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From the popular Basic Training Series comes the Wizard How to Draw: Getting Started book. Various comic book artists provide you with insightful techniques to polish your comic book art. A must have for any aspiring comic book artist or amateur fan artist. A great guide for how to draw in a comic style. Christopher Hart - Drawing Cutting Edge Anatomy (the Ultimate Guide for Comic Book Artists) Greg Capullo-Wizard Magazine-Basic Training. Download the Book:Wizard How To Draw: Advanced Techniques PDF For Free, Preface: OVER 25 ART LESSONS ON ADVANCED TECHNIQUES.

Gameplay[ edit ] The objective of the game is to bid correctly on the number of tricks that a player will take in the subsequent round of play. Points are awarded for a correct bid and subtracted for an incorrect bid. The player with most points after all rounds have been played is the winner. The game is played in a number of rounds from 10 to 20, depending on the number of players and each round consists of three stages: Dealing, Bidding, and Playing. In the first round every player gets one card. In the subsequent rounds the number of cards is increased by one until all cards are distributed.

The top card of the remaining cards is turned over to determine the trump suit. If there are no cards left or a jester is turned there is no trump suit only the wizards are trump. If a wizard is turned the dealer picks a trump suit. After looking at their cards, starting with the player to the dealer's left, each player states how many tricks he believes he will take, from zero to the number of cards dealt. This is recorded on a score pad. The player to the left of the dealer plays a card and then the others follow clockwise.

If a card other than a wizard or jester is played the players have to follow suit, but it is possible to play a jester or wizard although the player has the desired suit. The Wizard beats all other cards but the first one in a trick beats all others. The jester is beaten by all others, but if all cards in a trick are jesters the first one beats the others. If a jester is played as the first card the first suit card decides which suit has to be followed. If a wizard is played as the first card every player is free to play what they want regardless of the others.

If the first card is a Jester and the second a Wizard, then the Wizard rule takes precedence and players are not required to follow suit. For predicting the number of tricks taken correctly, a player receives 20 points plus 10 points for each trick taken. For predicting the number of tricks taken incorrectly, a player loses 10 points for each trick over or under.

Variant card sets[ edit ] The German version of Wizard has a different design, with a fantasy -themed character on each card. Each character has a title such as der Krieger the warrior or die Priesterin the priestess printed at the top of the card.

There are 2 male and 2 female versions of each character. The Medieval deck of cards has a themed character on each card. Several layers of these strips were laid on top of each other in different directions, then pounded while wet, smashing the stems together into a single sheet.

Scrolls and Books Scrolls were used by ancient civilizations long before the first century, when the first books were invented.

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Most of the papyrus grown in Egypt was used to make scrolls; later the papyrus was cut into sheets. A codex Latin for book is a handwritten book dating from the Middle Ages.

The codex was an improvement over the scroll because it could be opened flat at any page, allowing easier reading and writing on both sides of the page. The codex also made it easier to organize documents in a library because it could be stood upright on shelves.

History suggests that as soon as there were materials to write on, people began keeping journals. Journals have served many important roles in history and exploration. These logs provided details of the journey that would later be evaluated by monarchs and scientists back home. Through it, you will be able to look back at your progress, from one class to another and one year to another. In short, through your Journal and a set of related tools, you will learn.

And grow. Just for fun Make your own scroll! Starting with the short end, wrap the paper tightly around the dowel. Set it aside for a week, then untie the ribbon and remove from the wooden center. Your Magickal Journal Choosing a Magickal Journal As an apprentice Wizard, one of the most important things you will do is keep a magickal journal. Why is the magickal journal so important? Writing in your journal requires self-discipline, and that alone is a good reason for doing it. Many apprentice Wizards choose a traditional paper journal, either lined or unlined.

Some prefer a loose-leaf binder, which allows you to add and rearrange pages. Your journal should be big enough to use comfortably, but small enough to fit into a backpack or other carrying case. It may be hard or soft-covered; hard-cov- Companion for the Apprentice Wizard 14 ered journals tend to hold up longer than soft ones. You may want to search for a journal that matches an area of wizardly interest, your magickal name, a spirit animal or totem, etc.

