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OFFICE MANAGEMENT BOOKS PDF

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The Office Management training module provides learning materials and exercises on how to . information can be kept in a complaints book. DIPLOMA IN MODERN OFFICE MANAGEMENT. DURATION: 03 . Taking words from the glossary in the text book at the end of each chapter. 2. Grammar ( management of Modern Office is now much faster, expeditious and a lot better. . The present book 'Office Management' is intended to present knowledge and.


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To improve knowledge on Office management, Modern Office and its functions. Since office management is similar to the general or administrative management, it performs the same registered and book post etc. (7) Laminators:It is a. Business Organisation and Office Management. Pages Download Book ( PDF, KB) Download Book (ePub, KB) Pages Introduction to. To improve knowledge on office management and its functions. Structure: . To maintain accounts, statutory and non-statutory books etc. of the business.

Purpose Meaning of Office Management Office management refers to the process of planning, organizing, guiding, communicating, directing, coordinating and controlling the activities of a group of people who are working to achieve business objectives efficiently and economically. Office management is not only necessary to business organization but also essential to non-business organization. In modern internet society also, there is a need of direction to the individual efforts towards common purpose or objective. The direction is given from a place i. The process can be treated as office management.

Generally, the selection and placement of office personnel is carried on by the office manager in small organization. In large organization, staffing is carried on by the human resource management department.

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In both the case, the office work is to be performed by allocating the work to each individual according to their efficiency, guide the personnel to do the work with the help of means available in an office within a specified time and control the activities of office personnel.

The office manager has to do all these activities. Means Means refers to tools used to perform the office work. Means include pen, pencil, eraser, paper, ink, office forms, typewriter, computer, printer, calculator and the like. Adequate tools have been supplied in an office and put them to the most efficient and economical use for achieving objectives.

Environment The nature of business determines the environment of an office. The various office works have to be carried on under a particular condition or environment. A working environment is created and maintained for the smooth performance of office work.

It is the duty and responsibility of an office manager to bring suitable environment by adopting various procedures and practice. The office manager teaches the purpose to office personal. If not so, the performance of office work does not bring the most efficient and economical use of office resources and achieve the objectives. Related Posts. What kind of competition did they have? What services or facilities did they introduce to your community?

How do residential and commercial properties differ? What are the four most common locations for hotel properties? What determines the end destination of the guest? Give working examples of these concepts. Relate them to room rates and guest expectations. Name some of the types of properties developed by major chains to meet demands by market segments.

Differentiate between franchises and company-owned properties in a chain. What is the difference between franchises and referral groups? What are the major differences between chain and independent properties? List the local attractions in your area that may entice visitors.

Do these attractions provide education, culture, or personal development? What makes them attractions? Compare your career plans with the concepts presented in this chapter. In subsequent jobs? Go to a current hospitality-related Web site such as www. How does that concept affect your future career plans?

The area is well known for its tourist attractions and is the headquarters of several major U. She appoints a group of students to assist her in setting up tours. One of the students, Maria, is a resident of the area and suggests they visit the grand old St. Thomas Hotel in the downtown area. She would also like to see a hotel located at the Wide World Airport. Ryan, another student, has worked at a limited-service CASE property in his hometown. He understands there is another hotel in that chain located on the outskirts of the city.

David, who is applying for a job at a local hotel, wants to get information on all-suites hotels. Linda has heard there is a new extended-stay hotel in town and wants to know what makes that type of hotel different from a limited-service hotel.

Each team will appoint one spokesperson for a panel discussion. What items do you think each spokesperson will include in his or her summary? Several computer industries will be relocating to this area, and they are expected to employ 25, persons at all levels of the organizations.

Also, one of these computer companies will locate its corporate headquarters here, with an additional executives arriving soon. The local hotel association has contacted Profes- sor Catherine Vicente of the HRI program at City College to assist them in determining the impact these new residents of the area will have on their hotels with regard to occupancy and use of facilities.

If you were Professor Vicente, what actions would you undertake? Justify your responses with regard to hotel operations and development. If you lived in this community, how would these developments affect your career in the hotel industry?

Paul R. Dittmer and Gerald G. An Introduction New York: Saul F. Paul Criscillis Jr. Parkway SE, Atlanta, Ga. The director of housekeeping indicated that he was at a loss in trying to work with the front desk clerks. This cost the hotel several hundred dollars because the cleaning crew was from an outsourced contract company, which charged the hotel a basic fee for failure to comply with the contract.

After all, this was a good opportunity to bring in 26 additional room nights. To meet this goal, factors such as current economic conditions, marketing plans, competition, and staff size and ability are constantly reviewed.

The organization charts—schematic drawings that list management positions in an organization—that are included in this chapter are offered only as instructional examples. An organization chart represents the span of control for the general manager. Not all hotels have every position listed in these organization charts. Persons pursuing a career in the hotel industry will be called upon many times throughout their career to develop or restructure an organization.

