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These include, most rather than the winged disc which is invariably 21 commonly, positioning between a god with to be seen. It is only rarely that the cross stands raised hand and a worshipper the latter some- in place of the winged disc on Assyrian seals, times, in fact, omitted , above scenes of hunt-. Sculptures of Assyrian kings, cult statues however, can show them wearing divine sym- The gods manifested themselves on earth 49 bols as earrings or as pendants strung upon a through the vehicle of their cult statues.

With- necklace, and in these cases it is the cross out exactly being the god, the statue was 47 A crescent here, as often, enclosed within a disc , symbol of the moon god Sin Nanna-Suen. Sargon of Agade restrict the divine presence.

Baal Hadad and second only in rank to the Cult statues were made at least as early as the supreme god El. However, he is not an impor- Third Dynasty of Ur, usually carved in an tant figure in Ugaritic myths. The goddess Sala the mouth'. Since the deity needed to eat and became his spouse; in a different tradition, drink see food and drink of the gods , the Dagan's wife was Ishara.

It was said to be by temple kitchens would prepare daily meals.

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The sacrifices and S amsi-Adad I, 'worshipper of Dagan', built a offerings of devotees supplemented the stocks temple to the god at Terqa, which he named of food, which, in practice, were eaten by the E-kisiga, the 'House of Funerary Offerings'. In clergy and temple staff. The cult statue was not an Assyrian poem, Dagan sits, along with Ner- only fed, but also dressed in the finest gar- gal and MYsaru see good and evil , as judge ments, constantly bathed, taken to bed in the of the dead when they reached the under- god's richly adorned bedchamber, and treated world.

In Babylonian belief Dagan kept with to festivities and entertainments, such as him in the underworld, in everlasting bondage, music. Diversions from the routine were pro- the seven children of the god Enmesarra see vided by the great monthly festivals and other Seven gods. See nude woman; Sacred Marriage; Damgalnuna Damkina temples and temple architecture.

Damgalnuna is the earlier Sumerian name of the goddess Damkina. Perhaps originally one of a number sively throughout the Near East, including of mother goddesses, she achieved an in- Mesopotamia. The original meaning of the dependent personality as the wife of Enki. In name is unknown, but dagan is a common word the Babylonian Epic of Creation, Ea Enki in Hebrew and Ugaritic for 'grain', and and Damkina are the parents of the god Mar- according to one tradition the god Dagan was duk.

Assurnasirpal II, king of Assyria the inventor of the plough. Apparently, the eleven monstrous the circle of Nanse. Old Babylonian Period. Nothing in detail is known of the myth or Astrologically, Damu was associated with myths concerning the killing of the Slain the constella ti on called the Pig possibly Del- Heroes, but it seems clear that they were gods phinus.

A number of deities were regarded as dead. Nor were 'heroes' exempt from death. Unlike mortal men, gods do not seem ever to have died of diseases, nor generally of the activities of demons although Dumuzi was seized by gallas.

Dead gods were usually those 50 who had been slain. Seals of the Akkadian 50 One god cuts the throat of another. Both Period show deities in ba tt le, sometimes one figures wear the horned cap of divinity. From a slaying another. Since in both cases gest her 'death'. This has protective demons , it seems that, in spite of been interpreted as Nergal, lord of the under- being dead, these gods were thought still to world, at rest.

Similarly the magical power and wisdom of ancient and death and funerary practices 9, probably dead gods such as Lahmu and even It was believed in ancient Mesopotamia that 11,12 the Seven Sages could be harnessed by the immortality was reserved for gods; death was modelling of a figurine in the image of the the inevitable lot of man see Siduri.

Nor was creature and by the recital of incanta tions to the afterlife considered very palatable: This is in marked contrast to to be effec tive as a magical force against evil. Egyptian concepts of the glorious life to come, For men, 'death' usually meant journeying which gave rise to the practice of embalming to the underworld see afterlife; death and and mummification.

Mesopotamian pessimism funerary practices , but for a god who was in this regard probably arose from the com- not dismembered as Tiamat or Qingu were paratively harsh condi tions of almost every the precise meaning of his or her 'death' is aspect of life, the alluvial plain of Sumer being unclear.

