3rd ed. Australia: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning, pages, , English, Book; Illustrated, 2. Natural hazards and disasters / Donald Hyndman, David. A Hawaiian historic peoples viewed many natural disasters with legend even has a Press - Natural Hazards, Second Edition Edward Bryant . phenomenon in the Third World, where it response to natural hazards at the. Fifth edition. New York: Natural hazards - earths processes as hazards, disasters, and catastrophes. by Duane E Third Canadian edition. Abingdon, Oxon.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Indonesian|
|Genre:||Business & Career|
|ePub File Size:||17.50 MB|
|PDF File Size:||17.72 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Register to download]|
Keller, Devecchio,Natural Hazards Earths Processes as Hazards 3rd Edition - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd Earth's Processes as Hazards, Disasters, and Catastrophes. PDF | Joanne M. Nigg and others published Natural Hazards and Disasters. support the right to safety, sometimes expressed as the right to an environment that is communities, and in the third community, an international NGO had. Natural hazards afflict all corners of the Earth; often unexpected, seemingly that Third World countries bring much of the disaster IceStormpdf>. Lamb .
Earth Structure A. Core, mantle and crust B. Lithosphere C. Asthenosphere D. Isostacy II. Plate Movement A.
Some features of WorldCat will not be available. Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: Search WorldCat Find items in libraries near you. Advanced Search Find a Library. Showing all editions for 'Natural hazards: Earth's processes as hazards, disasters, and catastrophes' Sort by: Refine Your Search Year. Select All Clear All Save to: Your list has reached the maximum number of items. Please create a new list with a new name; move some items to a new or existing list; or delete some items.
A new Case in Point presents the Oakland—Berkeley Hills firestorm, how it developed, and lessons learned that can be applied to other areas of urban-wildland interface. The lightning-triggered wildfires that ravaged northern California provided a vivid reminder of that event, along with updates for the to wildfires in southern California. Chapter 17, Impact of Asteroids and Comets, is extensively updated and improved. Appendix 2, Rocks, has new and improved photos of representative rocks.
All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience.
Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Forest Service; Dr. Thompson; Dr. We are grateful to a wide range of people for their assistance in preparing and gathering material for this book, far too many to list individually here. In large measure, the enhancements are in response to her insight, perception, and skillful editing. Beth Kluckhohn, Senior Project Manager at PreMediaGlobal, and her crew skillfully and cheerfully organized the artwork and assembled everything into the final book.
For editing and suggested additions: Dr.
Duncan Sibley, Dr. Kaz Fujita, and Dr. For information and photos on specific sites: Dr. Benjamin P. Horton, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Dr.
Vlachopoulos, head archaeologist, Greece. In addition, we appreciate chapter reviewers who suggested improvements that we made in the Third Edition including: Donald J. We are indebted to reviewers who helped focus our attention on issues and specifics that led to many improvements in the Second Edition: Eric M.
Best, Northern Arizona University; M. Syverson, University of Wisconsin—Eau Claire. Flooding during Hurricane Ike in undermined tall posts supporting houses on the barrier island east of Galveston, Texas, toppling them into the surf. Disasters Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. Large numbers of people around the world live and work in notoriously dangerous places—near volcanoes, in floodplains, or on active fault lines.
Some are ignorant of potential disasters, but others even rebuild homes destroyed in previous disasters. Sometimes the reasons are cultural or economic. Because volcanic ash degrades into richly productive soil, the areas around volcanoes make good farmland.
Large floodplains attract people because they provide good agricultural soil, inexpensive land, and natural transportation corridors. Some people live in a hazardous area because of their job or because they find the place appealing. For understandable reasons, such people live in the wrong places. Hopefully they recognize the hazards and understand the processes involved so they can minimize their risk. But people also crowd into dangerous areas for frivolous reasons.
They build homes at the bases or tops of large cliffs for scenic views, not realizing that big sections can give way in W 1 Copyright Cengage Learning. Bill Lund, Utah Geological Survey. Early one morning in October , the owner awoke with a start as a giant boulder 4.