You might choose a color that reflects your magickal interests, such as green for Wortcunning, or black for Dark Arts. Technologically adept Wizards might choose a computer or laptop for keeping their magickal journal, setting it up in a word-processing document.

Or, they might create a blessing to write on the inside of the front cover. Both ritual and blessing might ask that the journal serve as a tool of wisdom, guidance, and focus.

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For example: Guard my words and keep them safe, Here within this treasured place. Some Wizards like to set certain times—Solstices, Equinoxes, the start or end of the month, etc. This helps them chart their progress and evaluate their Wizarding life. You can also draw in your journal. Diagrams, sketches, maps, and other illustrations will add to your written entries.

A magickal journal is a personal and private thing. No one should look into your journal without your permission. You may wish to wrap it in a cloth that corresponds with your main area of study see the Introduction for color associations. Keep it on a shelf, in a drawer, or in its own box.

The answer is simple: write whatever you want and whatever seems relevant to your Wizardly growth. At first, try to write every day. This will get you into a disciplined routine, and routines and discipline are helpful to beginning Wizards! As you become more experienced, you will write as often as you feel the need to. Others prefer gel inks.

Both gel and ballpoint pens are available with archival-quality inks, which remain stable over decades. An advantage of gel pens is their availability in a wide variety of colors, which can allow your writing to correspond with specific magickal colors.

For example, a healing spell could be written in blue, or an herbal charm in green. Gel pens also come in metallic and glitter varieties. The metallics are quite stable. Glitter pens can be fun, but the glitter eventually wears off when the journal pages rub together. Pencil entries are best avoided, as they smudge and fade quickly.

Some Wizards reserve a special pen for important Department I. Wizardry indigo entries. Others enjoy using a quill pen that is dipped into a well or bottle of ink. This is fun and is definitely a most Wizardly activity. Most of these inks are permanent! I have included a magickal ink recipe in my Alchemy lesson in Chapter 9.

Or they might adorn the pages with calligraphy. As handwritten communication becomes more rare, calligraphy has become reserved for special occasions and events, most notably the addressing of wedding invitations and announcements. It is possible to download books and kits that teach the basics of calligraphy or illumination.

Several web sites teach calligraphy. If you are lucky enough to have a group from the Society of Creative Anachronism nearby, you may find a teacher of calligraphy among its ranks.

Practice until you can write all of the letters of one alphabet easily. Then, use your skills to make an entry in your magickal journal. This is what makes us different from the mundanes, more so than our other skills, the ways we dress or believe. In fact, the defining trait for a Wizard is heightened awareness. The most amazing of our magickal abilities can only serve us or our pur- 15 pose well when we are totally aware— aware of the full extent of our abilities as well as any possible limitations, aware of the present situation and context, aware of the conscious intent and magickal energies of others We have the most evolved ability to think and reason of any creature on this planet, but Wizards also need to develop a kind of ancient animal awareness housed not only in the mind but in flesh and bone, and in our very genetic makeup.

It was common to our ancient tribal ancestors, and in the primates we evolved from. You can see it in the alertness of a cat when it is hunting a bird or mouse, just as it once glinted in the eye of prehistoric saber-tooth tigers.

This quality is most noticeable in us when we are surprised by a new and dangerous situation, when everything around us seems suddenly clear and in focus, when we become aware of every movement and sound and seem able to anticipate what will happen next.

The Wizard and spiritual warrior combines this heightened presence with purposeful action and considered response, in order to help shape events and thus consciously cocreate our world. Only the totally aware can make the right choices While everyone is born with some capacity for awareness, most mundanes will grow up without exercising their inner abilities, or else actually decide to be less aware in order to get away with less responsibility.

On the contrary, Wizards embrace responsibility and spend their entire lives strengthening their abilities and deepening their awareness through deliberate practice.

