, was approached with concern: was editing desirable, if so, why? Yet, when confronted with the final product, the general perception was that more patching could be done, and so the listening committee was born.
One orchestra member explained that he preferred being allowed to play through extensive passages rather than in short fragments—to make music, as he said, 'in a natural way, not the tedious repetition of the studio': 'And to listen to? It's live There might be more mistakes, too, but then, it's live. And they aren't really mistakes either, they're part of the music, of making music.
Yes, I do prefer live. He did not mind if the recording was not perfect, and enjoyed the risk involved in live recording: 'I don't think about recording. You always have the patching session if things go terribly wrong. It's a matter of concentration and that's what concerts expect of you anyway'.
Yet another described the specific advantages of LSO Live by highlighting its live element: LSO Live offers something different: not quite the same control that you would find in German recordings, or a bit less so in EMI.
I like to compare our recordings with organic products, as opposed to non-organic or just artificial.