It is hard to imagine a world without Shakespeare. Since their composition four hundred. F 9/18/01 PM Page i CLIFFSCOMPLETE Shakespeare's Julius Caesar Edited by CliffsComplete Julius Caesar Hungry Minds, Inc. Third Avenue New. William Shakespeare's The Tragedy of Julius Caesar is the tragic true cover & p.1 The Murder of Julius Caesar by Karl von Piloty/The Granger Collection.
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Shakespeare homepage | Julius Caesar | Entire play Enter CAESAR; ANTONY , for the course; CALPURNIA, PORTIA, DECIUS BRUTUS, CICERO, BRUTUS. Shakespeare's original work is from Gutenberg Etext # and is used under the The Complete Works of William Shakespeare The Tragedy of Julius Caesar. Free PDF, epub, Kindle ebook. Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in It portrays the 44 BC conspiracy.
Saddlebacks Illustrated ClassicsTM was designed specifically for the classroom to introduce readers to many of the great classics in literature. Each text, written and adapted by teachers and researchers, has been edited using the Dale-Chall vocabulary system. In addition, much time and effort has been spent to ensure that these high-interest stories retain all of the excitement, intrigue, and adventure of the original books. With these graphically Illustrated ClassicsTM, you learn what happens in the story in a number of different ways. One way is by reading the words a character says.
Remember, Todays readers are tomorrows leaders. Young William probably attended the Stratford grammar school, where he learned English, Greek, and a great deal of Latin.
Historians arent sure of the exact date of Shakespeares birth. In , Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway. By the couple had a daughter, Susanna, and two years later the twins, Hamnet and Judith. Somewhere between and Shakespeare went to London, where he became first an actor and then a playwright.
His acting company, The Kings Men, appeared most often in the Globe theater, a part of which Shakespeare himself owned.
In all, Shakespeare is believed to have written thirty-seven plays, several nondramatic poems, and a number of sonnets. In when he left the active life of the theater, he returned to Stratford and became a country gentleman, living in the second-largest house in town.
Speak, what trade art thou? First Commoner Why, sir, a carpenter. What dost thou with thy best apparel on? You, sir, what trade are you? Second Commoner Truly, sir, in respect of a fine workman, I am but, as you would say, a cobbler.
Second Commoner A trade, sir, that, I hope, I may use with a safe conscience; which is, indeed, sir, a mender of bad soles. Second Commoner Nay, I beseech you, sir, be not out with me: Second Commoner Why, sir, cobble you. Second Commoner Truly, sir, all that I live by is with the awl: I meddle with no tradesman's matters, nor women's matters, but with awl. I am, indeed, sir, a surgeon to old shoes; when they are in great danger, I recover them.
As proper men as ever trod upon neat's leather have gone upon my handiwork. Why dost thou lead these men about the streets? Second Commoner Truly, sir, to wear out their shoes, to get myself into more work. They were usually open-air, relying heavily on natural light and good weather. The rectangular stage extended out into an area that people called the pit — a circular, uncovered area about 70 feet in diameter. Audience members had two choices when downloading admission to a theatre.
Admission to the pit, where the lower classes or groundlings stood for the Shakespeare in Love shows how the interior of the Globe would have appeared. However, indoor theity, a public theatre in Early Modern England could atres, such as the Blackfriars, differed slightly because hold between 2, and 3, people.
Because only the wealthy could afford the cost raised about five feet above it, had a covered portion of admission, the public generally considered these called the heavens. The heavens enclosed theatrical theatres private. A trapdoor in the middle of the stage William Shakespeare and was an example of the type provided theatrical graves for characters such as of outdoor theatre described above. At each end of the wall before , he had the old theatre dismantled and stood a door for major entrances and exits.
Above rebuilt in Southwark, just outside London. The the wall and doors stood a gallery directly above the newly rebuilt Globe opened to audiences in the midstage, reserved for the wealthiest spectators.
Actors dle of and some scholars believe that Julius occasionally used this area when a performance called Caesar was the first play to be performed in the new for a difference in height — for example, to repretheatre. A good example of this type of theatre was the original X Intro. However, theatre companies developed their costumes with great care and expense.
These extravagant costumes were the object of much controversy because some aristocrats feared that the actors could use them to disguise their social status on the streets of London.
