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PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. Principles of Management & Organisational Management Principles and Practice. P. G. D. B. M. (Semester-I) Examination, PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF. MANAGEMENT AND ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOR. ( Pattern). Management is a science because it contains general principles. It is also .. Managerial practice depends on circumstances (i.e., a contingency or a situation) .

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Principles and Practices of Management. 3. Preface. I am glad to present this book, especially designed to serve the needs of the students. The book has been . This tutorial talks about the Principles of Management, the basic guidelines that This tutorial first justifies how management is both an art as well as science and goes Management began to materialize as a practice during the Industrial. Chapter 1: Introduction to Principles of Management. and Practices, was recognized as one of the most published authors of the s, and is a Fellow of .

How does management lead and control this new knowledge worker? Diversity Since the turn of the century, the U. In , women made up about 30 percent of the workforce; in women made up about 47 percent of the workforce. By , ethnic and racial minorities are expected to comprise 40 percent of the workforce. And for the first time, there are now five generations of workers in the workforce, from veterans born between and to iGens born after This diversity provides a tremendous resource to organizations. People from different backgrounds have unique perceptions, experiences, and strengths.

This approach recognizes the importance of studying interrelatedness of planning, organizing and controlling in an organization as well as the many subsystems.

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According to this approach, managerial practice depends on circumstances a contingency or a situation. Contingency theory recognizes the influence of given solutions or organizational behavior patterns. Managers have long realized that there is no one best way to do things, but it can be very complex and difficult to determine all relevant contingency factors and show their relationships. Strategy : Systematic action and allocation of resources to achieve company aims. Systems : Procedures and processes such as information systems, manufacturing processes, budgeting and control processes.

Style : The way management behaves and collectively spends its time to achieve organizational goals. Staff : The people in the enterprise and their socialization into the organizational culture. This approach draws together concepts, principles, techniques and knowledge from other fields and managerial approaches and integrates these approaches with science and theory that is practical. The operational approach recognizes that there is a central core of knowledge about managing that is pertinent only to the field of management.

Such matters as line and staff departments, managerial appraisal and various managerial control techniques involve concepts and theories found only in situations involving managers. In addition, this approach draws on and absorbs knowledge from other fields, including systems theory, decision theory, theories of motivation and leadership, individual and group behavior, social systems and cooperation and communication as well as the application of mathematical analysis and concepts.

Type of Plans The mission, or purpose, identifies the basic function or task of an enterprise or agency or any part of it. Objectives or goals Objectives or goals are the ends toward which activity is aimed.

They represent the end point toward which planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling are aimed. While enterprise objectives are the basic plan of the firm, a department may also have its own objectives.

Its goals contribute to the attainment of enterprise objectives, but the two sets of goals may be entirely different. Strategy is defined as the determination of the basic long-term objectives of an enterprise and the adoption of course of action and allocation of resources necessary to achieve these goals. The purpose of strategies is to determine and communicate, through a system of major objectives and policies, a picture of the kind of enterprise that is envisioned.

Strategies do not attempt to outline exactly how the enterprise is to accomplish its objectives, but they furnish a framework for guiding, thinking and action. Policies Policies define an area within which a decision is to be made and ensure that the decision will be consistent with, and contribute to, and objective. Policies help decide issues before they become problems, make it unnecessary to analyze the same situation every time it comes up, and unify other plans, thus permitting managers to delegate authority and still maintain control over what their subordinates do.

Procedures are plans that establish a required method of handling future activities. They are chronological sequences of required action. They detail the exact manner in which certain activities must be accomplished. Rules Rules spell out specific required actions or nonactions, allowing no discretion. They are usually the simplest type of plan. Rules are unlike procedures in that they guide action without specifying a time sequence.

A procedure might be looked upon as a sequence of rules. A rule, however, may or may not be part 8 of a procedure. The essence of a rule is that it reflects a managerial decision that some certain action must, or must not, be taken.

Programs Programs are a complex of goals, policies, procedures, rules, task assignments, steps to be taken, resources to be employed and other elements necessary to carry out a given course of action and are ordinarily supported by budgets.

A primary program may call for many supporting programs. Budgets A budget is a statement of expected results expressed in numerical terms. The major advantage of budgeting is that it makes people plan; because a budget is in the form of numbers, it forces precision in planning.

Management by objectives

A budget may be expressed in financial terms; in terms of labour-hours, units of product, or machine-hours; or in any other numerically measurable term.

It may deal with operations; it may reflect capital outlays, or it may show cash flow. Budgets vary considerably in accuracy, detail and purpose. Question 4. Answer 4. These principles are truths of general applicability and are more in the nature of essential criteria for effective organizing. The most essential guiding principles of organizing are summarized below:- 1. Principle of Unity of Objectives An organization structure is effective is it enables individuals to contribute to enterprise objectives.

Principle of Organizational Efficiency An organization is efficient if it is structured to aid the accomplishment of enterprise objectives with a minimum of unsought consequences or costs. Span of Management Principle In each managerial position, there is a limit to the number of persons an individual can effectively manage, but the exact number will depend on the impact of underlying variables.

The clearer the line of authority from the ultimate management position in an enterprise to every subordinate position, the clearer will be the responsibility for decision making and the more effective will be organizational communication.

Principle of Delegation By Results Expected Authority delegated to all individual managers should be adequate to ensure their ability to accomplish results expected. Principle of Absoluteness of Responsibility The responsibility of subordinates to their superiors for performance is absolute and superiors cannot escape responsibility for the organization activities of their subordinates.

