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Show description. Read Online or Download Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge (14th Edition) PDF. Similar textbook books. Sociology (14th Edition). Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge, Twelfth Edition William A. Haviland, Harald E. L. Prins, Dana Walrath, Bunny McBride. Senior Acquisitions Editor. Cultural Anthropology The Human Challenge 14th Edition human survival depends on every individual being fit. c. a correctly functioning culture has.
Thus, the fi rst and most obvious task of our text is to provide a thorough introduction to the discipline— its foundations as a domain of knowledge and its major insights into the rich diversity of humans as a culturemaking species. In doing this, we draw from the research and ideas of a number of traditions of anthropological thought, exposing students to a mix of theoretical perspectives and methodologies. Such inclusiveness reflects our conviction that different approaches offer distinctly important insights about human biology, behavior, and beliefs. If most students start out with only a vague sense of what anthropology is, they often have less clear—and potentially more problematic—views of the superiority of their own culture and its place in the world. A secondary task for this text, then, is to prod students to appreciate the rich complexity and breadth of human behavior.
Chapter 7: Patterns of Subsistence Here we investigate the various ways humans meet their basic needs and how societies adapt through culture to the environment. We begin with a discussion of adaptation, followed by profi les on modes of subsistence in which we look at food-foraging and food-producing societies—pastoralism, crop cultivation, and industrialization.
Chapter 8: Economic Systems In this chapter covering the production, distribution, and consumption of goods, we delve into such matters as the control of resources natural, technological, labor and types of labor division gender, age, cooperative labor, craft specialization. A section on distribution and exchange defi nes various forms of reciprocity with a detailed and illustrated description of the Kula ring and a new discussion of silent trade , along with redistribution and market exchange.
The discussion on leveling mechanisms has been revised and expanded, with new narratives on cargos and the potlatch including a rare and remarkable contemporary potlatch photograph. Particulars addressed in this chapter include the incest taboo, endogamy and exogamy, dowry and bride-price, cousin marriage, same-sex marriage, divorce, residence patterns, and non-family households.
Updated defi nitions of marriage, family, nuclear family, and extended family encompass current real-life situations around the world, as does a discussion of how new reproductive technologies NRTs are impacting the ways humans think about and form families.
Chapter Kinship and Descent This chapter marks out the various forms of descent groups and the roles descent plays as an integrated feature in a cultural system. Details and examples are presented concerning lineages, clans, phratries, and moieties highlighting Hopi Indian matriclans and Scottish highland patriclans, among others , followed by illustrated examples of a representative range of kinship systems and their kinship terminologies. Chapter Grouping by Gender, Age, Common Interest, and Class This much refi ned chapter includes discussions of grouping by gender, age, common interest, and class or social rank.
The section on age grouping features revised and new ethnographic material from the Mundurucu of Brazil, and the Tiriki and Maasai of East Africa. Commoninterest group examples range from the Shriners to the Preface Crips to the Jewish diaspora.
Touching on religion and cultural change, this chapter looks at revitalization movements and new material on indigenous Christian churches in Africa. Of special note are the many new and evocative photographs. We mark the functions of law and the ways different societies deal with crime, including new sentencing laws in Canada based on traditional Native American restorative justice techniques such as the Talking Circle.
Then, shifting our focus from maintaining order within a society to political organization and external affairs, we discuss warfare and present a 5,year overview of armed confl icts among humans right up to today.
Chapter Spirituality, Religion, and the Supernatural Opening with a description of the anthropological approach to religion and noting current distinctions between religion and spirituality, this chapter goes on to discuss beliefs concerning supernatural beings and forces gods and goddesses, ancestral spirits, animism, and animatism , religious specialists priests and priestesses, as well as shamans , and rituals and ceremonies rites of passage and rites of intensification.
A section on religion, magic, and witchcraft high- This chapter explores in detail three key categories of art—visual, verbal, and musical—illustrating what they reveal about and what functions they play in societies.
A long and detailed discussion about aesthetic and interpretive approaches to analyzing art, as applied to rock art in southern Africa has been shortened and reworked to make it more lively and engaging. Also new in this chapter is the Globalscape highlighting the work of a Ghanaian custom coffi n maker that is gaining global recognition as art. Chapter Processes of Change The themes and terminology of globalization are woven through this chapter, which includes defi nitions that distinguish progress from modernization, rebellion from revolution, and acculturation from enculturation.
Here, we discuss mechanisms of change—innovation, diff usion, and cultural loss, as well as repressive change. Our exploration of the latter covers acculturation, ethnocide, and genocide, citing a range of the all-too-many repressive-change examples from around the world—including a new discussion of ethnocide in Tibet.