The goals of the organization must be paramount in the decision-making process. This section points out the major organizational features of a lodging property and typical managerial duties of the people within the organization. It is not uncommon for a general manager of a property to move people around in various departments of the hotel. This is done for many reasons. The general manager realizes that a candidate must possess certain skills before being placed in any new position. This tactic will reinforce the management team concept.

By exposing interested employees to the responsibilities of other departments and by keeping the staff informed of the current situation of the property, the general manager is enabling staff members to meet their career goals within the organization.

When the property experiences an expected slow period, regrouping may be necessary to maintain full-time positions. This interdepartmental cooperation provides the backdrop for a smooth-running organization. Organization Charts The major positions found in a large, full-service hotel or resort are presented in Figure This lodging property features: The organization of a large, full-service hotel requires many positions to provide service to the guest.

Each department is well organized and staffed to allow the supervisor time to plan and develop the major revenue-producing areas. Those supervisors who do not head income-generating departments—controller, plant engineer, executive housekeeper, human resources manager, recreation director, and athletics director—provide services to the guest, principally behind the scenes.

The physical plant engineer, the person responsible for the operation and maintenance of the physical plant, establishes an effective preventive maintenance program. The executive housekeeper, the person responsible for the upkeep of the guest rooms and public areas of the lodging property as well as control of guest room inventory items, keeps on top of new trends in controlling costs and effective use of personnel.

The human resources manager, the person who assists department managers in organizing personnel functions and developing employees, provides leadership in attracting new hires and maintaining a stable yet progressive approach to utilization of personnel. The recreation director, the person who is in charge of developing and organizing recreational activities for guests, and the athletics director, who is responsible for supervising physical exercise facilities for guests, provide direct hospitality services for the guest, helping to ensure a safe and interesting guest stay.

Figure outlines the organization of a somewhat smaller lodging property. This hotel features: Notice that several of the positions listed in the full-service hotel organization chart have been eliminated from this one for a medium-size lodging property.

This type of organization chart is possible because the level of service provided to guests has been reduced. Many of the department heads are working supervisors, which means they participate in the actual work performed while supervising. Laundry and other services are contracted out.

The controller provides accounting services as well as human resources management. The restaurant manager works very closely with the cook and hostess in maintaining quality and cost control and guest services. The housekeeper inspects and cleans rooms and maintains linen and cleaning supply inventories as well as providing leadership for the housekeeping staff.

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Figure shows the organization chart of a typical limited-service property, much scaled down from that of a large hotel.

The features of the property are: Several duties have been combined under various positions. The housekeeper, also a working supervisor, assists the room attendants, employees who clean and maintain guest rooms and public areas. The organization charts shown here have been developed by evaluating the needs of the guests. Flexibility is essential in providing service to the guest and leadership to the staff.

Typical Job Responsibilities of Department Managers As you begin your career in the lodging industry, you will undoubtedly come in contact with the various department managers in a hotel.

Some of the positions seem to be shrouded in mystery, while others are clear. The controller, for example, holds one of those positions that seems to be performed behind the scenes, and little is obvious as to his or her role.

The security director seems to be everywhere in the hotel, but what does this person do, and for what is he or she responsible? The food and beverage director holds a very visible position that seems to encompass much. The general manager must see both the forest and the trees, overseeing all operations while staying on top of the small details. General Manager Several years ago I invited a guest speaker to my class. This person was the general manager of a local inn in our community.

The leadership provided by the general manager is undoubtedly the most important quality a person brings to this position. Performance is judged according to how effectively supervisors have been directed to meet the goals of the organization. Figure presents a group of managers, supervisors, and frontline employees who carry out the goals of the general manager. The plans developed by the general manager along with the department supervisors provide the vision the business needs to compete for the hospitality markets.

The evaluation of candidates for positions based on a well-structured division of labor begins the process of meeting the goals and objectives of the planning stage. Who should be chosen to meet the demands of a leader of operations? What skills and strengths are necessary to get the job done?

What business acumen must this person have? What vision does this person bring to the job? These are just a few questions that a general manager must consider and act upon. Do the food cost percentage, labor cost percentage, alcohol beverage cost percentage, and sales item analysis provide enough information to indicate the success of the food and beverage department?

Communicating ideas and goals and providing feedback on performance are skills the general manager must develop. The general manager is a pivotal link in the communication process. Each department director takes the lead from communications received or not received from the general manager. Weekly staff meetings serve as a major vehicle for sharing communication.

In addition, individual meetings with department directors enable the communication process to become more effective. Photo courtesy of Red Lion Hotels. The general manager offers supervisory training to his or her staff in practical terms.

