PDF | This article deals with the importance of cosmopolitanism as a world force in relation to Europeisation and to process of global social transformation, and in what way a cosmopolitan political project is required. DEUTSCH, Eliot (ed.) . Cosmopolitan UK - - Cosmopolitan UK - pdf. МБ. Cosmopolitan UK - pdf. МБ. Cosmopolitan UK - pdf. English; Nederlands; Deutsch; Français; Español Tynevalley Cosmopolitan. ( Meridian x Freddie) Tirsvad Freddie Cosmopolitan VGNL VGMS 2yr.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Hindi|
|Genre:||Academic & Education|
|ePub File Size:||19.68 MB|
|PDF File Size:||18.78 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Register to download]|
In this article, we investigate cosmopolitan attitudes among the people often considered the most cosmopolitan – the elite. Studying the typical. 98 Cosmopolitan Savages The Challenging Art of Selling African Culture to Tourists Vanessa Visual Anthropol- André Deutsch. ogy Ole Saitoti. Deutschland” both performed and prescribed a doctrine of public monolingualism . In this article, I propose that an ideal of cosmopolitan linguistic unity has.
The publication of this collection of essays was financed by the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and by the Deutsch-Tschechischer Zukunftsfonds. Readers: Prof. OR Dr. Special thanks are due to Dr. This is a Peer Pressure: Imitation and Emulation very complex theme, not only because the concept of cultural transfer is a complex theme, but also The interaction between patron and artist was not an because the Early Modern court is an extremely isolated process, taking place in a closed, solipsistic complex organisation. In the space at my disposal I universe: on the contrary, both sides imported ideas, can only touch on a few of the topics which I think hunches, questions and motivations of their own, are important, and illustrate these with only a few and these were in many cases derived from elsewhere examples. Some of these will be taken from the ca- both within and without the field of the visual arts.
The entire repertoire of orna- ralism, red blankets and beaded ornaments, form part ments used and photographed so much today was of an image that evolved and has been designed through developed within a period of twenty years at the end of interaction with Europe and Europeans.
Maasai moved to disappointment of the tourists who discover this, Kenya and Tanzania relatively recently, coming from imported from Scotland. Sudan during the first millennium AD, and grew Maasai cultural heritage, including ways of dressing sorghum and millet besides holding livestock.
Waller and modes of income generation, consist of some tradi- The image of Maasai as a timeless, farmers and hunters, practising pure pastoralism only untouched people is a projected and idealised imagina- during a short period of time in the 18th and 19th centu- tive, like the noble savage ideal itself. Both are illusory ries. Before and after this period most Maasai engaged constructions which have been designed and have in non-pastoralist modes of production, and a consid- evolved in interplay with European conceptions.
The positive noble public. Different Maasai age-sets who used to paint savage Maasai image has a negative counterpart. Both who live in chaos and need to be civilised or controlled examples provide some historical context to the ways in Nederveen Pieterse Modernity in Europe was which Maasai are regarded and treated today.
Conse- socialist nation. These descriptions were a decolonising Tanzanian culture and reinvoking the result of the ambiguous associations with modernity as African roots that supposedly had remained untouched well as the German and British incentives to appropriate by colonisation.
Maasai were cele- carrying a spear was featured on the hundred-shilling brated as noble savages, but at the same time treated as note, which was given out by the nationalised Tanza- citizens of the lowest order. The Tanzanian then nian banks until Tanganyikan colonial administration, for example, Overall however, the socialist Tanzanian govern- forced Maasai to travel on a special back bench on public ment continued to fuel the image of Maasai as a symbol buses, separated from the rest of the bus by a wall.
The of backwardness, as they did not fit its idea of develop- rationale given for this was that Maasai would smell ment, modernity and national unity. In the s it bad, were often naked and carried weapons Talle I will give two Maasai were prohibited from entering public facilities examples. The first example describes some of the stig- such as medical institutions. The Tanzanian state matising practices post colonial Tanzania has inflicted portrayed the campaign as anti-imperialist and anti- upon Maasai.
