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A network is a group of two of more computer systems sharing services and interacting in some . Writes Notes on (Draw diagrams when necessary). 1. Types of. An Introduction to Computer Networks. Release 1 An Overview of Networks. Layers. archive of html files, format, and in other formats as may prove useful. Note that . Progress Notes. This work. node can be a computer, printer, or any other device capable of sending and/or Network security issues include protecting data from unauthorized access.

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A Computer network is a network of computers that are geographically distributed , but connected in a manner to enable meaningful transmission and exchange. COMPUTER NETWORKS. Lecture Notes. DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING. SHRI VISHNU ENGINEERING COLLEGE FOR WOMEN. NETWORKING BCA WBUT 5th SEM NOTES - Free download as Word Doc Download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd Computer Network.

The following components widely used for the construction of networks. MAC uses a general technique called random access. This level is responsible for transporting the bits on physical media varied. To access a support, use an access interface. At incoming optical fibers correspond outgoing optical fibers.

Pdf notes computer bca networks for

This additional hardware is positioned between networks and software on each attached computer. Thus, system of interconnected networks is called an inter network or an Internet. The operating system facilitates communications and resource sharing, thereby providing the basic framework for the operation of the LAN.

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The operating system consists of modules that are distributed throughout the LAN environment. Some NOS modules reside in servers, while other modules reside in the clients. By adopting these rules, two devices can communicate with each other and can interchange information.

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We can't even think of using the Internet without Protocols. Each protocol is defined in different terms and different use with unique name.

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Message travel from sender to reciever via a medium The medium is the physical path over which a message travels using a protocol. This single point is called as a central node, hub, or switch, to which all other devices are attached directly, generally via UTP or STP.

This topology is frequently used for networks in which control of the network is located in the central node. This method is optimal when the bulk of communication is between the central and outlying nodes.

If traffic is high between outlying nodes, an undue switching burden is placed on the central node.

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I may unsubscribe at any time. It explores the requirements that different applications and communities place on the network, introduces network architecture basics and options, discusses the networking and IT groups that should be consulted in network design, examines key elements in computer networks and identifies the key metrics used to evaluate the computer network performance.

Davie Morgan Kaufmann, Applications over your network A network must provide connectivity among a set of computers. While some networks limit the number of connected machines, others grow as large as a global wide area network WAN.

Network requirements to accommodate application needs Efficiency is the key requirement of computer networks, which is why networks use packet switching as their main strategy. It's too simplistic to view a computer network as simply delivering packets among a collection of computers, however. A network should be thought of as the way to deliver a set of applications distributed over those computers. Success includes both understanding the applications' requirements and recognizing the limitations of the underlying technology.

The challenge is to fill the gap between what the application needs and what the technology can provide.


Physical layer defines electrical and mechanical specifications of cables, connectors and signaling options that physically link two nodes on a network. That means this layer defines the number of bits sent each second Data rate.

It also defines the type of transmission medium. The data link layer is responsible for reassembling any binary streams received from the physical layer back into frames. The data link layer is also responsible for detecting and correcting any and all errors. This layer adds a header to the frame to defining the sender and receiver of the frame Physical addressing.

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The main task data link layer is to provide error free transmission. The sender break the input data into data frames, transmit the frames sequentially and process the acknowledge frames sent back by receiver. If there is an erroneous frame then data link layer protocol can retransmit the frame. The network layer is taking cared to controlling the operation of the subnet. This layer is responsible for establishing the route to be used between source and destination computers and take responsible for the source to destination delivery of a packet possibly across multiple networks.

The network layer ensures that each packet gets from the original source to the final destination.

This situation is called congestion. This layer control of such congestion Congestion control.

This layer adds a header to the packet coming from the transport layer and includes the logical addresses of the sender and receiver Logical addressing. The basic function of the transport layer is to accept data from session layer and split up into smaller packets then pass to the network layer; ensure that all of them arrive correctly at the other end.

The transport layer is responsible for end-to-end integrity of transmissions. The transport layer can detect packets that are discarded by routers and automatically generate a retransmission request.