Young boys whose voices had not reached maturity played female parts. Though historians have managed to reconstruct the appearance of the early modern theatre, such as the recent construction of the Globe in London, much of the information regarding how plays were performed during this era has been lost.
Scholars of Early Modern theatre have turned to the scant external and internal stage directions in manuscripts in an effort to find these answers. Although a hindrance for modern critics and scholars, the lack of detail about Early Modern performances has allowed modern directors and actors a great deal of flexibility and room to be creative.
The printing press If not for the printing press, many Early Modern plays may not have survived until today. For example, a folio required folding the sheet once, a quarto four times, an octavo eight, and so on. Sheets would be printed one side at a time; thus, printers had to simultaneously print multiple nonconsecutive pages. In order to estimate what section of the text would be on each page, the printer would cast off copy.
After the printer made these estimates, compositors would set the type upside down, letter by letter. This process of setting type produced textual errors, some of which a proofreader would catch.
When a proofreader found an error, the compositors would fix the piece or pieces of type. Printers called corrections made after printing began stop-press corrections because they literally had to stop the press to fix the error. Because of the high cost of paper, printers would still sell the sheets printed before they made the correction. Printers placed frames of text in the bed of the printing press and used them to imprint the paper.
They then folded and grouped the sheets of paper into gatherings, after which the pages were ready for sale. The downloader had the option of getting the new play bound. The inconsistent and scant appearance of stage directions, for example, makes it difficult to determine how close this relationship was.
Theatre was a collaborative environment. Rather than lament our inability to determine authorship and what exactly Shakespeare wrote, we should work to understand this collaborative nature and learn from it. Based on the number of stage directions included in the script, the compositors were most likely working from a theatrical prompt book or a copy of that document. Shakespeare wrote his plays for the stage, and the existing published texts reflect the collaborative nature of the theatre as well as the unavoidable changes made during the printing process.
From there, a scribe would recopy the play and produce a fair copy. The theatre manager would then copy out and annotate this copy into a playbook what people today call a promptbook. At this point, scrolls of individual parts were copied out for actors to memorize.
Due to the high cost of paper, theatre companies could not afford to provide their actors with a complete copy of the play. The government required the company to send the playbook to the Master of the Revels, the government official who would make any necessary changes or mark any passages considered unacceptable for performance.
Printers could have used any one of these copies to print a play. Works cited For more information regarding Early Modern England, consult the following works: Updated Fourth edition.
Greenblatt, Stephen. The Victorians found a stoic, sympathetic character in Brutus and found Caesar unforgivably weak and tyrannical. The person who committed the first murder, regardless of personal honor or motives, was doomed from the beginning. Julius Caesar, a play that deals with actual historical events, differs somewhat from the plays that Shakespeare wrote about English history. But Julius Caesar consists of one illegitimate act after another.
Caesar overthrows Pompey and damages the republic. Brutus and the other conspirators plot to assassinate Caesar, mob rule is tolerated, Antony instructs Octavius in Machiavellian ethics and the play ends with Octavius positioning for authority, with civil war imminent. Blank verse is a form of poetry in iambic pentameter. Each line has ten syllables — five unstressed syllables alternating with five stressed syllables. Occasionally, a word that is usually pronounced as one syllable is accompanied by a grave accent.
The accent is an indication that the word should be spoken with two syllables.
During the Renaissance, there was a rekindling of interest in ancient Roman literature and art. Thus, the subject matter was of great interest to Elizabethan audiences. Shakespeare wrote a total of four plays set in ancient Rome. The play was first performed, and thus, thought to have been written, in and may have been the premier show of the newly rebuilt Globe Theatre.
This date is based on the journal of a Swiss traveler, Thomas Platter, who was visiting England between September 18 and October 20, , and attended two plays. The text of Julius Caesar, as it appears in the Folio, is relatively errorfree and has the reputation of being the least corrupt text printed in the Folio.
Because the play is so rich X Intro. A prompt book is a copy of the text used by the stage manager of a theatre. It is marked with character entrances and exits, blocking, props, and special effects such as offstage shouts, music, or sounds of thunder and lightening. It was reprinted in with minimal changes and again in with the addition of the life of Octavius Caesar. Because Plutarch was as interested in the moral characteristics of his subjects as he was in the historical facts, Shakespeare found very useful information in the stories that would translate well onto the theatrical stage.