This chapter also looks at reactions to such change, including revitalization movements, rebellions, and revolutions. A discussion on modernization touches on the issue of xxviii Preface self-determination among indigenous peoples and highlights two contrasting cases: Skolt Lapp reindeer herders in Finland, and Shuar Indians of Ecuador. Also featured are the historical profi le of applied or practical anthropology and the emergence of action or advocacy anthropology in collaboration with indigenous societies, ethnic minorities, and other besieged or repressed groups.
Chapter Global Challenges, Local Responses, and the Role of Anthropology Our fi nal chapter zeroes in on numerous global challenges confronting the human species today—and prods students to use the anthropological tools they have learned to think critically about these issues and take informed steps to help bring about a future in which humans live in harmony with each other and the nature that sustains us all.
Sections on global culture and ethnic resurgence look at Westernization and its counterforce of growing nationalism and the breakup of multi-ethnic states. We present examples of resistance to globalization, and discuss pluralism and multiculturalism. We defi ne and illustrate the term structural power and its two branches—hard power military and economic might and soft power media might that gains control through ideological influence.
ExamView Computerized Test Bank Create, deliver, and customize tests and study guides both print and online in minutes with this easy to use assessment and tutorial system. You can build tests of up to questions using up to twelve question types. You can add your own lecture notes and images to create a customized lecture presentation. Students may feel uncomfortable talking about sensitive subjects such as sexuality or religion.
JoinIn gives students complete anonymity and helps students feel connected to the issues. Give students a quick quiz during or after the chapter lecture and determine if they have understood the material. All of the work integrating clicker questions into the chapter lecture slides has been done for you!
Enhance how your students interact with you, your lecture, and each other. For college and university adopters only. Contact your local Thomson representative to learn more. Wadsworth Anthropology Video Library Qualified adopters may select full-length videos from an extensive library of offerings drawn from such excellent educational video sources as Films for the Humanities and Sciences. Each video contains approximately 60 minutes of footage originally broadcast on ABC within the past several years.
The videos are broken into short 2- to 7-minute segments, perfect for classroom use as lecture launchers or to illustrate key anthropological concepts.
An annotated table of contents accompanies each video, providing descriptions of the segments and suggestions for their possible use within the course.
A Guide to Visual Anthropology Prepared by Jayasinhji Jhala of Temple University, this guide provides a compendium of fi fty of the most outstanding classic and contemporary anthropological fi lms.
The guide describes the fi lms, tells why they are important, and gives suggestions for their use in the classroom. Online Resources for Instructors and Students Anthropology Resource Center This online center offers a wealth of information and useful tools for both instructors and students in all four fields of anthropology. It includes interactive maps, learning modules, video exercises, breaking news in anthropology, and a case study forum with short synopses of case studies and critical thinking questions written by the authors.
For instructors, the Resource Center includes a gateway to time-saving teaching tools, such as an image bank, sample syllabi, and more. To get started with the Anthropology Resource Center, students and instructors are directed to www. Book Premium Companion Website Access to this text-specific website is available free when bundled with the text or for download at a nominal fee.
This site includes: learning modules on key cultural anthropology concepts, animations, interactive exercises, map exercises, video exercises with questions, tutorial quizzes with feedback, and essay questions, all of which can be e-mailed to professors. Thomson InSite for Writing and Research with Turnitin Originality Checker InSite features a full suite of writing, peer review, online grading, and e-portfolio applications.
It is an all-in-one tool that helps instructors manage the flow of papers electronically and allows students to submit papers and peer reviews online.
Also included in the suite is Turnitin, an originality check that offers a simple solution for instructors who want a strong deterrent against plagiarism, as well as encouragement for students to employ proper research techniques.
Access is available for pack- xxx Preface aging with each copy of this book. InfoTrac College Edition InfoTrac College Edition is an online library that offers full-length articles from thousands of scholarly and popular publications. To get started with InfoTrac College Edition, students are directed to www. Supplements for Students Thomson Audio Study Products fects of globalization at the local level, and the dynamics and meanings of change in four key areas, including challenges to identity and power; changing gender hierarchies; new patterns of migration and mobility; and the effects of economic change and modernization.
Stockard Select from more than sixty classic and contemporary ethnographies representing geographic and topical diversity. Newer case studies focus on culture change and culture continuity, reflecting the globalization of the world. Young Thomson Audio Study Products provide audio reinforcement of key concepts students can listen to from their personal computer or MP3 player.
Created specifically for this edition of Haviland et al. Students may download access to Thomson Audio Study Products for this text online at www. Framed around social issues, these new contemporary case studies are globally comparative and represent the cutting-edge work of anthropologists today.
