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Fahriany, M. Jakarta, December 29, Examination committee Chairman : Drs. Syauki, M. Pd NIP Examiners : 1. Nasifuddin Djalil. Ag NIP Drs. Sunardi kartiwisastro, Dipl.
In this study, the focus is only to recount text, since this kind of text becomes problems for the students and it needs to be solved immediately. The strategy applied to improve the students ability in writing recount text is pyramid planning strategy. Pictures Series Students can construct their knowledge during learning recount text easily by using media. One of the media is picture series which draws a story.
This medium fulfills the principles of using media issued by Nyoman S. Degeng Media which can be used to make the students learn more easily and the teacher teaches easily is the main part of the learning process.
The media must be used in integrated way in teaching and learning and not only as ice breaker of teaching and learning. To understand the way of the picture series, the students need to appreciate it in abstract way. In the same way, when they express their ideas to construct the story in a good coherence as well as unity, they have to think it in abstract way too.
Both of them will be easier for them in learning process if the teacher can use picture series. It can not only help the students to get ideas more realistic in understanding the recount text but also in constructing ideas to create it. During the students are writing the text, they can use top-down technique in predicting the content of the text based on understanding of picture series Brown, They can predict the content of the text easily based on their understanding about the picture series.
The number of the students in this class is 36 students. The students are taken as the subject of the study since they have poor ability in writing recount text. The writer also hopes that her students are able to design a text of recount orally after the process of teaching. The steps of research preparations are as follows: Arranging a schedule classroom action research 2. Designing a lesson planning 3. Preparing some pieces of picture series as the media 5.
Preparing the jumbled stories based on the picture series 6. Preparing a form on assessment C. Cycles There are two cycles in this classroom action research. Each cycle consists of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. Both cycles focus on the oral cycle of recount learning process.
Each oral cycle needs 3 meetings. So, the two cycles of the action research need 5 meetings. Instrument The instrument used to collect the data is test and observation sheets. Meanwhile, the observation sheets are used: The Implementation of Cycle 1 Before implementing cycle 1, the researcher administered pre-test by asking the students to write recount text.
The result of the test indicates that most students can not write the recount text. Based on the observation and interview to the students, the problem is that they are difficult to find idea to write. In cycle 1 the researcher presented the recount text by using picture series. First of all, the students are given some pictures with incomplete sentence.
Based on the pictures the students complete the sentences. After that, the students are given some pictures without any clue. The students write their own sentences based on their understanding about the pictures. When the students were making their writing, the writer observed the students activities. It is done to know the students motivation and their activeness in doing the task as influence of the use of picture series media. The result reveals that the mean score of the students is only It means that the study has not been successful yet.
The criterion of success is if the mean score of the students is at least 7. They look still confused in finding the idea to write in a piece of paper. Linking verbs indicate a state of being am, is, are, etc. Answer: Use I, since the pronoun renames the subject, the salesman of the month.
The salesman of the month was I. Which is correct: It is I or It is me? Technically, the correct form is It is I, since we re dealing with a predicate nominative. However, It is me and It is us has become increasingly acceptable as standard usage.
A noun which is directly affected by the action of a verb is put into the objective case. In English we call this noun the "direct object" which is a little more descriptive of its function.
It's the direct object of some action. In the example above, the "car" is in the objective case because it's the direct object of Robert's action of fixing. Pronouns are inflected to show the objective case.
For example: Mum gave us the money. She gave him the book. Prepositions are connecting words like for, at, about, to, before, by, with and of. People are sometimes uncertain about what pronoun to use when two objects follow the verb. Incorrect Correct I spoke to George and he I spoke to George and him She pointed at Hanna and I She pointed at Hanna and me If you are not sure what pronoun to use, try each pronoun by itself in the sentence. The correct pronoun will be the one that sound right.
For example I spoke to he does not sound right, I spoke to him does. A direct object is a noun or pronoun that receives the action.
John s suit no longer fits he, him. Answer: John s suit no longer fits him Langan, Op. You can usually hear which pronoun sounds right. It is always a pleasure for we to attend their party. It is always a pleasure for us to attend their party.
The second sentence is correct. An indirect object tells to or for whom something is done. You can tell a word is an indirect object if you can insert to or for before it without changing the meaning. For example: The bill gave we, us a shock. Answer: The bill gave us a shock. Sit by I, me. Answer: The pronoun is the object of the preposition me, so the sentence reads: Sit by me.
Possessive Adjective According to Kirn, possessive adjectives are followed by a noun. While possessive pronouns are not followed by a noun, they stand alone. Possessive Pronoun Mine yours his Hers ours Yours theirs That pen is not mine These shoes are yours The problem is his The flowers is hers The seats are ours I am yours The car is theirs Sabin explained that the possessive adjective used when immediately precedes the noun it modifies.