Being the consummate playwright, however, Shakespeare was able to embellish the stories adding compressed action, heightened drama, and powerful speeches as well as internal and external conflict. Performance history The first performance of Julius Caesar occurred in The play was extremely popular with the original audience and Leonard Digges wrote about the enthusiastic audiences for the play as late as the s.
There is proof that the play was performed at Whitehall in and , at Saint James in January of and at the Cock Pit in the same year. The play was performed for Charles I in and remained an audience favorite right up to when the theatres were closed because of the English Civil War. When Charles II was restored to the throne in , the theatres were reopened.
With many changes to the script and alterations to the major characters, Julius Caesar continued to draw audiences into the theatre. Everett Collection From to the character of Brutus took center stage in productions of the play.
Famous actors of the time, such as Thomas Betterton, Barton Booth, and James Quin all took their turns playing the character that was being performed as the stoical and dignified hero of the play. The text was often altered so that Caesar became a frightening tyrant and the character of Antony was restructured to be a freedom fighter, played by such luminaries as Edward Kynaston, Robert Wilks, and William Milward.
The play was often cut and rearranged to make the focus of the play a battle between good and evil or ambition and liberty. During the years of —, Julius Caesar was revived almost every year with performances in London. The play, appealing to the ideals of the early American settlers, was first performed in America on June 1, , in Philadelphia. An advertisement for the play read: President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by a member of one of the most famous acting families of the time, John Wilkes Booth.
Great scenic spectacles that prided themselves on realistic sets, lavish costumes, and huge crowds of people on stage as opposed to focusing on the content of the script being performed dominated the theatre in the early nineteenth century.
Macready, who played at one time or another both Brutus and Cassius, maintained the grandiose style of Kemble and Tree but, seeing the richness of the characters as drawn by Shakespeare, began to play the men as written with both their positive and negative qualities. Modern producers and directors became aware of the contemporary nature of the themes in Julius Caesar and productions of the twentieth century reflected that discovery. The crowds have at times become Nazi rallies and audiences have actually been encouraged to participate as members of the mob in several productions.
Criticism The first critics, writing at the end of the seventeenth century, were not kind to Julius Caesar. If Julius Caesar, as written by Shakespeare, was the hero of the play, he was, at best, a deficient hero.
Samuel Johnson exonerated the play in his Preface of and Herman Ulrici, writing in , found a thematic unity to the play never acknowledged before. This led to a renewed interest in the play by critics in the nineteenth century. In the early twentieth century, critics such as M. In the latter part of the twentieth century, the play and its political overtones underwent scrutiny by both the New Historicists and the Cultural Materialists. Coppelia Kahn in her book, Roman Shakespeare: Warriors, Wounds and Women, gives a very interesting look at the Roman plays, including Julius Caesar, from a feminist perspective.
As Shakespearean criticism moves into the twenty-first century, there seems to be a movement towards reexamining Shakespeare in the context in which it was written.
Lucius Brutus' servant. Calpurnia Caesar's wife. Octavius Caesar Julius Caesar's nephew and heir. Portia Brutus' wife. Strato Brutus' servant. Casca A conspirator with Brutus. Soothsayer A fortune-teller who tries to warn Julius Caesar of his fate. Julius Caesar Roman Emperor. Marcus Brutus A Roman senator. A leader of the conspiracy against Julius Caesar. Decius Brutus A conspirator with Brutus. Cinna A conspirator with Brutus. Metullus Cimber A conspirator with Brutus.
Trebonius A conspirator with Brutus. Caius Cassius A Roman concerned with Caesar's rise to power. A leader of company against Julius Caesar. Cinna A poet fatally confused with Cinna the conspirator. Caius Ligarius A conspirator with Brutus. Speak once again. Soothsayer Beware the ides of March. Caesar He is a dreamer. Let us leave him. Two tribunes, Marullus and Flavius, chastise the crowd for adoring Caesar and for celebrating as if it were a holiday.
Rome, a street. Is this a holiday?