When a baby is growing up, it has to practice walking over and over again before finally getting good at it. The fastest runners are athletes who practice diligently, people who push themselves to do their best and expand their abilities on a daily basis. And the rewards and delights come alive, for those most aware of life.

Whether the moon is waning, waxing or full. The direction that water flows from where you stand and the nearest above ground creek, plus the direction of the wind no matter how lightly it touches your cheek.

Practice awareness every moment that you relating? Try to identify the source of fear in the room are not asleep, practice when hanging out and prac- and in each person, and the source of gifting and love.

Notice the designs where power the more it feels significant, tingly and imthe cement has cracked, and the dandelions that poke possible to ignore, and when you pass by or make a their heads up through them.

Notice the different turn in the wrong direction the sensation subsides. Notice what takes even if you find it unpleasant, and noskill and learn from it. One way to Remember that comfort can do this is to blindfold yourself, be the bigger disadvantage and then try to find a friend just to a Wizard.

Our greatest by the sounds he makes, or find an orange placed near opportunities for power lie you in the grass by sense of through those doors that smell alone.

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What impact tice the locations of edible does your attitude or examplants and life-sustaining ple, your attention or nedrinking water. Look out for glect, your ideas and acany sources of potential tions have on the people threats— from dangerous you come into contact Mother Earth, the inspirited source of all insight traffic to fallen power lines with? Are they better into sullen faces, icy walk- and magick, is there for us when we need her.

We have formed or inspired? How ways and suspicious places. Have one friend walk through a room when no Constantly shift your perception and actions to best one is expecting a test, then ask the others what they benefit others and the world. What else did he or she do? Was there any- tions, and then watch what happens. What did you thing in his hand? How did others in the room re- intend, pray or wish for so hard that it seemed to come spond or interact with her? Were there any clues as to true?

Which friends, ideas, conversations, activities, his intention or purpose? What do their body tract your attention and dilute your intentions, lessenpostures communicate, and do they tell a different sto- ing or preventing the desired magickal results?

Are their energies focused inward uncertain- nal. Record not only what you noticed, but how you ly, or do they project their energies? If they are pro- responded and what effects or results you inevitably jecting, what is it that they are trying to effect, direct, brought about.

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Department I. Wizardry indigo 4. A fun way that Wizards through the ages have developed to demonstrate and hone this ability is the art of Optical Illusions.

And if something seems to be far away, we expect it to look smaller. Medieval art commonly shows distant figures the same size as those in the foreground, as our minds know them to really be.

If you have a friend stand at a distance away from you, you can close one eye and hold up your hand so that it appears you can grab him between your thumb and forefinger! But we know this is just an illusion, and our mind compensates, so we perceive him at his correct size.

Here is an amusing drawing made by William Hogarth in , to admonish and teach people how to draw in perspective. He would just have Frodo or Bilbo stand a little further away than Gandalf or Aragorn, so the Hobbits seemed smaller in comparison. To perfect the illusion, Jackson had the props and sets shown with the Hobbits made proportionately larger. The full moon, when just above the horizon, appears to be much larger than when it is overhead.

Yet the moon, , miles away from the Earth, always subtends the same angle wherever it is in the sky—roughly half a degree. It seems larger near the horizon because our minds perceive the horizon as being further away than the sky overhead. Which figure is really larger—the scared little man running in front, or the giant mean bully chasing him?

Actually, both figures are identical in every way—including size! Ambiguous images show more than one thing at the same time. These are really the most amazing forms of hidden images! What you 18 see depends on the way you look at it. These are also called metamorphic images.

The little face on the preceding page is a classic example. Look; then look again—what do you see? Do you see the mother, father, and daughter by G.. Or how about this one to the left; is it a swan or a squirrel? In the famous example to the right, the effect is created by a reversal of background vs.

Can you see both the vase and the faces? Companion for the Apprentice Wizard enough on paper, but cannot possibly exist in the real world. Here are some examples.

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There are images that look completely different if you just turn them to the side. Would you trust this man on the right? There are images that actually play tricks with your mind! Hold this page a foot or so away, and stare at the center point of the circles below while moving your head backwards and forwards.