Telecourse Study Guide A new telecourse, Cultural Anthropology: Our Diverse World, available in the fall of provides online and print companion study guide options that include study aids, interactive exercises, videos, and more. Human Environment Interactions by Cathy Galvin Cathy Galvin provides students with an introduction to the basic concepts in human ecology, before discussing cultural ecology, human adaptation studies, human behavioral ecology—including material on systems approaches and cognitive and critical approaches—and political ecology.
She concludes the module with a discussion of resilience and global change as a result of human—environment interactions today, and the tools used. Acknowledgments In this day and age, no textbook comes to fruition without extensive collaboration. Beyond the shared endeavors of our author team, this book owes its completion to a wide range of individuals, from colleagues in the discipline to those involved in the production process.
We are particularly grateful for the remarkable group of manuscript reviewers listed below. They provided unusually detailed and thoughtful feedback that helped us to hone and re-hone our narrative. Our decisions on how to utilize their suggestions were influenced by our own perspectives on anthropology and teaching, combined with the priorities and page limits of this text. Thus, neither our reviewers, nor any of the other anthropologists mentioned here, should be held responsible for any shortcomings in this book.
Green, Marvin Harris, Michael M. Weiner, Dennis Werner, and R. Among these individuals we particularly want to acknowledge our admiration, affection, and appreciation for our mutual friend and colleague Jim Petersen, whose life came to an abrupt and tragic end while returning from fieldwork in the Brazilian site. We have debts of gratitude to office workers in our departments for their cheerful help in clerical matters: Debbie Hedrick, Karen Rundquist, Emira Smailagic, Gretchen Gross, and Sheri Youngberg.
And to research librarian extraordinaire Nancy Bianchi and colleagues Yvette Pigeon, John Fogarty, Lewis First, Martin Ottenheimer, Harriet Ottenheimer, and Michael Wesch for engaging in lively discussions of anthropological and pedagogical approaches. Also worthy of note here are the introductory anthropology teaching assistants who, through the years, have shed light for us on effective ways to reach new generations of students.
Our thanksgiving inventory would be incomplete without mentioning individuals at Wadsworth Publishing who helped conceive this text and bring it to fruition. Special gratitude goes to Senior Acquisitions Editor Lin Marshall for her vision, vigor, and anthropological knowledge and to Developmental Editor Julie Cheng for her calming influence and attention to detail.
We are especially thankful to have had the opportunity to work once again with copyeditor Jennifer Gordon and production coordinator Robin Hood, who bring calm efficiency and grace to the demands of meeting difficult deadlines.
And fi nally, all of us are indebted to family members who have not only put up with our textbook preoccupation, but cheered us on in the endeavor.
Dana had the tireless support and keen eye of husband Peter Bingham—along with the varied contributions of their three sons Nishan, Tavid, and Aram Bingham. As coauthor spouses under the same roof, Harald and Bunny have picked up slack for each other on every front to help this project move along smoothly. He holds a Ph. He has carried out original research in archaeology in Guatemala and Vermont; ethnography in Maine and Vermont; and physical anthropology in Guatemala.
This work has been the basis of numerous publications in various national and international books and journals, as well as in media intended for the general public. His books include The Original Vermonters, coauthored with Marjorie Power, and a technical monograph on ancient Maya settlement. He also served as technical consultant for the award-winning telecourse, Faces of Culture, and is coeditor of the series Tikal Reports, published by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.
Besides his teaching and writing, Dr. Haviland has lectured to numerous professional, as well as, nonprofessional audiences in Canada, Mexico, Lesotho, South Africa, and Spain, as well as in the United States. A staunch supporter of indigenous rights, he served as expert witness for the Missisquoi Abenakis of Vermont in an important court case over aboriginal fishing rights. Awards received by Dr. Now retired from teaching, he continues his research, writing, and lecturing from the coast of Maine.
Most recently, Dr. Macionis empowers scholars to appreciate the area round them via a sociological lens, to allow them to larger comprehend sociology and their very own lives.
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It describes how endangered indigenous groups use aesthetic traditions as part of their cultural and economic survival strategy.
Copyright Cengage Learning. The social sciences examine human relationships, leaving artistic and philosophical aspects of human cultures to the humanities. Anthropology focuses on the interconnections and interdependence of all aspects of the human experience in all places, in the present and deep into the past, well before written history.
This unique, broad holistic perspective equips anthropologists to address that elusive thing we call human nature. Anthropologists welcome the contributions of researchers from other disciplines, and in return offer their own findings to these other disciplines. Though some transplants rely upon living donors, routine organ transplantation depends largely upon the availability of organs obtained from individuals who have died.