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Bahay na bato is a type of building originating during the Philippines' Spanish Colonial Period. Visayas; Batanes. 4 Other buildings; 5 Parts of Bahay na bato; 6 See also; 7 References .. NLP00VMmcd/v2/ The Spanish Colonial Tradition. ^ Kim, Young Hoon (). Bahay na Bato (Geometric Style). Picture. Bahay na Bato (Geometric Style). Picture. Bahay na Bato (Floral Style). Picture. Bahay na Bato (Floral Style). Picture. Start studying Parts of Bahay na Bato. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

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List_ Parts of Bahay Na Bato _ Filipiniana - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. kjchuxhnkxjhicjfsldf. Filipino Uploaded by. Josh Cawaling · Filipino Architecture. Uploaded by. Zarah Candido · List_ Parts of Bahay Na Bato _ Filipiniana The "bahay na bato" (literally translated as "house made of stone") has been .. not only for. tte main framework but also for other parts of the house based on.

You are on page 1of 7 Search inside document Historical Background of Bahay na Bato The 19th century townhouse, called bahay na bato, was a product of economic and social developments, as well as architectural evolution. With the opening of Manila to international trade in and the opening of the Suez Canal in , trade and agricultural production rose to exhilarating heights and increased the fortunes of the native aristocracy, particularly in the provinces. Wealth became the passport to higher education not only in Manila but also in Europe. The elite or principalia included landowners and traders, as well as professionals physicians and accountantsand the highly educated, cosmopolitan illustrado literally, enlightened. The lifestyle and aspirations, and even pretensions of the upper class demanded a new type of dwellingspacious, durable, comfortable, impressive, noble, and elegantthe bahay na bato.

The posts are independent of both stone wall below and wooden walls above. Because they are of exceptionally precious hardwood, they are worth displaying. In short, the nipa hut or bahay kubo gave way to the Bahay na bato stone house and became the typical house of noble Filipinos. The Bahay na bato, the colonial Filipino house, followed the nipa hut's arrangements such as open ventilation and elevated apartments.

The most obvious difference between the two houses would be the materials that were used to build them. The architecture is a mixture of native Filipino, Spanish and Chinese influences. Excellent preserved examples of these houses of the illustrious Filipinos can be admired in Vigan, Ilocos Sur.

In Taal, Batangas, the main street is also lined with examples of the traditional Filipino homes. The bahay na bato represents the apex in the development of indigenous Filipino architecture, because its expands the prototypal structure of the ethnic house from a one-room dwelling to a multi-roomed house of grand scale, while preserving the basic features, and because it adapts Western architectural influences to form a synthesis of native and immigrant art.

The bahay na bato is a product of economic progress and cultural adaptation, and as such is a symbol of the affluent Westernized Filipino. It stands as a reminder of the social situation which has not significantly changed even with the introduction of democracy, public education, and free enterprise.

Spaces inside the Bahay na Bato The living quarters are elevated and are reached through an interior stairway located in the zaguan on the ground floor. The zaguan with its naked stonework is a grim entrance hall but with its abundant space is the perfect storeroom for just about everything.

The stairs are not only a means of access but also the setting for a stately arrival.


One type of roof that was widely used in the Philippines was the multi-inclined roof. It features two or more sections of incline, giving it an interesting form.

Clay roof tiles served as its protective layer, as they eventually replaced flimsy materials like nipa and cogon. Although uniquely Filipino, the architectural style of the structures was the result of a merry mixture of foreign influences, of which the predominant ones were European, Antillean, Arabian, Malay, Hindu, Muslim, and Chinese.

Worth noting is the Chinese character that is exuded by the multi-inclined roofs.

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These can be seen in many old photographs, drawings, and paintings: proof that the roof style was fashionable in the Spanish-colonial Philippines. An antique wooden chest, which is now housed in a museum in Mexico, and done by a Chinese craftsman, had painted images of 17th century Manila houses, which were depicted as tall, two to three storey structures with two sloping tile roofs.

Many other written accounts establish the wide use of the multi-inclined roof, as well as space planning that was inspired by Chinese architectural concepts. While a majority traveled for trade, many have emigrated to the archipelago to work as merchants and laborers. Such communities were also found in the island groups of Mindanao and Luzon. Inevitably, Chinese culture found its way into the Filipino way of life: from spirituality, family upbringing, rituals, and traditions, to food, fashion, the arts, and architecture.

The Chinese introduced new and improved building materials, aside from supplying cheap labor. They brought in innovative construction methods such as the use of crushed white corals and shells of large oysters to replace quarried stone, and they made their own tiles and bricks that were stronger than the imported ones.

They, together with Muslim laborers, left their marks on the architectural creations that they were involved in. They were talented artisans, as they were efficient masons and carpenters. The designs of these houses were of 3 modified Chinese plans, featuring inner courtyards and patios.

The most famous of the Chinese districts would be Binondo, but this type of Architecture had also become common in regions and provinces like Ilocos Sur, Bulacan, Batangas, and Cebu, to name a few. These roofs were, and still are, visible in several Spanish-colonial churches. The Spanish Friars had the mission to convert non-Christians into Catholics to ensure the extension of the Catholic faith, the Inculcation of loyalty, and as an.