Huwawa seems simply to disappear well suited to agricultural produc ti on but lack- from the scene, as if into oblivion: Some 'dead gods', however, seem to have had It has been suggested that the practice of underworld associa tions. Since he was a shep- munication with the deceased, by means of a herd god, the tradi ti on of his death and rebirth cult of the dead, or, conversely, to restrain the was possibly an aetiological myth related to the dead from haunting the living, as they would passage of the seasons.

The god's 'death' seems do if left unburied and free to wander see to have involved his forced abduc ti on to the gidim. The Sumerian rite of pouring liba- underworld. See Ningiszida. In the Sumerian poem remain in their graves. In the time of the Third 'Inana's Descent to the Nether World', in Dynasty of Ur, however, as illustrated by order to gain admission to the underworld, a funerary poem, there was a belief in different Inana says that she has come to a tt end the treatments of the dead on arrival in the under- 'funeral' of Gugal-ana, her brother-in-law.

The proper burial of the deceased was memorated his removal to the infernal regions therefore of crucial importance to his or her in a certain sense, his 'death' or whether it future 'life'.

The nine ancient Near East seems to have been inhum- skeletons seven adults and two infants do not ation interment of the body in the earth or in all belong to a single period, but date from a container , although the almost complete perhaps about 6o, to 45, years ago. Cremation the burning of cemeteries. These involve the graves of male the bodily remains does not seem to have been and female adults and children.

Young practised in any period: Babies, however, sorry plight indeed see afterlife. By the first human. Adults were also buried beneath the millennium BC, an exaggerated social differen- floors of houses, but only rarely on rubbish tiation is apparent within given cultures. Neo- tips. Sumerian burials can show a very high those of the Assyrian queens very recently dis- level of effort and expenditure, most notably covered at Kalhu modern Nimrud.

At less wealthy burials with burial chambers bricked off from 52 An elaborate object used for supporting some grave furnishing. A he-goat made of shell, lapis lazuli and gold on a wooden core.

One of a pair found in one of the fantastically rich 'Royal Tombs' at Ur. There is palm leaves, loose or in the form of woven mats. The posi tion of the vessels within the in the flexed or so-called 'sleeping' posi ti on graves may— almost accidentally— give us some with the legs together, bent and raised , indica tion of their intended purpose, for even though not often in the crouched or so-called if no rules governed the positioning, it would 'foetal' posture with legs tightly flexed and be natural to locate the more important and close to the chin.

Later the preferred posi ti on personal items close to the body, with other seems to have been the 'stretched' posture with objects piled into the remaining space. In Early the body laid out full length, legs straight, and Dynastic and Ninevite 5 burials the deceased lying on the side or back.

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Preferred orienta- perished. The bones of a small animal have in tion, or avoidance of certain orienta tions, one case been retrieved from the bowl in this varied according to period and loca tion. The bones of larger animals and the Except in the case of very wealthy in- carbonised remains of cereals, probably the dividuals, adorned with a mass of jewellery, remains of food or sacrificial offerings see evidence of the clothing worn by the deceased animal sacrifice , have sometimes been found is slim, since in the arid condi tions of the in the graves.

A large vessel often placed close Mesopotamian plain tex tiles rarely survive. A to the head, regularly with a smaller pot sitting few fr agments have, however, been found. Another been identified as silk! The fairly large vessel is sometimes found together with a common occurrence of copper or bronze pins, large natural stone slab the so-called often found on the chest or at the shoulders, 'gravestone': The grave goods seem to have served a vari- Burials without grave goods were not un- ety of purposes.

Some objects were so personal common, but even an impoverished burial to the deceased that their inclusion in the grave would often contain a pot or two, even a broken was natural, since they would not be used one.

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Pottery is the most common of objects by others. A second dedicated in connection with vows or pledges category of items was included for the use of votive offerings , but small models of e.

Finally, lems or bodily illnesses to be due to a particular goods eventually assigned to the grave could deity, or as promptings by those hopeful of represent a public display of wealth by the de- achieving cures.

Probably in the case of high- slavery for granted, and an extension of this ranking or wealthy individuals an elaborate was the dedication of certain human beings as ceremony accompanied the procession from 'belonging' to the gods. At different periods the house to the site of burial, although for this took different forms, with varying social Mesopotamia we have little in the way of evi- effects.