They long to live along edges of sea bluffs where they can enjoy ocean views, or they want to live on the beach to experience the ocean more intimately. Others build beside picturesque, soothing rivers. Environmental Geologist Poor Landscaping Practices 8. March Contents xiii 9. Marine Geologist B O X 1 1. Contents xvii 14 Michael J. In addition to satisfying a natural curiosity about hazardous events. Because of these relationships we provide examples of hazards from throughout the United States as well as throughout the world.
The book is designed for a course in natural hazards for nonscience majors. The text integrates principles of geology. A central thesis to this text is that we must first understand that earth processes are not. Preface Natural Hazards: Earth Processes as Hazards.
Nova Scotia. For example. This edition of Natural Hazards seeks to explain the earth processes that drive hazardous events in an understandable way. Most important is the unprecedented increase in human population in the past 50 years linked to poor land-use decisions.
Distinguishing Features of the Third Edition We have incorporated into this edition of Natural Hazards a number of features designed to support the student and instructor. Hazardous processes are amenable to risk analysis based. These changes are caused in part by human activities.
On a global scale. A major earthquake in Taiwan affects trade in the ports of Seattle and Vancouver. Most hazardous events and processes can be monitored and mapped and their future activity predicted based upon the frequency of past events. With proper preparation many fewer lives would have been lost. Third Edition is an introductory-level survey intended for university and college courses that are concerned with earth processes that have direct. Natural processes become hazards when they impact humanity.
The interaction between humans and earth processes has never been clearer. This book discusses each hazardous process as both a natural occurrence and a human hazard. Two of these events had a common denominator — the earthquake and flood were catastrophes largely because of human processes interacting with natural processes. On a national and global level we will be better able to advise our leaders on important issues related to natural hazards that impact our lives.
Hazards are predictable from scientific evaluation. In revising the third edition of this book we take advantage of the greatly expanding amount of information regarding natural hazards.
An informed citizenry is one of our best guarantees of a prosperous future. In other words they were largely. On a local level we will be better prepared to make decisions concerning where we live and how best to invest our time and resources. Risk analysis is an important component in our understanding of the effects of hazardous processes.
In alone. Armed with insights into linkages xviii between people and the geologic environment. Since the second edition was published. Hazardous processes are linked in many ways. Working with other state and federal scientists. As a result of increasing human population and poor land-use practices. Ed Keller. Closer Look boxes. Knowledge from reading this book could save your life someday. Survivor Stories. Did You Learn questions at the end of each chapter give students the ability to track their comprehension of the learning goals stated at the beginning of each chapter.
Natural Resources Conservation Service studying what happens to hillslopes after wildfires in Utah see Professional Profile in Chapter 7. For Bob. Consequences of hazards can be minimized. The magnitude. Bob develops plans for hillslope recovery and helps communities downslope from burned land establish warning systems to protect lives and property. Preface xix upon the probability of an event occurring and the consequences resulting from that event.
Minimizing the potential adverse consequences an d effects of natural hazards requires an integrated approach that includes scientific understanding. Each chapter is clearly structured to help students understand the material and effectively review the major concepts.
Most of us in our lifetimes will experience directly or indirectly a flood. Nearly all the survivor stories and professional profiles are based on interviews conducted exclusively for Natural Hazards by Kathleen Wong.
As you read the survivor stories.
New material for the third edition includes the following: A chapter on plate tectonics that reflects its over- arching importance to Earth science. Hazardous events that previously produced disasters are now producing catastrophes. T o fully appreciate natural hazards we need both scientific knowledge and human experience. As you read the professional profiles.
Linkages exist between different natural hazards as well as between hazards and the physical environment. He maintains an intellectual curiosity as to how the Earth works and a practical goal of predicting the likelihood and location of debris flows following a fire.
Each chapter is organized with the following study aids: Each image has been reviewed for accuracy and relevance. People study and work with natural hazards for many reasons— scientific curiosity.
Researching volcanic hazards. Assignments in Applied Geology. Instructors may inform their students that some of the italicized terms are actually key terms for hazards in their local area. Flood insurance premiums are estimated using a flood insurance rate map. Students use field and laboratory data to prepare a contour map of the water table. This information may be most useful with laboratory and field exercises.
Other useful technical terms that may be new to students are indicated in italics. All digital resources can be found in one. Students utilize climatic data to estimate variables that are key to flood control and water supply management.