For example, the director of marketing and sales may have set a goal of increasing guest room sales by 10 percent for the next quarter. At an individual meeting with the general manager, the director of marketing and sales will agree to meet that goal over the next four months.

What does a general manager do? It is acquired by studying theories of management and the behavior of other managers as well as actually practicing leadership and receiving constructive criticism from superiors on efforts expended. The role of general manager is a professional position.

It is a career goal based on operations experience and education. The role of the general manager, whether in a full-service or limited-service property, must encompass the concepts previously discussed. The use of total quality management TQM concepts, which involve application of managerial concepts to understand operational processes and develop methods to improve those processes described in Chapter 11 , allows managers in full-service and limited-service properties to extend their role of leadership to frontline supervisors and employees.

Assistant General Manager The assistant general manager of a lodging property holds a major responsibility in developing and executing plans developed by the corporate owners, general manager, and other members of the management staff. The relationship between the general manager and the assistant general manager must be founded on trust, skill, and excellent communications.

Often he or she is the liaison between management and operations. The more the assistant general manager is informed of the reasons for management decisions, the better able he or she is to communicate plans to the operations supervisors. The assistant general manager often must oversee the beginning of a job and ensure that others complete it. This position also requires the completion and review of statistical reports, which the assistant general manager summarizes and shares with the general manager.

Depending on the size of the operation and the personnel available, a large property may divide these responsibilities into rooms division manager and operations division manager. Limited-service hotels usually do not have this type of position in their organization chart.

The department managers report directly to the general manager to streamline guest services and operational budgets. Again, the general manager of a limited-service property may perform additional hands-on responsibilities, but he or she is required to provide direct leadership to the other members of the management team.

This includes managing a multitude of details with the supervisors of these outlets. Such details include food quality, sanitation, inventory, cost control, training, room setup, cash control, and guest service, to name a few.

The food and beverage director works closely with the assistant food and beverage director, a highly skilled executive chef, a dining room supervisor, a banquet manager, and a bar manager. Constant supervision of products, employees, and services is required to ensure a fair return on investment.

Although food and beverage are served for a continental breakfast or cocktail hour at a limited-service property, there is no food and beverage director position.

However, the same principles of sanitation, food downloading and storage, marketing, standards of service, and so forth need to be followed to provide good service to the guest. Physical Plant Engineer The plant engineer is very important in the overall delivery of service to the guest.

This person oversees a team of electricians; plumbers, heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning contractors; and general repairpeople to provide behind-the-scenes services to the guests and employees of the lodging property. Knowledge of current advances in equipment and machinery is essential. This position requires a range of experience in general maintenance and a positive attitude about updating skills and management concepts through continuing education.

The plant engineer interacts with all the departments of the hotel.

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This person is part of the management team and can be relied on to provide sound advice about structural stability, equipment maintenance, and environmental control. He or she can be one of the most treasured assistants in the lodging business.

A role similar to that of the plant engineer in a limited-service property is that of maintenance manager, a staff member who maintains the heating and air-conditioning plant, produces guest room keys, helps housekeeping attendants as required, and assists with safety and security of personal comfort to the guest. Executive Housekeeper The executive housekeeper is responsible for the upkeep of the guest rooms and public areas of the lodging property.

This person truly must work through other people to get the job done. Each room attendant must be thoroughly trained in cleaning techniques. Skill in supervising unskilled labor is essential.

Accurate scheduling of employees is also necessary to maintain control over labor costs. The executive housekeeper, like the plant engineer, must keep abreast of new ideas and techniques through trade journals and continuing education courses. If the lodging property operates an in-house laundry, this is also supervised by the executive housekeeper.

The equipment, cleaning materials, cost controls, and scheduling are handled in cooperation with the laundry supervisor. The limited-service property depends on this member of the management team to supervise a staff that provides clean rooms and operates an in-house laundry.

This handson supervisor works with the staff to provide the many behind-the-scenes guest services required. Interdepartmental cooperation and communication with the front desk and maintenance department in full-service and limited-service hotels are vital for the executive housekeeper.

The release of cleaned rooms for occupancy and the scheduling of periodic maintenance are only two functions demonstrating why interdepartmental cooperation is critical. In addition, the marketing and sales efforts in both types of hotels depend on the housekeeper to enforce cleanliness and appearance standards in the public areas so that guests are attracted to and impressed by the property.

This is very important for international guests. Each department director can rely on the human resources manager to provide leadership in the administration of complex personnel. The human resources manager can assist in preparing the job analysis and subsequent job description.

The development of employees by providing a plan for the growth of each employee within a hotel takes a great deal of planning and evaluating.