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The dedication in the Old Babylonian dence for the rites involved in contrast to the Period of the daughters of wealthy families to a depictions on Egyptian murals. Once considered only a the inheritance. In later Babylonian times the basis for often imaginative speculations on temple sirkutu dedicated slaves was an order religious beliefs, burial data are today widely of male and female persons dedicated to Mar- studied as evidence of social stratification.

Parents dedicated their children and Mesopotamia have on the whole been slow to freemen their slaves. They were branded with a make use of mortuary evidence in this way, but star, spade or wedge. Kings and became part of the temple's treasure. Valu- who were deified claimed to be sons or brothers able ceremonial objects, often of precious of major gods see Lugalbanda. A cult was materials, might also be dedicated to a god in offered to deified kings in temples throughout peace time for the 'life' of an individual, their kingdoms, and praise poetry was com- especially a ruler, by the individual himself or posed in their honour.

Period, when cylinder seal designs often mix Come in, good rabisu! Period gave way to a preponderance of animal- The scores of demons whose names are known headed hybrids; to us are mentioned mainly in magical incant- 5 a demonic phase, represented by Neo- ations.

Their usual with the new theology of a demonically populated underworld in the first millennium 65, 78, method of attacking humans was by inflicting 99,, diseases but not all illness was thought to be sc. The change happens, moreover, at the same ,, due to them ; there is no evidence for a general time as the advent of the practice of erecting in palaces and temples monumental statues and belief in demonic possession.

Evil gods and demons are, only very rarely depicted in art, reliefs of magically protective beings, and of perhaps because it was thought that their burying small clay images of them in the 9,11, foundations. Diverse in cultural background 12,40, images might endanger people; in some cases 70, descriptions of their appearances are so vague and original significance, the various gods, de- and inconsistent as to suggest they were not mons and monsters involved were brought to- gether into a fairly restricted visual series at well established.

By the first millennium BC, this time, and for the first time they came to be however, Lamastu is commonly represented, treated as a group in mythological narratives. This change may be re- lated to a new concept in the first millennium destiny and fate: The supposed name for Bahrain and an area of the western 'empty' graves can for the most part be coast of the Gulf the la tt er area apparently explained by lack of archaeological technique called Agaru by the inhabitants of Dilmun in the excava ti on of often disturbed or poorly themselves , possibly also including Failaka preserved burials.

It became increasingly important in Mesopotamian trade from the end Dilmunite gods of the Early Dynastic Period on. The two principal gods of Dilmun, the god In the poem 'Enki and Ninhursaga', Dilmun Inzak and the goddess Meskilak, are referred is described as a 'holy', 'virgin' and 'pure' land to in both Mesopotamian and Dilmunite without any normal civilisa ti on, human or sources.

Inzak was regarded by the Sumerians animal, or even water supplies. At the request by whom he was called Enzag as the chief of his wife-daughter, the goddess Ninsikila god of Dilmun, but in Dilmun itself he was Ninhursaka , Enki first arranges for Dilmun characterised as a god of Agaru eastern to be provided with fresh water and abundant Arabia.

He probably also had a cult centre on produce. Then in a series of incestuous unions Failaka island, where the temple seems to have a number of gods and goddesses are born, been dedicated to him. A god 'Lord of Magan'. The fuller text of the poem now name for Ninhursaka. Nin-Dilmun, 'lady of available shows that Dilmun was not, as was Dilmun', was probably a title of the same god- earlier thought, described as a 'paradise' land.

She may have been regarded as either the According to another Sumerian poem, after wife or mother of Inzak. A Babylonian hymn the Flood the gods settled Ziusura in 'a refers to a goddess called S uluhitu as wife of foreign land, the land of Dilmun in the east'. It galnuna, Adad Iskur and Marduk. In fact, although the low levels of soil posing that his cult was established there or that above bedrock necessitated the construction of the temple at Barbar on Bahrain was dedicated above-ground tombs, which makes them ab- to him as is commonly assumed.

They were often ascribed to the work of of Samas Utu ', indicating the deity or demon gods or of demons acting as the agents of gods thought responsible for them. The god or for the punishment of sin. Particular demons demon is said to 'seize' the vic ti m.