Supposedly based upon the Tanzanian state. Internally, however, Maasai symbols modern man. By proclaiming its presuppositions as are also used as images of culture: Today, the Tanzanian state glorifies Maasai tradi- tion in its tourist advertisements, and the official site of the Tanzanian Tourist Board features photos of Maasai in their traditional attire.
D which can be found in abundance in souvenir stalls, at airports and at tourist markets such as the Arusha Maasai market, where it is sold as a symbol by which to remember the Tanzanian nation. My second example focuses on Kenya and demon- strates the same contradiction between Maasai people as a symbol of backwardness and a symbol of national pride. It further underlines that Maasai images are used not only to represent the nation to outsiders such as tourists, but also internally to its own citizens.
According to the noble savage imagery, Maasai are here presented as one part of the natural beauty that ]7. Colonial forces had artifacts, and are generally identified as such. As a reaction to this, after independence African West, especially during colonial and early postcolonial leaders emphasised the existence and value of African times. More than other ethnic groups, Maasai resisted culture s Marschall Their resistance has predominantly tion, strength, and an identity independent from the been passive.
When Maasai were displaced from most West. As a result, the Maasai spears and shields were of their land during the massive and chosen as the main symbols for the national flag. This was Maasai remained disinterested in a western way of to the surprise of the colonial forces who, as a result of living and education of their children for some time the bloodthirsty image of the Maasai, expected explo- after independence. The Kenyan nation and most of its sive situations. Maasai warriors confronted the British citizens have, however, increasingly directed themselves violently on only a few occasions, and always as a result towards modernisation, following a western lead.
Non-passive resistance took Contemporary Kenyans often label Maasai in a negative place, for example, in , against the British forced way, as conservative people who reject or even fiercely recruitment of Maasai children for school, in resist the gifts of civilisation.
When during my interactions with land Neckebrouck When the want to live with these people. When I would ask why, country became independent, this hierarchical order they would tell me that Maasai do not wash themselves, flipped. This distinction and resistance is Maasailand, and worried about my plans. Nevertheless, even years later when the association of beadwork with the primitive is exactly I am having a hard time with studying or travelling and what makes it so popular with tourists.
Tourism is one send my Taita brother a text message, he replies: D this way of dressing through Operation Dress-Up. Like other informants he tells me how with their third main objective, which is promoting the important education is for Maasai today.
During colo- survival of what they feel are their cultural traditions, nial times Maasai hid their children from the authori- which they perceive as being in danger of disappearing ties, and it was a common belief that if parents sent a under the influences of the modern world. In fact, they child to school they did not love that child, because believe that Maasai traditions can only have a future sending a Maasai child to school was like losing it.
These when Maasai extend their wealth and education and days, many Maasai value education and lament the lack consciously shelter these traditions.
They try to achieve of educational infrastructure in the areas where they live, these three objectives simultaneously through tourism: Not only to keep wildlife at a distance in the next to the smaller traditional houses of his village. Speaking English and having learned about Westerners and their fascination with Maasai, they have come to understand how important the spear and traditional ways of dressing and living remain for Maasai, in order to be successful in these sectors.
Koinet and his Maasai friend Legishon worked as wage-labourers in the tourism industry, but gave up their relatively well-paid jobs. Together, sometimes in collaboration with overseas ngos and other young Maasai men from the area, they have started several small tourism-related businesses, with a series of objec- tives. Without doubt, personal income generation is important for the Maasai involved, but they also dedicate themselves to projects to develop the wider Maasai community, for instance through better waste disposal, schooling and medical practices.
To them, ]7. The Kenyan state wishes to cater to the mental However, it also has many conveniences: According to this it rains. On from building modern houses.