Encouragement of eventual assimilation. For them, this was the only way to be accepted into Philippine society. The non-Christians included the Chinese, who were Buddhists. To entice the ethnic Chinese to convert, the Spaniards gave them the freedom to continue on with their various businesses, and to express their artistry in architecture, including the churches, where most of them were involved as master builders, together with Filipinos whom they taught construction methods to: from building with stone, to constructing timber frames Therefore, reinterpretation, by Chinese and Filipino artisans, of European Baroque churches, is inevitable.

List_ Parts of Bahay Na Bato _ Filipiniana 101

The use of the multi-inclined roof could have been a product of Chinese and Filipino reinterpretation. As a result, oriental ornamental elements have been incorporated in church facades, and more visibly, Chinese-inspired multi-inclined roofs had become an option for the monumental churches. Research Problem The Multi-inclined Roof was widely used for structures in the Philippines during the Spanish-colonial period.

Primarily associated with Chinese Architecture, this type of roof was used not only for residential buildings, but it was also a common option for churches and convents.

Moreover, this mode of roof construction had become less utilized, or totally unutilized, over time, 4 and at present, can only be seen in heritage structures. To establish its structural significance would result to a better understanding on the true purpose of its application in the Spanish-colonial Philippines.

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Research Questions 1. What is the significance of the Multi-inclined Roof to Chinese Architecture, and how was it typically constructed? How was the Multi-inclined Roof applied to Philippine Architecture?

How is the structural performance efficiency and fintegrity of each of the Multi-inclined Roofs of the three structures? Significance of the Study The reinterpreted Chinese-inspired Multi-inclined Roof might have had properties, which made it responsive to climatic factors and other natural phenomena. If proven effective, then it may be applicable to contemporary structures. Otherwise, structural mistakes of the past can be determined, so that improvement and rectification can be done, and better knowledge can be gained on how to avoid and prevent structural failure due to improper modification and interpretation.

With the possibility of carrying a deeper meaning, its popular usage and structural significance might have been more than structural integrity and soundness; thus, revealing additional historical information on the way of life during the Spanish-colonial period.

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Moreover, this study may yield data that would be relevant in the conservation of Philippine Heritage structures, particularly those, which feature multi- inclined roof systems.

Objectives This study aimed to determine the structural significance of the multi-inclined roofs of Philippine Spanish-colonial structures by comparing them with the Chinese multi-inclined roof template or that of a typical Chinese structure.

Aside from strength tests, another objective was the extraction of the relevance of the unique form of the multi-inclined roof; that is, if structural significance goes beyond structural integrity and soundness.

Scope and Limitations The study included the description and historical background of the Multi- inclined Roof, as well as its application on a typical Chinese structure and Philippine Spanish-colonial structures.

However, the study had the following limitations: 1. Maria Church, Boljoon, Cebu. For simplification and easy comprehension, only one truss system for each case study was considered. An assumed dead load was applied to serve as a controlling factor. Furthermore, it was also assumed that the truss systems are exposed to the same environmental conditions.

Authored by Prof. The thorough documentation of the heritage house was discussed, as well as comparisons of its roof with that of Chinese prototypes. Although many aspects of the Jesuit House were pointed out, data on structural strength, were not included. It is for this reason that a further study on this roof type was done. Rene B. Tony Abelgas. These did not say much about the roof structure, but proved to be a good source of historical information on the relevance of structure with a multi-inclined roof.

Research Methodology As earlier discussed, the study was limited to the Multi-inclined Roof truss systems of just three structures. Assumptions were also made for controlled testing. As for the timeline, Initial studies and documentation were done as early as August 17, , and it was completed in May of The Chinese Influence on Philippine Architecture; 2.

Bahay na bato

The Jesuit House and its Multi-inclined Roof; 4. The Sta. For this purpose, the Chinese and the indigenous Filipinos were taught how to quarry and dress stone, how to prepare and use mortar, and how to mold bricks. Thus began what has been called the first golden age of building in stone.

This new community setup made construction using heavier, more permanent materials desirable. Some of these materials included bricks, mortar, tiles and stone. Glowing accounts of towering palaces and splendid mansions reached the peninsula. However, the ambitious plans of the Spaniards were dashed in when a terrible earthquake struck Manila.

Bahay Na Bato | Buildings And Structures | Architectural Elements

The twin dangers of fire and earthquake gave rise to another type of architecture. Finding European construction styles impractical in local conditions, Spanish and Filipino builders quickly adapted the characteristics of the bahay kubo of the natives and applied it to Spanish Colonial architecture.

These houses are now commonly called ancestral houses. Manila during the early s was filled with majestic bahay na bato architecture on its streets Under more than three centuries of Spanish initiative, buildings of wood, stone, and brick were constructed all over the archipelago, from the Batanes Islands in the north to Tawi-Tawi in the south , from Palawan in the west to Samar in the east. Styles Old painting of Manila procession, with Bahay na bato with its windows and ventanillas removed, exposing the interior from top to bottom Different styles depend on each house's individual appearance.

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For example, some Bahay na bato do not have ventanillas, some do not have Capiz windows , and some lack both. Some have galvanized roofs, some have tiled roofs, and some have nipa or cogon roofs. First-level walls may be made of bricks, adobe stones, or coral stones; more modern structures uses concrete or wood. Although retaining the basic form, the 19th-century bahay na bato reflected changing tastes through the incorporation of motifs from the prevalent styles. The same principle applies to the nipa hut - not all nipa huts use nipa materials; some use cogon.