In art, a were thought likely to cause specific diseases. In a Neo- 14,54 'the hand of god', 'the hand of a ghost Assyrian prayer, a sufferer pleads forgiveness gidim ', 'the hand of Istar Inana ', 'the hand for his unwitting offence of a god or goddess 'whom I know or whom I do not know'. Such diseases were treated by the exorcist see priests and priestesses.

Some illnesses which we should regard as psychological were referred to as the work of demons; psychologi- cal illness could also be caused by sorcery see magic an d sorcery. In some cases a distinc ti on seems to have been made between such divine or demonically originating illness and more 'naturally' occur- ring condi ti ons although the causes were not known.

For the treatment of the latter type of diseases a different priest was usually involved, who practised a primi tive form of medicine. However, the functions of this 'general practi- 55 tioner' and the exorcist overlapped and were to some extent interchangeable. If the type of dis- 55 Nergal, god of the underworld, instructs a ease was unclear, both priests would be called lion-demon in the punishment of a sinner, a graphic rendering of seizure by disease.

Detail in, and a common complaint was that neither from a cylinder seal of the Old Babylonian had been able to effect a cure.

It course of the disease.

Among around him, which can be interpreted the skeletons from Shanidar Cave in the Zag- divined by experts with specialist knowledge. Particularly important from Sumerian atrophied right arm, the lower part of which times was extispicy, in which the liver, lungs or had been successfully amputated before his colon spiral of a specially slaughtered young death in a rock-fall. By the Old Babylonian Period, the Babylonians included ingredients such as extispicy was highly developed and had a com- honey and syrup of dates, as well as varied and plex technical vocabulary.

Also used were lec- apparently secret substances. Ne- 'snake-skin'. Other medicinal agents included cromancy calling up the spirits of the dead warm and cold baths, the rubbing of oils into was used only rarely and considered to be the body and blood-letting. Mesopotamian dangerous. The study of celestial omens astro- tion of drains for the proper disposal of sewage, logical and meteorological came to surpass and in battle the use of large trenches for mass even extispicy in popularity and survived until burial.

Models of the liver, used for instruction after the end of Mesopotamian civilisation. This re- branch of the subject with its own specialised futes the claim of the Greek historian Hero- practitioners.

They were See dogs; galla; 'hands-of-Istar'; Nergal. Often they accom- Gula; Ninisina.

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It is covered with writing giving the prognostications derived from signs observed in the various part gan, and was probably used as an aid in teaching divina tion. Human misfortune and diseases and also on a much more homely level as a form were often regarded as an indica ti on of divine of personal fortune-telling —'likenation played displeasure.

Behind the theory of divination, an important part in decision-making. Rulers were careful to barrel, who knows what is going on inside? Offerings see vene vene to some extent in human life. Indeed attached specifically to any individual deity. They were 57 bility of divine intervention in mortals' affairs. Whether they were magically The sitting dog first occurs as a divine symbol protective or dedicatory or served some other in the Old Babylonian Period and continues purpose is unclear.

Insc riptions It has been suggested that the disease of 79,90 on kudurrus identify it as the symbol of rabies was present in Mesopotamia by the Gula, goddess of healing. An Old Babylonian beginning of the second millennium BC and dog figurine from Girsu modern Tello is more widespread during the first millennium dedicated see dedication to Ninisina Gula BC. That it con- also lions.

A dog is long upright ears, probably those of a donkey. The lion-demon is depicted with 32,99, the goddess, sitting and supporting the symbol leonine ears in the Akkadian Period, but there- of the crook.

The evil 57 Five little clay models of dogs. They had been placed in a hollow at the base of a monumental stone relief on one side of a doorway in the royal palace of the Assyrian king Assurbanipal reigned —c. They are painted in different colours and inscribed in exact conformity to the prescription of written rituals, which denote their purpose as one of protective magic. Her as a branch of divination. When such crea- The importance attached to dreams can be tures were copied in arts outside Mesopotamia seen, for example, in the number of dream the ears were generally altered to those of a episodes related in the stories of Gilgames, lion, an interesting example of lack of 'under- in both the Sumerian and Akkadian versions.

Here they are used as a literary device to open a However, in Greek art the griffin retained its window upon subsequent events and, by their long ears, and these passed into the icono- consequent effects upon the protagonists, as a graphy of medieval and modern European catalyst for moving the story on.