This is also one of Angry and disappointed because of this, they decide the reasons why there is still only a dirt road leading not to visit the village. The road is regu- Koinet is familiar with the expectations most larly washed away during the rainy season and greatly overseas visitors have of Kenya and their encounter decreases the mobility and business opportunities for with Maasai.
When a group of Japanese tourists local people year round, as travelling it takes a lot of comes to film in his village, he therefore finds it self- time and effort. Transportation by mini bus is very evident that they want to encounter and shoot footage limited around the Mara. If Koinet needs to travel, he of traditional houses and Maasai in red blankets and must get up at five in the morning, and be wary of beads. Before the tourists arrive, he thus summons elephants and other wildlife while walking to the the members of his extended family to change the nearest town, hoping that there will be a vehicle avail- T-shirts and other western-style clothing that some able.
Tourists, in their reliable four-wheel-drive of them are wearing for their traditional garments vehicles, love the idea of the red unpaved track, because and large quantities of beads, so that the Japanese can it fits with their image of true African wilderness. Like most Maasai in the area, he of electricity. Making clever use of the limited infra- has a herd that he loves, but he leaves its daily care structure available, he and his friends have, however, mostly to his family members, since he is often away developed several websites to advertise the tourism- for his work.
Instead of more cattle, he wants to download a related organisations and businesses they have set up.
Land Rover and a laptop to enhance his business. He As a result of all the investments he has made, knows how to use his mobile phone as a modem and insights he has gained and skills he has acquired, Koinet can thus access the internet from his home village, even has managed to attract this group of Japanese people to though to charge the phone and laptop he has to walk his village.
In order with colourful beads, modelling a version of Maasai to appeal to western tourists, Maasai have to carefully traditional life to suit his visitors. Their chance to obtain the good income, alised or even overrun by it.
Koinet knows what Maasai Ole to, western standards. Like many Maasai in the Mara area, packaged holidays spend their time almost exclusively Koinet sells this image of himself in order to be able to at tourist attractions, in luxury hotels, air-conditioned live a cosmopolitan life.
It is commonly associ- ances, they have to be quite sensitive to the culture of ated with the international, elitist, enlightened, their visitors Wijngaarden fc.
In Van den Berghe and modernist and universalist Werbner , They actively attract and facilitate for in their own cultural world, taking their safe encapsula- tourists, communicating directly with them. Maasai tion with them wherever they go. As Tourists largely remain encapsulated is experienced.
Several Many Maasai strive to make personal connec- minutes later, however, he suddenly and violently inter- tions with the tourists to create networks, as tourists rupted his eulogy of western culture, tourism and could support their business and future opportunities.
Many Maasai working in times on different occasions. But his cultures with the ease of experienced cosmopolitans, determined yet patient and complaisant attitude knowing how to dress and what to say, as they are towards tourists has paid off. Take the example of Sironka, who sorts of drinks. I have new and old friends here and was a tourist guide in his twenties when I met him in other parts of the US and life here is very good.
He enthusiastically describes how the Americans love to see him like this. He has become a celebrity at univer- sity, and proudly emails an article written about him in the Clemson University newsletter to his friends. The article shows a portrait of his smiling painted face, his head and neck bedecked with beads, the spear at his side.
I believe that the extraordinary leap his academic career has made in the United States is owed in part to the way in which he vocally and visibly represents his people. Another example of how staging the savage can give access to cosmopolitan lifestyles is the Maasai Buffalo Dance and Cultural Change Group, founded in ]7.
The group is officially registered at the National Depart- Ecotourism and Natural Resource Management at ment of Culture and gives performances in Maasai Clemson University, with a fieldwork project that song and dance, with the mission of promoting Maasai concerns Maasai of the Mara area. It includes over Sironka still adopts the role of the savage now that 25 Maasai men and women, typically aged between 20 he is studying in the United States While working at and The members of the Maasai Buffalo Dance and Mto camp he pointed out to me that in Kenya gener- Cultural Change Group and their families generally ally, Maasai traditional attire is associated with the live in conditions that most Kenyan citizens would little-respected jobs of entertainer or guard.