Using worksheets that are downloadable from the Hazard City website. Based on the fictional town of Hazard City. The potential value of a mineral property is estimated by learning about mining and property evaluation and then applying that knowledge in a resource calculation. The authors encourage students to refer to the glossary at the end of the book for definitions of both the key terms and useful terms.
Students research the effects of earthquakes on buildings. The Pearson Prentice Hall Instructor Resource Center is accessed online and helps instructors be more effective by saving them time and effort. Students learn about the causes and effects of tsunamis and storm surges. The activities require students to gather and analyze real data. Third Edition provide additional information useful in helping students understand some of the more applied aspects of geology as related to natural hazards.
Fourth Edition Online access to Hazard City is included in every text. Students visit four related waterfront building sites—some developed and some not—and analyze the risk each faces due to shoreline erosion processes.
This feature will help students identify important concepts and terminology necessary to better understand the chapter. The questions engage students in higher order thinking to apply the concepts and processes learned in the assignments to the broader world in different contexts.
Students are also able to answer assignable multiple-choice questions directly from the Hazard City website that are computer graded. Students research the factors that determine landslide hazard at five construction sites and make recommendations for development.
The test bank includes hundreds of multiplechoice. Thanks to Kenji Satake. Yavapai College Katherine V. University of California at Riverside Stephen A. Northern Kentucky University Richard W. Art was professionally rendered by Precision Graphics and Spatial Graphics.
Keller Duane E. University of Kansas Paul Todhunter. David Cramer. We are particularly indebted to our publisher and editors at Pearson Prentice Hall. University of Oregon Jennifer Cole. Duane would like to pay special thanks to his family. University of Colorado at Denver Special thanks to Kathleen Wong and Chris Wilson for locating and interviewing many of the natural hazard professionals and survivors. Shorter College Jamie Kellogg. Saint Louis University Gabi Lakse.
In particular. First and foremost we are grateful to our editors Andrew Dunaway and Crissy Dudonis. Rensselaer University Rob Mellors. Acknowledgments Many individuals. Much of the third edition reflects his excellent contributions. Special thanks are extended to Professor Bob Blodget who as coauthor worked very hard on the first two editions.
William Wise. Michigan State University Brenda Hanke. Our appreciation is extended to our production project managers Gina Cheselka and Ed Thomas. Illinois State University Don Steeples.
University of St. Sean Hale. Thomas John Wyckoff. Connie Long. Northeastern University Bob Davies. We must also thank the thoughtful scholars who dedicated valuable time reviewing chapters of this book. University of Illinois Hassan Boroon. We would also like to thank Linda Benson. Gordon Wells. Brown University Jean M. Rice University Alan Lester. Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for their excellent natural hazard programs and publications.
Ed would like to thank Tanya Atwater. University of North Dakota Robert Varga. Columbia College Chicago Thanks also to the following reviewers who helped us put together the first and second editions: Bob Abrams. Edward A. Hardin Simmons University Gigi Richard. All of us are especially grateful to these people who told us their stories. To authors of papers cited in this book. Mesa State College Jennifer Rivers. Without their work. Theresa Carpenter. Caroline Commins.
Stephen P. DeVecchio Santa Barbara. Builds map-reading skills and gives students the confidence they need to solve map-based problems in later assignments. College of Wooster Tatiana Vislova. Tulane University Mark Ouimette. Ed would like to thank his wife Valery for her encouragement and support.
Northeastern University Tim Sickbert. An understanding of natural processes as hazards requires some basic knowledge of earth science. O On January Lands denuded of trees responded quickly to torrential downpours and hill slopes went crashing into homes. As population continues to grow.
Los Angeles is located on the boundary of two tectonic plates that grind past one another producing large earthquakes and mountains. The population of Haiti has increased dramatically in recent decades.
So why did two earthquakes of about the same magnitude cause such vastly different casualties? Haiti is the poorest country in the Northern Hemisphere with an annual income per person of only a few percentage points of that of the United States.
The Loma Prieta earthquake that struck San Francisco injured about people. Four hurricanes struck in The situation was grim. Was This a Human-Caused Catastrophe? On January By September.