In the Stan- griffins and dragons. He has a lion in such demonic hybrids might have series of three dreams concerning the projected seemed an appropriate combination of wild campaign against Humbaba Huwawa. Then animals. For Enkidu's 'death- See griffin; standards, staves and sceptres dream', the Hittite version apparently sub- of the gods. Gudea, ruler like body. Mesopotamian art —c. The appearance of the other hybrids such as the lion-dragon might goddess before the king was also seen in a also be regarded as dragon-like images.

No dream In Sumerian poetry, usumgal, a serpentine episodes are related in the Assyrian royal monster, can be a metaphor for a god or king; it annals before Assurbanipal's reign. Yet is is a term of praise and not necessarily evil or seems that their portents were earlier con- unpleasant. Since Freud and his successors in psycho- Archaeological excavations have unearthed a analysis, dreams have usually been regarded as set of doors of the temple, which were decor- the direct or more oblique references of the ated with bands of bronze depicting scenes subconscious mind to events of the immediate from the king's campaigns.

Other similar sets or more distant past. Throughout antiquity, of doors, of Assurnasirpal and his son and suc- however, and indeed until the late nineteenth cessor Shalmaneser III, were found in the century AD, dreams were normally regarded as neighbouring palaces.

Here, we and has therefore been interpreted as a 'world guess, the king would hope for dreams porten- mountain' where the Anuna gods lived in pri- ding the outcome of the coming battles.

From mordial times and where elements of human another site ancient Huzirina, in Turkey we culture agriculture, animal husbandry, weav- have a fragment of a poem, rather in the epic ing, etc.

An of his campaigns. Since death sense have contributed to the development of is the future for all men, there were dreams of human civilisation. Most likely the phrase the afterlife.

Enkidu's death-dream is an 'mountain of heaven and earth' is intended to example. There is also an account of a dream of imply the world at the time before heaven and an Assyrian prince thought by some to be earth were separated from each other see Assurbanipal at a time before he became king cosmology. That Enkidu was able to have a of the cosmic Du-ku. The god Dumuzi is a shepherd god.

In a dis- A compilation of dream omens has survived. The predic- flicting interests of the pastoralist. When tions seem to be based upon precedent. That Inana visits the underworld, and cannot is to say that the recorded subjects of the return without a substitute to take her place, dreams represent actual dreams reported by demons come to fetch her beloved young hus- individuals, while the prognostications record band Dumuzi to replace her.

In this way the events that subsequently took place in the Dumuzi died and became a god of the under- lives of the respective dreamers. Occasionally world. In the Sacred Marriage, in which alternative predictions are offered, presumably Sumerian kings were ritually married to Inana, based upon the repo rt s of similar dreams with the king was identified with Dumuzi. In differing sequels. The array of dream subjects another tradition, Dumuzi and Ningiszida are listed is itself of interest: Dumuzi and related deities is complex and There were specialised dream-interpreters bewildering.

The Dumuzi worshipped at Bad- see priests and priestesses. The Dumuzi worshipped at Uruk as the husband of Inana was connected with nearby Du-ku Kuara and was also, in one account, thought In Sumerian mythology, the Du-ku 'holy to have been an early king of Uruk.

He has 58 a warrior hero. In some Sumerian poetry, variously be preted as a dancer in rituals Dumuzi is also referred to as 'my Damu'. The haps Ezekiel 8: In Early Dyn- mia and other areas of the ancient astic Lagas the sixth month of the year was Near East.

According to Sumerian tradition, The god Dumuzi and the stories concerning Eridu was the first city and the E-abzu the old- him do not seem to be depicted in Meso- est coveredxcavations conducted at the site, potamian art. A local goddess of the village Kinunir near See temples and temple architecture. The city had been built, according to Duttur: The temenos or sacred enclosure of E-ana, as dwarf known from excavations, was constructed over Persons of arrested growth have in many soci- a long period of time by a number of different eties been the butt of humour, often employed rulers, including Ur-Nammu reigned z as entertainers and fools.

For Mesopotamia there is no evidence of Achaemenid Persian rulers including Cyrus such a practice, but on southern Mesopotamian and Darius had building programmes in this area.

See sac rifice and offering; temples an d temple architecture. Egyptian ideas about death and the Assyrian aristocracy seems to have cultivated afterlife, cosmology and the nature and form of some taste for Egyptian artwork, and palaces the gods in Egypt often in animal form were might contain furniture carved, panelled or in- so alien to Mesopotamian concepts that they laid with Egyptian or Egyptianising designs.

