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HOW TO REPORT STATISTICS IN MEDICINE PDF

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How to Report Statistics in Medicine: Annotated Guidelines for Authors, Editors Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (K), or click on a page. Medical Statistics Group, School of Health and Related Research, University of. Sheffield, UK, . Checklists for design, analysis and reporting. Statistical Reporting Guidelines – European Journal of Applied Physiology. Introduction: . Statistics in medical journals: some recent trends. Stat Med. ; .


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PDF | On Jan 1, , Nancy K. Roderer and others published How to Report Statistics in Medicine: Annotated Guidelines for Authors, Editors, and Reviewers. This are two books in one: the first part ( pages) are the guidelines for report statistic in medicine. Absolutely handy and full of examples. You can read every. How to Report Statistics in Medicine: Annotated Guidelines for Authors, Editors and Reviewers. Thomas A. Lang and Michelle Secic, American.

In a nutshell, the first edition was excellent, and the second edition is even better. The second edition is a major reworking and expansion of the first, which was itself an excellent resource guide to best practices in statistical reporting in the medical literature. The second edition's authors have successfully built on the foundation of the first edition in multiple ways. For statistician writers, the book offers clear guidelines. For clinical investigators reporting research results, the book offers, in addition to guidelines, a refresher course about biostatistical concepts and methods plus easy to read material for areas that may be unfamiliar. For the most part, the authors assume that clinical investigator readers are somewhat familiar with statistical concepts and summarize these succinctly and cogently throughout. The authors have further expanded the material regarding how statistical methods and results ought to be reported so as incorporate them into manuscripts and research thinking most meaningfully.

Additional post-hoc analyses revealed audit results were relatively consistent across years and journals S5 File.

Discussion In the Journal of Physiology and the British Journal of Pharmacology jointly published editorial advice on best practice standards for statistical reporting and data presentation [ 13 ].

Our cross-sectional analysis shows there was no substantial improvement in statistical reporting and data presentation in the four years after publication of this editorial advice.

Our results confirm that the quality of statistical reporting is generally poor. It is unfortunate that authors adopt practices that distort the interpretation of results and mislead readers into viewing results more favorably. This problem was recently highlighted by a systematic review on the prevalence of spin in the biomedical literature [ 17 ].

Poor statistical reporting, inadequate data presentation and spin persist despite editorial advice

Overall, these results highlight the sheer magnitude of the problem: poor statistical reporting and questionable interpretation of results are truly common practice for many scientists. Our findings also broadly agree with other observational data on the ineffectiveness of statistical reporting guidelines in biomedical and clinical research. For example, the CONSORT guidelines for the reporting of randomized controlled trials are widely supported and mandated by key medical journals, but the quality of statistical reporting and data presentation in randomized trial reports remains inadequate [ 18 — 20 ].

A scoping audit of papers published by American Physiological Society journals in showed most papers mistakenly reported standard errors of the mean as estimates of variability, not as estimates of uncertainty [ 21 ]. Consequently, in the Society published editorial guidelines to improve statistical reporting practices [ 22 ]. These guidelines instructed authors to report variability using standard deviations, and report uncertainty about scientific importance using confidence intervals.

Misuse of statistics

However, the authors of the guidelines audited papers published before and after their implementation and found no improvement in the proportion of papers reporting standard errors of the mean, standard deviations, confidence intervals, and exact p-values [ 10 ].

Likewise, in and the American Psychological Association published guidelines instructing authors to report effect sizes and confidence intervals [ 23 , 24 ].

Report statistics to in medicine pdf how

One example where editorial instructions improved reporting practices occurred in public health. However, few authors referred to confidence intervals when interpreting results. These examples provide evidence that editors with training in statistical intepretation may enforce editorial instructions more successfully, even if author understanding does not necessarily improve.

Why are reporting practices not improving? The pressure to publish may be partly to blame. Statistically significant findings that are visually and numerically clean are easier to publish. Thus, it should come as no surprise that p-values between 0. There is also a cultural component to these practices.

The process of natural selection ensures that practices associated with higher publication rates are transmitted from one generation of successful researchers to the next [ 28 ]. Our results confirm that the quality of statistical reporting is generally poor.

It is unfortunate that authors adopt practices that distort the interpretation of results and mislead readers into viewing results more favorably. This problem was recently highlighted by a systematic review on the prevalence of spin in the biomedical literature [ 17 ]. Overall, these results highlight the sheer magnitude of the problem: poor statistical reporting and questionable interpretation of results are truly common practice for many scientists. Our findings also broadly agree with other observational data on the ineffectiveness of statistical reporting guidelines in biomedical and clinical research.

For example, the CONSORT guidelines for the reporting of randomized controlled trials are widely supported and mandated by key medical journals, but the quality of statistical reporting and data presentation in randomized trial reports remains inadequate [ 18 — 20 ]. A scoping audit of papers published by American Physiological Society journals in showed most papers mistakenly reported standard errors of the mean as estimates of variability, not as estimates of uncertainty [ 21 ].

Consequently, in the Society published editorial guidelines to improve statistical reporting practices [ 22 ].

Medical Statistics

These guidelines instructed authors to report variability using standard deviations, and report uncertainty about scientific importance using confidence intervals. However, the authors of the guidelines audited papers published before and after their implementation and found no improvement in the proportion of papers reporting standard errors of the mean, standard deviations, confidence intervals, and exact p-values [ 10 ].

Likewise, in and the American Psychological Association published guidelines instructing authors to report effect sizes and confidence intervals [ 23 , 24 ]. One example where editorial instructions improved reporting practices occurred in public health. However, few authors referred to confidence intervals when interpreting results.

These examples provide evidence that editors with training in statistical intepretation may enforce editorial instructions more successfully, even if author understanding does not necessarily improve.

Report in pdf medicine how to statistics

Why are reporting practices not improving? The pressure to publish may be partly to blame.

How to Report Statistics in Medicine: Annotated Guidelines for Authors, Editors, and Reviewers

Statistically significant findings that are visually and numerically clean are easier to publish. Thus, it should come as no surprise that p-values between 0.

Medicine statistics how pdf report to in

There is also a cultural component to these practices. The process of natural selection ensures that practices associated with higher publication rates are transmitted from one generation of successful researchers to the next [ 28 ]. Unfortunately, some of these practices include poor reporting practices. As was recently highlighted by Goodman [ 29 ], conventions die hard, even if they contribute to irreproducible research.

Thus, researchers will often opt for reporting practices that make their papers look like others in their field, conscious or not that these reporting practices are inadequate and not in line with published reporting guidelines.