Example: this is my book, it was their choice, George is her neighbor. Possessive adjective also used when modifies gerund a verbal noun ending in ing. Example: I appreciated your shipping the order so promptly. Not: I appreciated you shipping the order so promptly. Do not confuse certain possessive pronoun with contractions with other phrases that sound like possessive pronoun: Your possessive you re you are 34 21 Their possessive they re they are or there re there are.
Possessive Pronouns According to Azar, a possessive pronoun is used alone, without a noun following it.
A possessive adjective is used only with a noun following it. In the possessive its is used only with a noun following it. Note that the possessive its has no apostrophe. That's his mother. This is our house. The possessive pronoun is never followed by its noun: This is mine. Give it to Peter: it's his. The money is ours. The child refused to admit that the sweater was her s, hers. Answer: Hers is the correct spelling of the possessive case, which is needed here to express ownership belonging to her.
Therefore, the sentence should read: The child refused to admit that the sweater was hers. A gerund is a form of a verb that acts as a noun. Gerunds always end in -ing, and they always function as nouns.
The boy s books. The boys have the books.
The boys books. After a plural noun phrase with the regular plural ending s, the possessive ending does not add any further s sound.
The singular possessive boy s, the regular plural boys, and the possessive boys are all pronounced alike. Do you have John s book? Do you have John s books? The singular and plural forms of the possessive pronouns are the same: Mine is here.
Mine are here. If you confuse, try to substitute it is, it has, they are, there are, there is, there has, your or you are. Contextual Teaching Learning 1. CTL is the brain-compatible system of instruction that generates meaning by linking academic content with a context of a student s daily life.
Taking advantage of the fact that environment stimulates the brain s neurons to forms pathways. Brain research indicates that we learn best when we see meaning in new tasks and material, and we discover meaning when we are able to connect new information with our existing knowledge and experiences. Students learn best, according to neuroscience, when they can connect the content of academic lessons with the context of their own daily lives.
Johnson discusses the elements of the braincompatible contextual teaching and learning system: making meaningful connections; investing school work with significance; self-regulated learning; collaboration; critical and creating thinking; nurturing the individual; reaching high standards; and using authentic assessment.
This is because the way they process information and their motivation for learning are not touched by the traditional methods of classroom teaching. The students have a difficult time understanding academic concepts such as math concepts as they are commonly taught that is, using an abstract, lecture method , but they desperately need to understand the concepts as they relate to the workplace and to the larger society in which they will live and work wrote by Stephen Olczak 27 wrote by Arlene H.
Parisot 38 25 According to contextual learning theory, learning occurs only when students learners process new information or knowledge in such a way that it makes sense to them in their own frames of reference their own inner worlds of memory, experience, and response. This approach to learning and teaching assumes that the mind naturally seeks meaning in context that is, in relation to the person s current environment and that it does so by searching for relationships that make sense and appear useful.
Building upon this understanding, contextual learning theory focuses on the multiple aspects of any learning environment, whether a classroom, a laboratory, a computer lab, a worksite, or a wheat field. In such an environment, students discover meaningful relationships between abstract ideas and practical applications in the context of the real world; concepts are internalized through the process of discovering, reinforcing, and relating The Characteristics of CTL a.
Engages students in defining and researching problems. Provides opportunities for students to learn knowledge and skills in meaningful contexts such as the home, the community, and the workplace.
Builds on the knowledge learners possess and uses their life experiences and contexts as instructional platforms to help them move from what they know to what they do not know. Encourages students to direct their own learning and monitor their own progress. Supports instruction that encourages students to learn together and from each other. Uses assessments that sample the actual knowledge, skills, and dispositions desired of students. CTL is not 1 a lecture-only method of teaching, 2 busy-work or activity for activity s sake, 3 doing the questions at the end of the chapter, 4 rote memorization, 5 teacher dominated goal-setting, 6 paper and pencil tests Benefits for Students 1 Promotes higher order thinking and problem solving, 2 Promotes student engagement and involvement, 3 Relates what student is learning to real world problems and their lives, and 4 Promotes authentic methods of assessment.
Supporting Teachers Who Want to Change 1 Provide externships and service learning opportunities 2 Give teachers time to collaborate and plan teaching units and align curriculum with standards 3 Consider providing larger blocs of instructional time 40 27 4 Provide professional development for teachers. Constructivism b.
Questioning c. Inquiry d. Learning Community e. Reflection f. Modeling g. Authentic Assessment 30 and for the further explanation is as follow: Constructivism This concept claim the students to arrange and to construct of meaning from the new experience based on the certain knowledge in their cognitive structure.
In this concept the strategy how to get is more important than how much students get the knowledge. Questioning Questioning techniques that enhance students learning and the development of problem solving and other higher order thinking skills. For CTL to achieve its goals, appropriate types and levels of questions must be asked.
Questions Susan Jones Sears. Contextual Teaching and learning. The Ohio State University 30 41 28 must be carefully planned to produce the intended level of thinking, responses, and actions by students and all participants in the CTL approach. Inquiry Inquiry is a learning process based on the looking for and discovery through thinking process systematically. The student s knowledge and skills are not getting from remembering a set of fact, but getting from the process of finding by themselves.
