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BASIC NETWORKING NOTES PDF

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Describe the functionality of LAN, MAN, and WAN networks. • Identify the A network refers to two or more connected computers that . It can also perform basic. Computer Networking: Principles, Protocols, and Practice was written by Dr. Olivier Bonaventure of the. Université to this basic service have been proposed. medium. A computer network is a collection of two or more connected computers. . the sender who now notes that the message was received by the intended.


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Introduction. -A network can be defined as a group of computers and other devices connected in some ways so as to be able to exchange data. -Each of the . Networks are everywhere—or so it seems. You can hardly do anything with data that does not involve a network. Like the human networks that we are all part of. 1 An Overview of Networks of selected important network applications, or the basics of network programming, or the Progress Notes.

Get the latest tutorials on SysAdmin and open source topics. A basic understanding of networking is important for anyone managing a server. Not only is it essential for getting your services online and running smoothly, it also gives you the insight to diagnose problems. This document will provide a basic overview of some common networking concepts. We will discuss basic terminology, common protocols, and the responsibilities and characteristics of the different layers of networking.

You will find them in homes, offices, factories, hospitals leisure centres etc.

But how are they created? What technologies do they use? Home and Office Networks The network you have at home uses the same networking technologies, protocols and services that are used in large corporate networks and on the Internet.

The only real difference between an home network and a large corporate network is the size. Networking Types and Structures Networks can be wired or wireless with most networks being a mixture of both.

Wired vs Wireless Networks Early pre networks were predominately wired. Today however most networks will use a mixture of wired and wireless network.

Wired networks are faster than Wireless.

Data rates were periodically increased from the original 10 megabits per second, to 1gigabits per second. Most home networks use Mbps. More secure than Wireless Disadvantages Need to Use cable which can be unsightly, difficult to run and expensive. Note a new technology that uses mains cable overcomes many of these disadvantages. Wireless Networks — Advantages and Disadvantages Wireless networks use Wi-fi as the data link protocol. Advantages Generally easier to set up.

Can be used both on home and public networks No cables required. Can be used with mobile phones and tablets. Wireless Networks Disadvantages Generally Slower than wired networks.

Basics of Computer Networking

Limited by range. Open to eavesdropping. Not as secure depending on set up. Networking Topologies and Layout There are many different ways network nodes can be connected together. Common are: Bus Ring Mesh Star Hybrid Each of these topologies has advantages and disadvantages this Network topologies article has a really good overview of each topology along with advantages and disadvantages. However both Wi-Fi and bluetooth are being upgraded to support mesh networking.

Networking Topology- Physical vs Logical How the nodes on a network communicate with each other can be very different to how they are physically interconnected. Most Home and small office networks use a physical bus topology. The web WWW is a client server network at the logical level. Peer to Peer and Client Server Networking Peer to Peer in a peer to peer network all nodes are equal and any node can talk to any other node.

Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages: Easier to setup Not dependent on a single node More resilient Better distribution of network traffic No central administrator required Less expensive hardware required Disadvantages: Less secure and more difficult to secure More difficult to administer More difficult to backup More difficult to locate information.

This was the original networking model used in early Windows networks windows for Workgroups A Modern example of Peer to Peer networking is BitTorrent. Client Server In a Client Server network a server has a special role e. A client connects to a server to use the appropriate services. Easy to find resources as they are on a dedicated node i.

A server Easy to secure Easy to administer Easy to backup Disadvantages: Servers are a single point of failure Expensive hardware required Network traffic get concentrated A Modern example of Client Server networking is the Web. Network Size Networks vary considerably in size.

The following are commonly used terms: Networking Levels and Layers and Protocols A protocol defines a set of rules that govern how computers talk to each other. They can be used for carrying higher level protocols IP etc..

You can divide networking into distinct levels or layers. Each level or layer is responsible for a particular function. The levels are: Data link level — e. Ethernet, Wi-Fi Networking e. Transport level e. Every device attached to a network, and the Internet has an IP address.

Notes basic pdf networking

Servers are generally not used by humans directly, but rather run continuously to provide "services" to the other computers and their human users on the network. Services provided can include printing and faxing, software hosting, file storage and sharing, messaging, data storage and retrieval, complete access control security for the network's resources, and many others. Workstations are called such because they typically do have a human user which interacts with the network through them.

Workstations were traditionally considered a desktop, consisting of a computer, keyboard, display, and mouse, or a laptop, with with integrated keyboard, display, and touchpad. With the advent of the tablet computer, and the touch screen devices such as iPad and iPhone, our definition of workstation is quickly evolving to include those devices, because of their ability to interact with the network and utilize network services.

Servers tend to be more powerful than workstations, although configurations are guided by needs. For example, a group of servers might be located in a secure area, away from humans, and only accessed through the network. In such cases, it would be common for the servers to operate without a dedicated display or keyboard.

However, the size and speed of the server's processor s , hard drive, and main memory might add dramatically to the cost of the system.

Chapter 1: What is a Network?

On the other hand, a workstation might not need as much storage or working memory, but might require an expensive display to accommodate the needs of its user. Every computer on a network should be appropriately configured for its use. On a single LAN, computers and servers may be connected by cables or wirelessly.

Wireless access to a wired network is made possible by wireless access points WAPs.

Chapter 1: What is a Network?

These WAP devices provide a bridge between computers and networks. A typical WAP might have the theoretical capacity to connect hundreds or even thousands of wireless users to a network, although practical capacity might be far less. Nearly always servers will be connected by cables to the network, because the cable connections remain the fastest.

Workstations which are stationary desktops are also usually connected by a cable to the network, although the cost of wireless adapters has dropped to the point that, when installing workstations in an existing facility with inadequate wiring, it can be easier and less expensive to use wireless for a desktop.

See the Topology , Cabling , and Hardware sections of this tutorial for more information on the configuration of a LAN. Dedicated transoceanic cabling or satellite uplinks may be used to connect this type of global network. Using a WAN, schools in Florida can communicate with places like Tokyo in a matter of seconds, without paying enormous phone bills. Two users a half-world apart with workstations equipped with microphones and a webcams might teleconference in real time.

A WAN is complicated. It uses multiplexers, bridges, and routers to connect local and metropolitan networks to global communications networks like the Internet.

Advantages of Installing a School Network User access control. Modern networks almost always have one or more servers which allows centralized management for users and for network resources to which they have access.

Notes basic pdf networking

User credentials on a privately-owned and operated network may be as simple as a user name and password, but with ever-increasing attention to computing security issues, these servers are critical to ensuring that sensitive information is only available to authorized users.

Information storing and sharing. Computers allow users to create and manipulate information. Information takes on a life of its own on a network.

Notes basic pdf networking

The network provides both a place to store the information and mechanisms to share that information with other network users.

Administrators, instructors, and even students and guests can be connected using the campus network.