Of Egyptian gods, only the dwarf 33 god Bes — or at least his physical form — was E-kur adopted widely throughout the ancient Near The E-kur Mountain House': The E-kur directly, and to have been assimilated because was sometimes described as having a cosmo- of its close similarity to the pre-existing solar logical role as the 'mooring-rope' of heaven disc. Adjacent to it stood the ziggurat Only two other Egyptian symbols appear Dur-an-ki Bond of heaven and earth': It is described in and seventeenth centuries sc.

The motif some detail in a hymn from the reign of Ur- appears to be used as a decorative element, Nammu, in which the mythological scenes on devoid of its original meaning.

Imdugud kills a lion, More common on Syrian seals from about while an eagle seizes a wrongdoer. These include: His minister was the two-faced honoured in Elam.

This Enki whose name is Enkig in full is not the same as Enlil's ances- E-mah: Enki's most important cult centre was the E-meslam: E-abzu Abzu House' at Eridu. As a provider of fresh water and a creator god see creation E-mete-ursag: In the epics of Enbilulu: In the Sumerian poem E-ninnu: Inana and Enki' he controls the me con- Enki Ea cerned with every aspect of human life, and in Enki Akkadian Ea was god of the subter- 'Enki and the World Order' he has the role of organising in detail every feature of the ranean freshwater ocean abzu , and was especially associated with wisdom, magic and civilised world.

He is sometimes called by the horns and a long, pleated robe. Streams of 60 water flow from his arms to the ground, some- times with little fish swimming along the flow. Often the god is shown receiving worshippers or bearers of offerings, or else he receives the bird-man, brought before him as a prisoner 88 under guard, or the lion-demon.

These might be introduced by other gods, most commonly by Enki's minister Isimud. Sometimes Enki is 19 shown seated within a structure, the abzu, or else his E-abzu shrine, surrounded by chan- nels of water.

The god's other symbols were a curved stick terminating in a ram's head see stan- 76 dards, staves and sceptres of the gods and a 60 The water god Ea and his two-faced minister turtle. In the Akkadian epic he is the hero's friend and equal Enlil Ellil companion. Enlil Akkadian Ellil is one of the most 41,69 For the tales of his life, exploits and death, important gods in the Mesopotamian pan- and for representations in art, see Gilgames.

According to one Sumerian poem, the See afterlife; Bull of Heaven; Huwawa; other gods might not even look upon his splen- underworld.

Sometimes he is said to be the offspring of An, and brother of the goddess Aruru see Enkimdu mother goddesses and birth goddesses. He The god Enkimdu is 'lord of dike and canal' is also described as a descendant of Enki and or, in the disputation between him and the Ninki 'Lord and Lady Earth' , not connected shepherd god Dumuzi, 'of dike, canal and with the god Enki.

His wife is Ninlil or Sud. A third god, Ennugi, Ennugi. Nusku is Enlil's minister. Other Enki is served by a number of creatures who images used to describe his personality are inhabit the watery depths of the abzu. He is also called sometimes by the realises that she has stolen the me from him. Although he is in one text Next are the 'fifty giants of E ri du', then the referred to as East Wind and North Wind, 'fifty lahama of the engur'. Engur is a synonym there is no evidence to connect the name Ellil of abzu.

The Kassites worshipped Ellil at their the great gateway of a temple. See Assur; Nusku; snake-dragon; tablet The terms enkum and ninkum are also the of destinies. Similarly abgal Enmesarra is also the name of a temple official among the Enmesarra is a god connected with the under- clergy of Eridu.

The suisuru a type of pigeon was In the Sumerian poem 'Enki and Ninmah', associated with him. Seven or sometimes another group of creatures, the sig-en-sig-du, eight minor deities were regarded as his help Ninmah to create mankind by preparing children. See Seven gods. See Gestinana. He is regarded as believed by the Sumerians to be the first city a son of Enlil, or else of Enmesarra; and his and to be at least , years old!

Excavations 3 wife is the goddess Nanibgal. He maybe iden- have revealed that the site now called Abu tical to Gugal-ana, first husband of Ereskigal.