The cycles of the inquiry is to formulate the problem, observation, questioning, hypothesis, collecting the data and conclude it. Learning Community In CTL, this concept suggests that the result of learning is getting from the cooperation with another people. It can be done by form a learning community. The result of the learning can be getting from sharing among their friends or groups. Learning community has meaning as follow: 1 A communication to share the ideas and experiences.
Reflection Reflection is thinking about what students have learned or done. Teachers and students need to think about how the process went and come up with ways to improve and continue on with the inquiry.
The purpose of reflection is to identify what students have known and what students have not known yet, so the teacher can adds what the students have not known. The ways is by asking the students about what they have learned or ask their opinion about the teaching learning process Robert G.
Berns and Patricia M. The Highlight Zone Work. Research suggests that modeling good behaviors, such as problem solving is a good way for students to learn them. Teacher modeling helps to foster the invitational environment because when teacher relate their own experiences, they can communicate several messages: a.
Teachers confront problems in and out of school daily b. Sometimes teachers solve problem well c. Other times teachers are not as successful. Students make judgments involving critical thinking and problem solving b. They are realistic in that they replicate contexts in which a person s knowledge and abilities are tested in real world situations.
They do the subject as historians or scientists would. They present their findings in such settings where they can rehearse and receive immediate, direct feedback, thereby being able to modify their conclusions. For both Newmann and Wiggins, assessment must involve challenging students to engage in complex intellectual work, the kind found in the world beyond learning stuff from a textbook.
This involves the complex task of applying concepts, ideas, principles, skills to complex, problematic situations. What conclusions could we draw following such an analysis? These kinds of challenges are the real test of the depth and quality of students understandings. This is one of the major goals of education: application of the knowledge and skills to life situations.
Education is for life now as Dewey noted , not at some distant point in the future. Delaying application is one reason why so many students are so bored in class and teachers often hear When am I ever going to use this? CTL can begin with a simulated or real problem. Students use critical thinking skills and a systemic approach to inquiry to address the problem or issue. Students may also draw upon multiple content areas to solve these problems.
Worthwhile problems that are relevant to students families, school experiences, workplaces, and communities hold greater personal meaning for students. Using multiple contexts. Theories of situated cognition suggest that knowledge cannot be separated from the physical and social context in which it develops.
How and where a person acquires and creates knowledge is therefore very important. CTL experiences are enriched when students learn skills in multiple contexts i. Drawing upon student diversity. Cycles There are two cycles in this classroom action research. Each cycle consists of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. Both cycles focus on the oral cycle of recount learning process.
Each oral cycle needs 3 meetings. So, the two cycles of the action research need 5 meetings. Instrument The instrument used to collect the data is test and observation sheets. Meanwhile, the observation sheets are used: 1.
The Implementation of Cycle 1 Before implementing cycle 1, the researcher administered pre-test by asking the students to write recount text. The result of the test indicates that most students can not write the recount text. Based on the observation and interview to the students, the problem is that they are difficult to find idea to write. In cycle 1 the researcher presented the recount text by using picture series.
First of all, the students are given some pictures with incomplete sentence.
Based on the pictures the students complete the sentences. After that, the students are given some pictures without any clue. The students write their own sentences based on their understanding about the pictures. When the students were making their writing, the writer observed the students activities.
It is done to know the students motivation and their activeness in doing the task as influence of the use of picture series media. The result reveals that the mean score of the students is only It means that the study has not been successful yet.
The criterion of success is if the mean score of the students is at least 7. They look still confused in finding the idea to write in a piece of paper. Although some students show their improvement in writing motivation and score of writing, the cycle 2 needs to be conducted.
This is done because some students get score under the standard which is determined. Many students get score below 7. The Implementation of Cycle 2 In cycle 1, the researcher used picture series in presenting the recount text to the students. The result shows that some students get improvements in their scores and in their activeness in writing activity, but some others are still under the target or the criteria.
In cycle 2, the researcher still used picture series in presenting recount text. But in this cycle, the strategy used is different from the strategy applied in cycle 1. The strategy applied is the researcher gave more examples of how to write recount text using picture series.
After the students understand and have confident, the researcher gave them again picture series, and the students write their own writing based on the pictures. The result of observation shows that most students are very active and serious doing their tasks. Before the time given is over, all students submitted their writing.
By paying attention to the examples the researcher presented and the explanation, the students are easier to make their own writing. Besides that, the students not only can write the text but also mention the components of recount text and explained the function of each the component. The criterion of success is if the mean score of the students is It fulfills the criteria of success which is determined 7.
In terms of students motivation and activeness, during the teaching and learning process using picture series the students are actively involved and more motivated to write.
Suggestions In reference to the conclusion above, it is suggested that the teacher of junior high school used picture series as an alternative media for teaching English, especially, in the teaching of writing recount text.
For the future researcher, the result of the study can be used as reference to conduct further study about the effectiveness of using picture series media. Lengkap bukan?? Related Papers.