S ee what happens! Then there are images that look real There is another optical illusion effect that has many uses. It is based on rendering a 3-D image in concavity hollow rather than the normal convexity bulging of real objects. Because we expect real things to be convex, these types fool us easily.

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Such illusions are very ancient indeed—I have seen them painted on cave walls in France by Cro-Magnon artists of 20, years ago! In the long passages, animals were painted as if they were processing towards the cave entrance to be born.

Some were painted on flat surfaces. Others were cleverly painted over natural lumps and bulges in the rock wall. But the most amazing were painted into hollows in the stone—and as you moved past them, the light from the flickering oil lamps would cast shadows inside these hollows that made the figures truly seem to come alive!

This technique has become most popular today in the form of hollow-cast insides of face-masks, realistically painted as if they were normally convex.

Framed like ordinary portraits, they appear to turn and follow you around the room in a very spooky way! I have designed a little paper model you can copy onto card stock and cut out to illustrate this illusion. Use white milk glue for this and all other cutouts.

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After you assemble it, Department I. Wizardry indigo 19 place it on a shelf at eye-level, close one eye, and move back and forth in front of it. But the illusion disappears when you look at it with both eyes. Can you figure out why? By the way, the effect is greatly enhanced if you set the Watchbird into a clear glass vase or fishbowl with rounded sides. Optical Animations In the early 19th century, several scientists and inventors made the discovery that a series of still images can be used to create the effect of a continuous moving picture.

This happens because the brain naturally retains images the eyes see for a moment to ensure that the world does not go black every time you blink! If we see a light flash every tenth of a second or less, we perceive it as continuous. Instead, we perceive a continuous light.

This phenomenon is the basis for all animations and movie films. A series of progressively changing images must be presented to the eye at the rate of at least 10 per second, and a blank space must fall between each image, so that they do not blur into each other. The brain then forms a mental bridge between the two images, and it appears that the static images are actually moving.

Have you ever looked closely at a piece of movie film to see all the individual images? It takes 24 frames of film per second to convince your eye that something is moving on a projection screen! It consisted of a disc with pictures on both sides, and two pieces of string attached to it. When the disc was spun between the strings, the images on the back and front appeared to blend together to form a single picture.

Two years later, he began selling these as the first animated toys in London. Popular images included birds and mice in cages, circus performers, and fights between dogs and cats. Thaumatro- pes were the first of many optical toys, simple devices that continued to provide animated entertainment until the development of modern cinema.

Cut out the circle of the cardboard and image, then cut out and glue the other image on the backside of the disc. Important: one side has to be upside-down from the other! When the glue is dry, punch a hole on each side where shown.

Then run about 8 inches of string through each hole and tie off the ends. Or you can loop and fasten long rubber bands through these holes. I also recommend coloring in the canary yellow, and the tree leaves green. To use your Thaumatrope, hold both loops of the strings or rubber bands around your index fingers, then twist the disc around and around a number of turns. Pull your fingers apart to increase or decrease tension, and make the disc spin continually.

As it does, you will see the images on both sides blend into one. Now try making your own Thaumatrope drawings. Get creative! Draw a horse on one side and a man on the other to make the man appear to be riding the horse.

But it was also called: Phantamascope, Kaleidorama, or Magic Disc. The Phenakistiscope was a disc on which a series of cartoon images in slightly different positions were drawn around the outer edge, with small slits cut out between the images. Common images included abstract patterns or performers such as jugglers or acrobats. The disc could be mounted on a spindle and viewed through the slots with the images facing a mirror.

When it was spun, a person looking through the slits from the back of the disc would see a continuous moving image reflected in the mirror. Using a pushpin through the center, fasten the disk with the window to the end of a wooden dowel, and tape it into place so that when you hold the dowel horizontal, the window is at the bottom, as shown here.

Then use the same pushpin to affix the disc with the little pictures of the dancing couple like a pinwheel, with the pictures facing the window so they will show through. To view the effect, look at the window side, and spin the disc with the pictures until the speed causes them to run together.