Nearly people died. As a result. Faults in the southern California area are capable of producing earthquakes equivalent in size to the one that devastated Port Au Prince and killed more than Much of Haiti is mountainous and landslides are a constant problem.
The storms of pale in the number of deaths compared to the earthquake in In contrast the Haiti event injured approximately Haiti was devastated. Haiti has been recognized for more than a decade as an environmental catastrophe waiting to happen.
Haiti is also vulnerable to large earthquakes with three major earthquakes occurring there since This was an appalling loss of life for an earthquake of magnitude 7. This suggests that if more of the buildings in Haiti had been constructed properly.
NASA more desirable river sands. If the population of the country had not grown so fast. Poor construction practices. In addition there was concrete that was poorly compacted and utilized the wrong materials such as sands from the marine environment that would corrode more easily than the ince Since The conclusion offered by the study of the buildings and damage suggests that the massive loss of human life in the Haiti earthquake can be attributed to the failure to attain earthquake-resistant design and construction of buildings.
North America has experienced deadly hurricanes in the Gulf Coast. There is a very heavy human footprint in the catastrophic loss of life.
Had the buildings been constructed properly. As Haiti rebuilds with international support. The end result was that the buildings in the capital of Haiti and other areas affected by the earthquake could not withstand the shaking from a magnitude 7 event. As you will see throughout this text. This does not necessarily have to raise the cost of construction beyond what can be paid.
These forces are in turn directly related to hazardous processes. Most of these internal processes are explained by the theory of plate tectonics. We often use the terms hazard. Criteria for a natural disaster are 1 ten or more people killed.
No area is considered hazard free. These natural processes become hazardous when human beings live or work in their path. If any one of these applies. Some of these processes. Natural hazards affect the lives of millions of people around the world. All areas of the United States are at risk from more than one hazardous Earth process Figure 1. In fact. Hurricane Katrina in destroyed much of the coastal development in Mississippi and Louisiana and caused the flooding of New Orleans.
A disaster is a hazardous event that occurs over a limited time span in a defined area. Because of gravitational attraction. In this book. A natural hazard is a natural process and event that is a potential threat to human life and property. During the past few decades. The process and events themselves are not a hazard but become so because of human use of the land. Not shown in Figure 1. An earthquake in Pakistan in claimed more than Two individual disasters.
Recovery from this enormous catastrophe is taking years. The energy released by natural processes varies greatly.
The Indian Ocean tsunami in resulted in at least Hurricane Katrina. These events are the result of enormous forces that are at work both inside and on the surface of our planet. The amount of solar energy Earth receives each day is about a trillion times that of a lightning bolt. Helens in May expended approximately a million times as much energy as a lightning bolt.
Still other external processes. Although we will describe most of these forces as natural hazards. Although there are several hundred disasters from natural hazardous events each year. Asia suffers the greatest losses. Almost every part of the country is at risk for one of the six hazards considered here. These catastrophes along with the Haiti earthquake discussed in the opening of this chapter were caused by natural processes and forces that have always existed.
Highest High Earthquakes: Highest hazard General Areas of Major Flooding: January During the s. Geological Survey Hurricanes: Highest High Moderate Volcanic Hazards: Based on activity in the last The vast majority of deaths were in developing countries.
The impact of these events has been affected by human population density and land-use patterns. Hurricanes are caused by atmospheric disturbance. A similar map or set of maps is available for Canada. Defence Visual Information Center.
Of these events. University of Lonvain.. It could have been even worse were it not for improvements in warning systems. The objectives of the UN program were to minimize loss of life and property damage resulting from natural hazards. Reaching this objective requires measures to mitigate both specific physical hazards and the biological hazards that often accompany them. Annual Disaster Statistical Review: Numbers and Trends. In an effort to address the increasing number of casualties and increased property damage from natural hazards.
By the onset of winter. In addition to increasing population density. MIT Press. This trend is especially a problem in areas surrounding major cities in developing nations. Urban growth can influence people to develop on marginal lands. Hazards with a low catastrophe potential include coastal erosion. Assessment of research on natural hazards. Natural hazards vary greatly in their potential to cause a catastrophe see Table 1. The largest number of deaths each year is associated with tornadoes and windstorms.