Shahrain is very ancient indeed, but in his- He is also associated with the underworld. Originally the marshes came close to Eridu, Enzag and fish offerings were regularly made to the Enzag is one of the gods created by the union of god see sac ri fice and offering.

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The temple of Enki and Ninhursaga. As a result of their processions of the gods by other gods travel- union, Ninhursaga gives birth one after ling in their boats see boats of the gods. Its another to eight divinities. Museum, Baghdad. Sometimes in incantation rituals see magic Ereskigal and sorcery , the magician is told 'Now you Ereskigal, whose name can be translated cast the Spell of E ridu', although we never 'Queen of the Great Below', is also known in learn what the Spell of Eridu was — possibly it Akkadian as Allatu.

She is the goddess who was a secret formula that was transmitted rules the underworld, mother of the goddess orally. Enki, of course, was closely involved Nungal and, by Enlil, of the god Namtar, who with magic. Eres- See Adapa; altars; Seven Sages; temples kigal's first husband was the god Gugal-ana, and temple architecture. Inana tries to gain entry to the underworld by claiming that she has come to a ttend the funeral Esagil rites of Gugal-ana, the 'husband of my elder Esagil, the 'Lofty House', is the name of the sister Ereskigal'.

The son of Ereskigal and temple of Marduk at Babylon. It stood on the Gugal-ana was the god Ninazu.

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In another Processional Way adjacent to a very large tradition, Ereskigal married the god Nergal, enclosure incorporating the ziggurat E- as related in the poem 'Nergal and Ereskigal'.

The lived peaceably together in a tree, until one day principal shrines were those of Marduk and his the eagle gobbled up the serpent's young. The temple precinct measured serpent went crying to Samas Utu who sug- about metres square. Esagil was already in gested a course of action. Concealed in the existence in Old Babylonian times but was belly of a dead ox, the serpent lay in wait for the considerably rebuilt by Nebuchadnezzar II eagle to come to eat from the carcass.

He then reigned BC. The incredible wealth wrought a terrible revenge, catching the bird, of the temple was mentioned by the Greek his- breaking his 'heel', plucking him and hurling torian Herodotus, who described Babylon in him into a deep pit. The ziggurat was in ruins Etana meanwhile had his own problems. Samas accorded cosmic significance as the 'mooring counselled him to rescue and befriend the post of heaven and earth'. Illustrated Melloni's Illustrated Medical Dictionary.

The New Breed II. Growing Cacti and Succulents. Cambridge Illustrated Dictionary of Astronomy. Illustrated Pocket Dictionary of Chromatography. Forensic Science -An Illustrated Dictionary. Collins Illustrated Dictionary for Children. Cambridge illustrated dictionary of astronomy. Forensic Science: An Illustrated Dictionary. Focal Illustrated Dictionary of Telecommunications. Recommend Documents. The new illustrated dictionary Brentamine reaction A chemical used for the detection of acid phosphatase, this enzyme is found in high concentrations in seminal fluid.

This chemical reagent is a preliminary screening test for the presence of prostatic acid phosphatase in seminal fluid or on seminal-stained evidence. This reaction relies on the liberation of naphthol from sodium-naphthly phosphate by the enzyme, acid phosphatase, and the concomitant formation of a purple azo dye by the coupling of naphthol with buffered Brentamine Fast Blue B Figure B.

Bridge A device attached to a network cable to connect two like topologies. Brief A written statement prepared by one side in a lawsuit to explain to the court its view of the facts of a case and the applicable law.

Broach Rifling tool consisting of a series of circular cutting tools mounted on a long rod. The rifling is cut in on pass of the broach through the gun barrel. Broad sense heritability H2 The proportion of total phenotypic variance at the population level that is contributed by genetic variance. This narrowing increases the resistance of air flow into the lungs and may cause a shortness of breath typically associated with wheezing.

Browning Arms Co. A firearms manufacturer. Brutalization The proposition that the use of capital punishment actually increases the crime rate by sending a message that it is acceptable to kill those who have wronged us. One BTU equals calories. Buccal cells Cells derived from the inner cheek lining. These cells are present in the saliva or can be gently scraped from the inner cheek surface.

Buckshot Lead pellet ranging in size from 0. Buffer Computer science An area of memory in which information is stored while the computer is on.