Principle of Parity of Authority and Responsibility The responsibility for actions cannot be greater than that implied by the authority delegated, nor should it be less. Authority Level Principle Maintenance of intended delegation requires that decisions within the authority of individual managers should be made by them and not be referred upward in the organization structure. Principle of Balance The application of principles must be balanced to ensure the overall effectiveness of the structure in meeting enterprise objectives.

This kind of organization occurs frequently in marketing for example, planning and executing an advertising campaign for a major new product in the installation of an electronic data processing system, etc. Functional departments are permanent fixture of the matrix organization; they retain authority for the overall operation of their respective units. Product departments or project teams are created as the need arises for them, that is, when a specific programme requires a high degree of technical skill in a concentrated period of time.

Members of a project team are assembled from the functional departments and are placed under the direction of a project team are assembled from the functional departments and are placed under the direction of a project manager. The manager for each project is responsible and accountable for its success and has authority over the other team members for the duration of the project.

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On the completion of the project, the members of the team, including the project manager revert back to their respective departments until the next assignment to a project. Advantages:-The problem of coordination is minimized because the project manager acts as an integrator to relate personnel from diverse disciplines.

There is a reservoir of specialists which ensures availability of expertise to all projects on the basis of their need. There is economy in the cost. Diversity Since the turn of the century, the U.

In , women made up about 30 percent of the workforce; in women made up about 47 percent of the workforce.

By , ethnic and racial minorities are expected to comprise 40 percent of the workforce. And for the first time, there are now five generations of workers in the workforce, from veterans born between and to iGens born after This diversity provides a tremendous resource to organizations.

People from different backgrounds have unique perceptions, experiences, and strengths.

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This can promote creativity and innovation that stimulates unique problem solving. But it also brings different expectations and norms about behavior and attitudes. How can management capitalize on the advantages of diversity while accommodating differences? Social Expectations From the start of the Industrial Revolution until the middle of the twentieth century, management could look inward to determine how to best use resources to meet organizational goals.

Although government passed laws to address the worst abuses, organizations primarily interacted with the external environment through the marketplace. The expectation of public, private, and civic organizations was that they would provide the goods and services society required. This attitude also began to change around the middle of the twentieth century as organizations, especially businesses, were viewed as social, as well as economic, actors.

The positive and negative impacts of organizations on the wider environment—alongside the products and services they provided—were also considered outputs of production. Now managers have to satisfy not only their customers but also a wider set of stakeholders, from government agencies to community groups.

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How does managing stakeholders get incorporated into management theory and practice? That is not to say that management has not responded; it has, in two ways: Management has become more specific with the formation of different disciplines. Managers now focus on specific aspects of organizational management: operations management, financial management, marketing management, human resource management, etc.

By limiting the number of factors and issues they must deal with, managers can develop practices that address the specific issues they face in their discipline.

Management has also become more general. Managers are not provided with an instructional manual that tells them how to manage. Instead, they are given a toolbox of different theories and practices. Effective managers need to know what tool to use and how to use it in different circumstances.

Let us consider some current developments in management. Operations Management Operations management is concerned with all of the physical processes involved in producing and delivering goods and services to customers.

It is concerned with all aspects of converting materials and labor into goods and services as efficiently as possible. Operations managers must work closely with every department in the business to ensure that products are manufactured as efficiently as possible. The same forces that are transforming organizations and management are transforming all aspects of operations management, from design to production.

Operations managers are involved with the initial product design to incorporate features that facilitate production. Today, many manufacturing firms are using computer-aided design that will translate design plans directly into instructions for computer-controlled machinery and robotics. Operations managers also manage the supply chain to find the best sources for high-quality materials and supplies at the lowest cost.

Operations managers have become international operations managers, as supplies come from anywhere in the world and manufacturing can be done anywhere in the world. Operations managers are also responsible for materials inventory. This consists of materials that will be used in production or for performing services.

Some amount of inventory is needed to prevent delays in production or servicing. The worst thing that can happen to an auto manufacturer is to have an assembly line stop because of a shortage of a basic part, such as spark plugs or tires.

On the other hand, maintaining inventories is a significant cost for companies, so they want to minimize the amount of inventory on hand. Operations managers must balance the need for maintaining sufficient inventory with the need for reducing costs. They now schedule deliveries and manage inventory using techniques such as just-in-time to optimize the amount of inventory on hand. This frequently involves developing long-term, cooperative partnerships with suppliers.

Inventory management is a huge concern for site, for instance, which maintains an inventory of millions of products. It has developed specialized techniques to maintain enough inventory to avoid lost sales without holding costly excess inventory. Operations managers must be concerned not only with cost and quantities but also be responsible for delivering quality.

They design and supervise production processes and service delivery using modern methods such as lean manufacturing and Six Sigma. Six Sigma is a systematic set of practices used to reduce defects or complaints. The goal of Six Sigma is fewer than 3. Finally, operations management works with marketing and sales to make sure goods and services are delivered where and when they are needed.

They use sophisticated technology, such as point-of-sale data collections and integrated ordering systems, to forecast demand for products and services. This information is feedback through the entire system, from ordering materials and supplies to scheduling production.

Operations management is responsible for making sure everything and everyone is working together to deliver what the customer expects. Practice Question Systems Approach to Management Organizations operate as open systems A systems approach to management recognizes that organizations are open systems that interact with and are dependent on their environment.