Crisis Communication Planning Managing And Responding [PDF] [EPUB] Crisis communication is a sub-specialty of the public relations. Ongoing Crisis Communication: Planning, Managing, and Responding [Timothy Coombs] on ronaldweinland.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Ongoing Crisis. Communication: Planning, Managing, and. Responding offers a useful, concise introduction to crisis management for public relations students. It also meets the.
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Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Timothy Coombs and others published Ongoing Crisis Communication: Planning, Managing and Responding. Book details Author: W (William) Timothy Coombs Pages: pages Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc Language: English ISBN ISBN Driving with the Devil: Southern Moonshine, Detroit Wheels, and the Birth of Managing Transitions. Share to: Ongoing crisis communication: planning, managing, and responding / W. Timothy Coombs. View the summary of this work. Bookmark.
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The discussion of the objectives will follow these three divisions. For instance, sensing a crisis is not the same as the initial response to a crisis.
Sensing a crisis involves collecting and analyzing information for potential sources of risk. The initial response requires an evalu- ation of the crisis situation and selection of appropriate crisis response strategies. The phases create a perpetual loop. The final evaluation of a crisis management effort the last phase is used to improve performance during earlier phases of the process. Crisis management should be treated as a complex set of interrelated ideas and skills.
A crisis manager must know when different ideas and skills are needed. The ongoing approach explains the different demands of the phases and how they work together to form a unified crisis management effort.
An organization will miss the chance to prevent crises if it lacks an effective system for collecting and evaluating information about potential crises. A crisis sensing mechanism can be built around three elements: issues management, risk management, and relationship management. Organizations routinely collect information about issues that may affect them, potential risk factors they face, and the quality of stakeholder relationships.
Issues, risks, and relationships are common sources for risks that have the potential to become crises. Crisis managers must know how to identify and evaluate each of the three.
It follows that crisis managers should know about issues management, risk management, and relationship management. Understanding issues management, risk man- W. Organizations should exercise care in selecting crisis team members. The team members must have the requisite knowledge to handle the crisis and the skills to act as a decision-making team.
Understanding the demands of crisis team tasks helps people understand the criteria to use when selecting crisis team members. A crisis manager must evaluate each risk in terms of likelihood and impact. Likelihood is the potential of a risk developing into a crisis. Impact is the effect the crisis could have on the organization. Moreover, students should be think- ing about how to prevent the risks from developing into crises— understand the basics of crisis prevention.
Students must show they can accurately distinguish between the primary crisis types. These skills include delivery of the material and ways to handle media questions. Students must show they can apply the skills of an effective spokesperson.
Students learn about the materials that should be included in a plan and then demonstrate they can actually construct a CMP for an organization. Part of the plan includes how to evaluate the CMP. For a CMP to be effective, people must rehearse using it and evaluate their efforts. Therefore, the CMP should include evaluation mechanisms such as evaluative surveys or scorecards.
This objective reinforces the need to differentiate between crisis types because part of selecting the proper response requires understanding the crisis type.
The crisis creates an information void that the crisis team tries to fill as quickly and as accurately as possible. Crisis managers must know how to collect and to disseminate information. Effective crisis management is dependent on information. Future crisis managers must be able to assess information needs, locate the necessary information, and disseminate the information to where it is needed.
Main topics covered in the course The structure of the crisis management course follows the phases of crisis management. At each phase the students learn the concepts, skills, and abilities required to execute that phase. Table 1 presents the phases and topics covered within each phase.
The topics in Table 1 are best understood by placing them in the context of the course objectives. The course is divided into four basic units. The course begins by reviewing the ongoing approach to communication objective 1. The second unit deals with precrisis concerns. Crisis mechanisms objective 2 are explained, diagnosis of vulnerabilities and prevention objective 4 are reviewed, the development of CMPs objective 7 is detailed, the selection of crisis team members objective 3 and spokesperson training examined objective 6 , and the differences between crisis types objective 5 explained.
The third unit addresses the crisis event itself. Students learn how to assess information needs of a crisis and how to locate sources of information objective 9.
A system for evaluating a crisis situation is presented along with a list of crisis response strategies and guidelines for matching crisis response strategies to the crisis situation objective 8. The fourth section reinforces the idea of the ongoing approach objective 1 by explaining how postcrisis concerns feedback into the earlier stages of crisis management.
Or lessons learned from the crisis can be added to the CMP or used to help reduce a crisis risk prevention. Students should appreciate that evaluation can improve many of the earlier crisis management activities. Learning how to evaluate crisis management efforts and the CMP is a major topic in this section objective 7. Assessment Assessment in the course uses a wide array of tools including examinations, presentations, and papers.
Table 2 lists the complete set of assessment methods and the objectives each is W. Discussion of an ongoing approach to crisis management. Pre-crisis Phase: crisis team is in a proactive mode trying to prevent crises and to prepare for their eventuality.
Crisis Prevention Preventing issues from maturing into crises Risk aversion to eliminate or reduce risks Relationship building to maintain positive stakeholder relationships C. Crisis Preparation Identifying crisis vulnerabilities Creating crisis teams Selecting spokespersons Drafting a crisis management plan Developing a crisis portfolio III. Crisis Event A. Crisis Recognition Recognizing crises Assessing information needs Identifying sources of information during a crisis B.
Post-crisis A. Evaluating the crisis management efforts B. Learning from the crisis C. Two examinations can be given in the course, one during the semester and a final exam. The first examination is objective oriented. The purpose is to determine if students have mastered the fundamental concepts discussed in the early part of the course. Objectives 1, 2, and 3 are featured on the first examination. The first examination comes about the 9th week of a 15 week semester.
At that point the fundamental concepts have been covered. The final examination is a case study application. Students are given a take home examination where they must assess a crisis and recommend actions.
Students must assess the information demands what do they know, what the need to know, and the gap between the two , identify sources to contact to collect the missing information, assess the crisis situation, and recommend the selection of crisis response strategies based upon the crisis situation assessment.
The focus is on the application of objectives 5, 8, and 9. Students write three papers. Students select an actual organization, identify its sources of crisis risks, and develop a rank order list of the 10 most likely crises. A copy of the crisis vulnerability paper assignment is provided below: 3. Crisis vulnerability assignment This assignment is actually a part of most crisis management plans. This helps in the preparation of the CMP and for specific crises if need be. Crisis assessment A.
List the sources places, people, or media you would scan for crisis related informa- tion. Briefly note what specific information each source might provide.
List and define 10 possible crises your organization might face. Some examples would include: accidents robberies product tampering earthquakes D. For each crisis, rate it in terms of likelihood of occurrence and the severity of impact on the organization. For example, indus- trial work frequently has workplace accidents, transportation has accidents, and so forth.
Use logic to explain your choices. For example, do not just say accidents but identify the type of accident i. The second paper is called the crisis analysis. The crisis analysis has students practice assessing crisis situations, crisis response strategies, and media coverage as one form of evaluative tool.
The paper is effective preparation for the final exam and addresses objectives 5 and 8. A copy of the assignment is presented below.
Crisis analysis This assignment has you assess a crisis situation and the media coverage of that crisis. You are to find two separate crisis events that were covered in the news media. Each crisis must have at least 2 stories, 4 are preferable. At the start of each discussion, explain what type of crisis you have found. Complete the following tasks in the paper: 1. Assess the Damage The types of damage include a.
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