What, know you not, Being mechanical, you ought not to walk Upon a labouring day without the sign Of your profession? Speak, what trade art thou? In most productions, they enter first, with Flavius and Marullus following them. Being mechanical: The cobbler puns throughout his speeches. A stronger term for the Elizabethans than for us today. Marullus Where is thy leather apron and thy rule? What dost thou with thy best apparel on? You, sir, what trade are you? Cobbler Truly sir, in respect of a fine workman, I am but, as you would say, a cobbler.
Answer me directly. Cobbler A trade, sir, that I hope I may use with a safe conscience, which is indeed, sir, a mender of bad soles. Thou naughty knave, what trade? Cobbler Nay, I beseech you sir, be not out with me, yet if thou be out, sir, I can mend you. Mend me, thou saucy fellow?
Cobbler Why, sir, cobble you. Cobbler Truly sir, all that I live by is with the awl. When they are in great danger, I recover them. What conquest brings he home? What tributaries follow him to Rome?
To grace in captive bonds his chariot wheels? You blocks, you stones, you worse than senseless things!
O you hard hearts, you cruel men of Rome! Knew you not Pompey? Many a time and oft Have you climbed up to walls and battlements, To towers and windows, yea, to chimney tops, Your infants in your arms, and there have sat The livelong day, with patient expectation, To see great Pompey pass the streets of Rome.
And when you saw his chariot but appear, Have you not made an universal shout, That Tiber trembled underneath her banks To hear the replication of your sounds Made in her concave shores?
And do you now put-on your best attire? And do you now cull out a holiday? Be gone! Run to your houses, fall upon your knees, Pray to the gods to intermit the plague That needs must light on this ingratitude. Flavius Go, go, good countrymen, and for this fault Assemble all the poor men of your sort; The cobbler continues to have verbal fun at the expense of Flavius and Marullus.
Cull out: This is meant ironically, since the artisans could not choose their own holidays. Why dost thou lead these men about the streets? Cobbler Truly sir, to wear out their shoes, to get myself into more work. But indeed sir, we make holiday to see Caesar and to rejoice in his triumph. They vanish tongue-tied in their guiltiness. Go you down that way towards the Capitol; This way will I.
Disrobe the images If you do find them decked with ceremonies. Marullus May we do so? You know it is the feast of Lupercal. Flavius It is no matter. So do you too, where you perceive them thick.
The crowd of revelers is happy to have a day away from their usual tasks and, because the day is considered a high festival, plenty of government-supplied food and drink is available for all. The Lupercalian holiday, an ancient rite of both purgation and fertility, honored the gods Lupercus and Faunus as well as the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. It seems appropriate that Shakespeare chose this particular feast as the setting for the return of Julius Caesar to Rome.
Historically, Caesar returned from Spain in October of 45 B. The merriment of the Roman people is short-lived, however, as the scene is quickly broken up by the intrusion of two Roman Tribunes, Marullus and Flavius. The two men insult the crowd and admonish them for being idle on a workday. Shakespeare often used Elizabethan references in his plays, regardless of the actual timeframe in which the story was taking place, as a way of making his work more accessible to his audience.
This small-scale conflict will be reflected in the next scene when the full-blown conspiracy against Caesar begins to take shape. A relief of Romulus and Remus, from the 1st century, A. There were no towers or chimneys in ancient Rome, but these anachronisms, chronologically misplaced events, words or details, bring the play into alignment with the experiences of the audience for whom the play was written.
This image illustrates a theme in Julius Caesar, that blood begets blood. Shakespeare wrote the majority of his plays in blank verse, but he often changed from verse to prose to indicate the social status of a character. In this scene, the tribunes speak verse and the commoners use prose. In a delightful bit of wordplay, the Carpenter and the Cobbler frustrate the Tribunes with their evasive puns and bawdy innuendoes.
Puns, a play on words that are spelled or sound the same but have different meanings, have often been called the lowest form of humor, but Elizabethan audiences delighted in them. In general, the crowd is content with the harmony and abundance in their lives and is more concerned with parties than with politics.
The conflict between the factions of commoner and official serves two dramatic functions. First, Shakespeare puts the central conflict of the play into place. The birth of Julius Caesar. Left behind are two men, Brutus and Cassius. While Brutus and Cassius are having this conversation, shouts are heard from offstage.