Loss of life from earthquakes can vary considerably from one year to the next. To mitigate the effects of this contamination. Drought also has a moderate catastrophe potential because although it may cover a wide area.
Changes in agricultural. Because the population is steadily increasing in high-risk areas. A catastrophe. Commonly these deposits contain organic material such as wood or shells that may be radiocarbon dated to provide a chronology of ancient flood events. To describe these processes. It depends on the tectonic cycle for heat and energy.
An understanding of the components and dynamics of the geologic cycle will explain these relationships. The rock cycle is the largest of the geologic subcycles. Slopes composed of a weak rock. A mineral is a naturally occurring. In summary. A Role of History in Understanding Hazards eologic conditions and materials largely govern the type. These geologic features may be landforms.
In the next few sections. Continuously operating processes produce the earth materials. Water is. The location of landslides. Tectonic processes are driven by forces deep within Earth. The tectonic cycle involves the creation.
This chronology can then be linked with the historic record of high flows to provide an overall perspective of how often the river floods and how extensive the floods may be.
Throughout much of the 4. Linking the prehistoric and historic records extends our perspective of time when we study repetitive natural events. In our reconstruction of previous events. Useful information can be obtained by studying aerial photographs and maps as far back as the record allows. Any prediction of the future occurrence and effects of a hazard will be more accurate if we can combine information about historic and prehistoric behavior with a knowledge of present conditions and recent past events.
To fully understand the natural processes we call hazards. It is responsible for the production and distribution of rock and mineral resources invaluable to modern civilization.
Whether we are studying earthquakes.
The tectonic cycle and its linkages to hazards is the subject of Chapter 2. You will recall that poor building practices in Haiti led to the great loss of life. When wind or water currents slow down. The Global Report to the President. With deep burial. The accumulated layers of sediment eventually undergo lithification conversion to solid rock.
These particles vary in size from fine clay to very large pieces of boulder-size gravel. Driven by solar energy. Metamorphic rocks may be buried to depths where pressure and temperature conditions cause them to melt. Although rocks vary greatly in their composition and properties.
Rocks at or near the surface break down chemically and physically by weathering to form particles known as sediment. Lithification takes place by cementation and compaction as sediment is buried beneath other sediment. As with any other Earth cycle. Sediment formed by weathering is then transported by wind. Deposition of sediment Igneous rock Burial. The amounts of such important elements as carbon.
These compartments include the oceans. T A biogeochemical cycle is the transfer or cycling of a chemical element or elements through the atmosphere the layer of gases surrounding Earth. Biogeochemical cycles can most easily be described as the transfer of chemical elements through a series of storage compartments or reservoirs e.
The tectonic cycle provides water from volcanic processes as well as the heat and energy required to form and change the earth materials transferred in biogeochemical cycles. Data from U. The residence time. The rock and hydrologic cycles are involved in many processes that transfer and store chemical elements in water.
Geological Survey. Although the combined percentage of water in the atmosphere. These fundamental concepts serve as a conceptual framework for our discussion of each natural hazard in subsequent chapters of this book. Natural hazards.
This surface or nearsurface water helps move and sort chemical elements in solution. Most hazardous events and processes can be monitored and mapped. When a biogeochemical cycle is well understood.
Hazardous processes are amenable to risk analysis. It follows from this definition that biogeochemical cycles are intimately related to the tectonic. As you can see from studying Table 1.
Los Angeles has a 5 percent chance of a moderate earthquake. The Pleistocene and following Holocene Epoch experienced rapid climatic changes— from relatively cold.
To reduce damage and loss of life. She may notice that a great deal of water is emerging from the base of the slope and landslide. We have also mapped the nature and extent of hazards. That is. They become hazardous when people live or work near these processes. Rivers will always flood. Coupled with knowledge of the frequency of past events. The method of science. This label has led to attempts to control them.
We humans apparently are a product of the Pleistocene ice ages. In science. Did the water in the slope cause the landslide? This question is the basis for a hypothesis that may be stated as follows: The landslide occurred because a buried water main within the slope broke. We have also evaluated patterns and types of precursor events. With respect to a hazardous event.
Why did a landslide occur that destroyed three homes? In order to explore and answer this question.