In the despise: At cultural events in the United States, medical infrastructure and with scant means of trans- Sironka has represented the Kenyan nation dressed in portation. A delegation of the luxurious leather chairs in the lounge, which were Buffalo Dancers has travelled to Japan as well as to the almost all occupied by white tourists.
Most Kenyans adore familiar with European standards and have stayed in the United States, which is worshipped as the symbol what are considered luxury ecotourism camps.
However, of western wealth. It is seen as a place without poverty even to my eyes these tourists looked affluent: Most None of us wanted to be the first to sit down. We cosmopolitan spaces in Kenya are relatively wealthy discussed our feelings of discomfort and whether we environments, where modern technologies and overseas were even supposed to have a drink there at all.
While products are used and Westerners and Africans from a we talked about the odds of being turned away, one of variety of nationalities come together.
The Buffalo the Maasai guys let himself drop into a fauteuil and Dancers have worked with several international ngos, stated that we should be able to take our places, as we the Permanent Presidential Music Commission, the are paying for the drinks like everyone else. Taking their Ministry of Culture and Kenya Tourist Board for state cue to sit down, the men started debating whom among concerts and other events including unep programmes, the personnel they knew at this camp, and how the hotel receiving the certificate of Ambassadors of Change should be grateful to them for bringing clients there.
When they are in Nairobi or in the touristy When the waiter came to us, I worried that he would parts of the Mara area they use the lobbies of expensive tell us to leave, but instead he simply took our order.
The young Maasai men stood out with their black and served their drinks, because in the explicitly skin and bright red traditional garments. Wearing cosmopolitan environment of a posh hotel lobby that is rough sandals instead of shoes and shukas instead of filled with wealthy tourists, traditionally-clad Maasai trousers, it seemed inappropriate for them to sit in the are associated with the noble savage imagery.
The caution that the citizens of Nairobi feel towards Maasai In contemporary Kenya, cosmopolitan and non- might have something to do with the fact that, as the cosmopolitan environments often exist in close prox- young men told me, Maasai are the only people who imity to each other, and Maasai working in the tourism are allowed to wear their weapons in public, and people industry deal with the ambiguity of the savage image in expect them to carry a sword or club among their both environments. The following case exemplifies the garments.
Although a couple of the Buffalo Dancers complex situations this can lead to. Koinet told me that he and his friends some- from various locations. On the day of the performance, times even wear the Maasai shukas specifically because the male members of the group wore their traditional they provide them with increased security in dangerous attire and made their way through the city in groups of areas at night. He believes they and carried traditional items such as a colobus monkey react in this way because some of them regret that they leg piece and a kudu horn to play on.
After Koinet had Parliament, and to represent their culture as well as the changed, he walked through the city with me at a much Kenyan nation to the national and international guests slower pace, behaving in a more relaxed way. We entered of the Tourism Board. Their performance was received the bar without anyone looking up, and, self-assured, with enthusiasm, and subsequently the dancers mixed he placed an order for drinks. In this cosmopolitan environ- are treated in different environments.
At one moment ment with international guests and government offi- the traditionally clad Maasai Buffalo Dancers who cials, the Buffalo Dancers stood out as exotic, and represent their ethnic group can be heroes of the several of the international guests commented to me Kenyan nation, admired by, and interacting with, an how much they loved and admired Maasai culture. While inside explicitly cosmo- When we left the Kenyatta International Confer- politan environments Maasai are celebrated and ence Centre, the Buffalo Dancers split up.
Koinet admired according to the noble savage imagery, outside wanted to take me to a bar but insisted that we should these environments they are generally associated with go to the hotel to change first. He explained that he felt the more negative ignoble savage image. In most envi- he would attract too much attention walking with me ronments it is easier not to stand out as a traditional through the night-time city in his traditional clothes.