Antony has offered the crown to Caesar and he has refused it in a ploy to make the people of Rome beg him to take the crown. Instead, the people cheer his decision and Caesar is forced to reject the crown a total of three times. The anger he must suppress causes Caesar to suffer an epileptic seizure. The two men agree to meet at a later time to discuss the matter more fully.
Rome, a public place. Caesar Calpurnia. Casca Peace, ho! Caesar speaks. Calpurnia Here, my lord. Antony Caesar, my lord? Caesar Forget not in your speed, Antonius, To touch Calpurnia; for our elders say The barren, touched in this holy chase, 3. Shakespeare occasionally alters the form of names to maintain the rhythm of the iambic pentameter verse.
Here he needs an extra syllable, but compare line , below. Caesar Ha! Who calls? Casca Bid every noise be still. Peace yet again! Caesar Who is it in the press that calls on me?
Caesar is turned to hear. Cassius says that Brutus handles him too roughly. Caesar What man is that? Brutus A soothsayer bids you beware the ides of March. Caesar Set him before me; let me see his face. Cassius I pray you do. Brutus I am not gamesome. I do lack some part Of that quick spirit that is in Antony. Let me not hinder, Cassius, your desires. Cassius Brutus, I do observe you now of late; I have not from your eyes that gentleness And show of love as I was wont to have.
You bear too stubborn and too strange a hand Over your friend that loves you. If I have veiled my look, I turn the trouble of my countenance Merely upon myself. Vexed I am Of late with passions of some difference, Conceptions only proper to myself, Which give some soil, perhaps, to my behaviours; But let not therefore my good friends be grieved Among which number, Cassius, be you one Nor construe any further my neglect Than that poor Brutus, with himself at war, Forgets the shows of love to other men.
Cassius Then, Brutus, I have much mistook your passion; By means wherof this breast of mine hath buried Thoughts of great value, worthy cogitations. Tell me, good Brutus, can you see your face? Act I, Scene 2 40 45 33 37— Except immortal Caesar: And it is very much lamented, Brutus, That you have no such mirrors as will turn Your hidden worthiness into your eye, That you might see your shadow. Brutus Into what dangers would you lead me, Cassius, That you would have me seek into myself For that which is not in me?
Cassius Therefore, good Brutus, be prepared to hear; And since you know you cannot see yourself So well as by reflection, I, your glass, Will modestly discover to yourself That of yourself which you yet know not of. And be not jealous on me, gentle Brutus. I do fear the people Choose Caesar for their king. Cassius Ay, do you fear it?
Then must I think you would not have it so. Brutus I would not Cassius; yet I love him well. But wherefore do you hold me here so long? What is it that you would impart to me? Cassius I know that virtue to be in you, Brutus, As well as I do know your outward favour. Well, honour is the subject of my story.
I cannot tell what you and other men Think of this life; but for my single self, I had as lief not be as live to be In awe of such a thing as I myself. I was borne free as Caesar; so were you. So indeed he did. The torrent roared, and we did buffet it With lusty sinews, throwing it aside 85 90 95 X ActI. And this man Is now become a god, and Cassius is A wretched creature and must bend his body If Caesar carelessly but nod on him. He had a fever when he was in Spain, And when the fit was on him, I did mark How he did shake.
His coward lips did from their colour fly, And that same eye whose bend doth awe the world Did lose his lustre. I did hear him groan. Ye gods, it doth amaze me A man of such a feeble temper should So get the start of the majestic world And bear the palm alone. Act I, Scene 2 35 It was erroneously thought that its legs spanned the harbour entrance. I do believe that these applauses are For some new honours that are heaped on Caesar. Cassius Why, man, he doth bestride the narrow world Like a Colossus, and we petty men Walk under his huge legs and peep about To find ourselves dishonourable graves.
Men at some time are masters of their fates. The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, But in ourselves, that we are underlings. Why should that name be sounded more than yours? Write them together: Sound them: Weigh them: It is as heavy. Age thou art shamed. Rome, thou hast lost the breed of noble bloods.
When went there by an age since the great Flood But it was famed with more than with one man? When could they say till now that talked of Rome That her wide walks encompassed but one man?
Now is it Rome indeed, and room enough, When there is in it but one only man. Brutus That you do love me I am nothing jealous. What you would work me to, I have some aim. How I have thought of this, and of these times, I shall recount hereafter. For this present, I would not so with love I might entreat you Be any further moved.