Companion for the Apprentice Wizard

You will see the first type of animation ever invented! With a strobe light, you can even view the movement directly without using the disc with the wedge-shaped window. Now, try making your own. Just divide a circle into 12 or 16 equal wedges—like cutting a pizza— and draw your own little animated cartoon! Whether we are talking about the vibrational frequencies of elemental atoms, those of the electromagnetic energy spectrum, or those of sound, everything—matter, energy, time and space—exists at and as a vibrational frequency.

In effect, we are like the tuners of a radio or TV, which can range up and down the dial to select from countless frequencies to receive whatever station or channel we wish.

Consider now—if all we perceive is the part of the frequency cycle that matches our receptors, what about the spaces between? To view it as a continuous image, the disc must be spun at the rate of one revolution per second, which presents 16 image frames per second to our eye. Our retina holds that image just long enough for the next one to come along. Cut this one out, and affix it to the dowel with a pushpin, just as you did with the dancers.

This time, however, you will have to hold the dowl with the window disc in your other hand, so that the window is now at the top. Spinning the disk at one revoution per second, the dancer gracefully pirouettes in place. However, if we spin the disk faster, at the rate of four revolu- Department I. Wizardry indigo 21 tions per second, the images of the dancer then blur and disappear phase out , while the images of the Fairy now match our visual reception of 16 frames per second, and suddenly, we see the Fairy!

How many other worlds, parallel universes, alternate dimensions, might exist in between the phases of the vibrations we see and hear? The Zoetrope worked on the same principles as the fantascope, but the pictures were drawn on a strip which could be set around the bottom third of a metal drum, with the slits now cut in the upper section of the drum. The drum was mounted on a spindle so that it could be spun, and viewers looking through the slits would see the cartoon strip form a single moving image.

The faster the drum is spun, the smoother and more continuous the image is perceived. When the Zoetrope slows down so that each image is seen for a tenth of a second or more, the illusion of movement begins to break down. Praxinoscope The problem with the Zoetrope is that the small slots do not let enough light through.

In , Emile Reynaud in Paris made an adaptation with mirrors instead of slots. However, rather than having slits through which the images were viewed, the cartoon strip was reflected in mirrors set between the outer edge of the drum and the central spindle.

A candle set above illuminated the images more clearly. The Praxinoscope Theater also had surrounding images to make the experience more complete. The drum was set into a wooden box, with a hole in the lid through which the viewer saw a background scene that set the images on the cartoon strip into context.

They were the forerunners that inspired the creation of moving pictures, as the Zoetrope strips were simply extended to become movie film. This involved drawing hundreds or thousands of such images and printing them on a transparent ribbon, which could then be reeled in front of a bright light to project the animation on a screen, as in hand shadow pictures. And when it finally became possible to take photographs fast enough to simulate a moving image, the modern cinema was born!

Most modern film projectors run at a rate of 24 frames, or pictures, per second. VCRs record and play tapes at a rate of 30 frames per second. But the old silent movie projectors ran at only frames per second. They were so slow they seemed to flicker! Many movies tell stories that concern magick and Wizards. The goal of this lesson is to explore such portrayals in animation.

As an Apprentice, you should study not just the practical aspects of spellcasting but the underlying ideas. Other lessons will delve into serious ethical and technical concerns; this one deals with creativity and interpretation.

The idea is for you to start thinking about Wizards and magic, and what they mean to you. Here is a list of thirteen movies that feature Wizards and magickal events.

They are listed here in the order of their release. Watch each movie and write an entry about it in your Magickal Journal. These movies should be easy to find for rent, for sale, or on broad- 22 cast. Just write what you think! The story concerns a mischievous monkey named Alakazam. Not content with being king, he wants magickal power as well—so he steals it. Since it turns out to be more than he can handle, Alakazam spends the rest of the movie learning the appropriate uses of power.

White, this is a whimsical rendition of the often dark Arthurian legend. It follows young Arthur at a crucial time in his life.