Maasai, except maybe for reasons of safety. In their eyes, this will lead ethnic identity. They have pragmatically shifted their Maasai consciously to shelter their traditions, because focus depending on the circumstances, sometimes modernisation is inevitable — in fact, it is already part of turning inwards to a remembered and imagined past, their lives. He concludes with a dilemma for contempo- cultural heritage, as what is presented successfully to rary Maasai: However, gaining access to However, over the past centuries, Maasai have followed these resources means that education and modernisa- their own course despite the celebrations of romantic tion will change their lives.
Waller fears that if Maasai nostalgia as well as civilising projects and practices of adapt successfully, they will lose the interest of the West exclusion put upon them as a result of the ig noble and the resources and opportunities that come with it, savage image.
A special thanks when they visibly present themselves according to the to the local communities, the Kipen family, James savage imagery.
I am part of the elite are generally not recognised as cosmo- indebted to Maude le Corre, Cindy Johnson and the politans in their own environments, even though editors of Etnofoor for their help during the writing anthropologists consider them to be living cosmopol- process.
Often, they do not even consider themselves cosmopolitans. When Ole Saitoti chose a cosmopolitan life this meant an absolute clash with his roots. In his Discourse on Inequality E-mail: In his later work The Social Contract  Rousseau explains that the abuses of the civilised condition degrade civilised men below the state of nature.
Overall, however, 2 Young, R. Columbia Broadcasting System cbs , David L. Wolper Productions, National Geographic Society 60 min. In the latest publication of the Kenya www.
Ethnic tourism is Mara area, is below the Kenyan average undp Even more serious are some of the statistics that figure exotic scene with emphasis on material objects such as buildings, in the Human Poverty Index hpi of the same year: Often the village is presented as a genuine Maasai average undp Manyattas is the anglicised plural of the Maa word that more negative than that of the Maasai. One of the reasons is refers to the village where Maasai men live during their warri- that Maasai signed treaties with the British while Zulu chal- orhood.
Dozens of examples can be found on YouTube by lenged colonial rule Kratz and Gordon ; Sobania In 10 http: Women school and hire their own teachers from distant cities, in order often wear the shukas together with a Swahili kanga, a piece of to give their children a good education.
Bruner, Edward M. Authenticity, Nationalism visited July 25, Although there is a temptation to regard the World Ocean as a medium without biological boundaries, this is far from reality; many physical and biological barriers interfere with either the spread or continued residence of many species.
Again, as far as many species are concerned, the Southern Ocean and the Northern marine regions are completely isolated from each other by the intolerable temperatures of the tropical regions. In the light of such considerations, it is no surprise to find that endemism and cosmopolitanism are quite as marked in the oceans as on land.
Ecological delimitation[ edit ] Another aspect of cosmopolitanism is that of ecological limitations. A species that is apparently cosmopolitan because it occurs in all oceans might in fact occupy only littoral zones , or only particular ranges of depths, or only estuaries , for example. Analogously, terrestrial species might be present only in forests, or mountainous regions, or sandy arid regions or the like.
Such distributions might be patchy, or extended, but narrow. Factors of such a nature are taken widely for granted, so they seldom are mentioned explicitly in mentioning cosmopolitan distributions.
Regional and temporal variation in populations[ edit ] Cosmopolitanism of a particular species or variety should not be confused with cosmopolitanism of higher taxa. For example, the family Myrmeleontidae is cosmopolitan in the sense that every continent except Antarctica is home to some indigenous species within the Myrmeleontidae, but nonetheless no one species, nor even genus, of the Myrmeleontidae is cosmopolitan.
Conversely, partly as a result of human introduction of unnatural apiculture to the New World, Apis mellifera probably is the only cosmopolitan member of its family; the rest of the family Apidae have modest distributions. Even where a cosmopolitan population is recognised as a single species, such as indeed Apis mellifera, there generally will be variation between regional sub-populations.