What you have said I will consider; what you have to say I will with patience hear, and find a time Both meet to hear and answer such high things. Till then, my noble friend, chew upon this: Brutus had rather be a villager Than to repute himself a son of Rome Under these hard conditions as this time Is like to lay upon us.
Cassius As they pass by, pluck Casca by the sleeve, And he will after his sour fashion tell you What hath proceeded worthy note to-day. Brutus I will do so. But look you, Cassius, X ActI.
Act I, Scene 2 37 Caesar Antonius. Caesar Let me have men about me that are fat, Sleek-headed men, and such as sleep a-nights. Yond Cassius has a lean and hungry look. He thinks too much. Such men are dangerous. He is a noble Roman, and well given. Caesar Would he were fatter! But I fear him not. Yet if my name were liable to fear, I do not know the man I should avoid So soon as that spare Cassius.
He reads much, He is a great observer, and he looks Quite through the deeds of men. He loves no plays As thou dost, Antony; he hears no music. Seldom he smiles, and smiles in such a sort As if he mocked himself and scorned his spirit That could be moved to smile at anything.
I rather tell thee what is to be feared Than what I fear; for always I am Caesar. CASCA remains. Would you speak with me? Brutus Ay, Casca. Tell us what hath chanced to-day That Caesar looks so sad.
Casca Why, you were with him, were you not? Casca Why, there was a crown offered him; and being offered him, he put it by the back of his hand thus; and then the people fell a-shouting.
Casca Why, for that too. Cassius They shouted thrice. What was the last cry for? Brutus Was the crown offered him thrice? But soft: Casca Why, Antony. Brutus Tell us the manner of it, gentle Casca. Casca I can as well be hanged as tell the manner of it. It was mere foolery; I did not mark it. Then he offered it to him again; then he put it by again; but to my thinking, he was very loath to lay his fingers off it.
And then he offered it the third time. He put it the third time by; and still as he refused it, the rabblement hooted, and clapped their chopt hands, and threw tip their sweaty nightcaps, and uttered such a deal of stinking breath because Caesar refused the crown that it had almost choked Caesar; for he swounded and fell down at it. And for mine own part, I durst not laugh, for fear of opening my lips and receiving the bad air.
Cassius But soft, I pray you. What, did Caesar swound? Cassius is quick to take up the phrase and give it another meaning. Caesar wants to assure the crowd of his sincerity. Greek to me: In fact, Plutarch says specifically that Casca could speak Greek. In this phrase which has become a part of the language , Shakespeare makes Casca disclaim any knowledge that might make him appear sophisticated or polished.
Casca I know not what you mean by that, but I am sure Caesar fell down. If the rag-tag people did not clap him and hiss him, according as he pleased and displeased them, as they use to do the players in the theatre, I am no true man. Casca Marry, before he fell down, when lie perceived the common herd was glad he refused the crown, he plucked me ope his doublet and offered them his throat to cut. An I had been a man of any occupation, if I would not have taken him at a word, I would I might go to hell among the rogues.
And so he fell. When he came to himself again, he said, if he had done or said anything amiss, he desired their worships to think it was his infirmity. If Caesar had stabbed their mothers, they would have done no less. Casca Ay. Cassius Did Cicero say anything? Cassius To what effect? But those that understood him smiled at one another and shook their heads; but for mine own part, it was Greek to me. I could tell you more news too.
Fare you well. There was more foolery yet, if I could remember it. Casca No, I am promised forth. Cassius Will you dine with me to-morrow? Casca Ay, if I be alive, and your mind hold, and your dinner worth eating.
Lines — have been variously interpreted. The interpretation is of some importance. The first, which seems also the likeliest, puts Cassius at least at this point in the play in a particularly cynical and cold-blooded light. I will expect you. Casca Do so. Farewell both. He was quick mettle when he went to school. Cassius So is he now in execution Of any bold or noble enterprise, However he puts on this tardy form. This rudeness is a sauce to his good wit, Which gives men stomach to digest his words With better appetite.
For this time I will leave you. To-morrow, if you please to speak with me, I will come home to you; or if you will, Come home to me, and I will wait for you.