Each department director works under pressure to meet budget guidelines, quality-control levels, sales quotas, and other goals. Limited-service properties do not employ a human resources manager but elect to divide the responsibilities among department heads. Although emphasis remains on wellplanned and -delivered human resources activities, the streamlined limited-service property relies on interdepartmental cooperation to accomplish its objectives. The person in this position plays an essential role in all departments of the hotel.

An effective director of marketing and sales will not only want to attract external sales such as conventions, small business conferences, wedding receptions, and dining room and lounge business but will also provide direction for promoting in-house sales to the guests. This is an exciting position that requires endless creativity. Some limited-service properties employ a full-time or half-time marketing and sales director.

The previous discussion of duties with the exception of soliciting food and beverage business performed by the marketing and sales director in a full-service hotel is also a good indicator of what is required in a limited-service hotel. Competition for room sales to the corporate, group, and pleasure travel markets is enormous, and each hotel has to address this planning need. Controller The controller is the internal accountant of a hotel.

What would you suggest that the front desk clerk do to assist this future guest? The general manager of a limited-service property acts as the controller with the assistance of the night auditor. In some properties, the night audit is performed during the day, and the night auditor is replaced with a lower-salaried front desk clerk for late-night coverage. Director of Security The director of security works with department directors to develop cost-control procedures that help ensure employee honesty and guest safety.

Fictional stories often depict the security director as someone who investigates crimes after the fact. Unfortunately, the lodging industry has always been involved in lawsuits, which have multiplied in both number and cost in recent years. A substantial body of law provides regulations under which properties must operate.

Preventive security precautions are the central theme of the security department today. He or she has usually developed an understanding of the criminal mind and the practices of criminals. This person is constantly on the lookout for suspicious people and circumstances.

Outsourcing of security services for on-site and parkinglot patrol is also used. The outsourcing of this vital guest service does not relieve the general manager of the need to develop and provide ongoing procedures to train employees to become security-minded.

Garage maintenance, in cooperation with the engineering and housekeeping departments, is another responsibility of this position. Often a hotel rents out parking spaces to local businesses and professional people. The accounting process associated with this service involves the accurate billing and recording of funds and subsequent deposits.

This person also has to develop budgets and recruit and train employees. The garage manager often provides driver assistance to guests when their cars break down.

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Providing directional information to departing guests is also a frequent task of the garage manager. Even though these jobs may seem small in the overall operation of a lodging property, they build a strong foundation in providing service to the guest. The staff includes desk clerk, cashier, reservations manager, concierge, night auditor, telephone operator, bell staff, room key clerk, and elevator operator. Not all of these positions are found in every lodging establishment. In some operations, the front desk clerk acts as desk clerk, cashier, telephone operator, and reservations clerk, as required by the volume of business.

Many large, full-service hotels employ the complete staff as listed. The position of the desk clerk can encompass many duties, which typically include verifying guest reservations, registering guests, assigning rooms, distributing keys, communicating with the housekeeping staff, answering telephones, providing information about and directions to local attractions, accepting cash and giving change, and acting as liaison between the lodging establishment and the guest as well as the community.

The position of cashier includes processing guest checkouts and guest legal tender and providing change for guests. This position is found in a number of lodging establishments, and it helps to make the front desk workload manageable when a full house, a hotel that has all its guest rooms occupied sometimes referred to as percent occupancy is checking out.

Given the possibility that a guest convention could all check out in a short time period, this division of labor is a well-planned concept. E ric O. His well-thought-out career with Hilton has allowed him to develop a strong network of relationships and vital experience to prepare him for the position he holds today. Although he has persons assigned to work on the day-to-day administration of those departments, he feels he is ultimately responsible for the success of those departments.

For example, he wants to ensure that a marketing and sales plan is current and operating. He also attends an 8: He adds that he wants to ensure that the level of talent in the organization is nurtured through motivation, training, development, and so forth.

Early in Mr. He feels this has been an overriding factor in his career progression. Each move should be weighed against the potential that it will have in growing your career. The reservations manager is a position that can be found in many of the larger lodging establishments.

This person is responsible for taking incoming requests for rooms and noting special requests for service. The reservations manager is responsible for keeping an accurate room inventory by using a reservation module of a property management system. This person must communicate very effectively with the marketing and sales department. Peak as well as slow periods of sales must be addressed with adequate planning.

This person may also serve as desk clerk for the night shift This position requires experience as a desk clerk and good communications with the controller. The telephone operator has a very important job in the lodging establishment. He or she is also expected to be able to deal with crises such as life-threatening emergencies. This person may also assist the desk clerk and cashier when necessary.

The bell captain, with the entourage of bellhops and door attendants, is a mainstay in the lodging establishment. The bell staff starts where the computerized property management system stops. They are the people who lift and tote the baggage, familiarize the guest with his or her new surroundings, run errands, deliver supplies, and provide the guest with information on in-house marketing efforts and local attractions. These people also act as the hospitality link between the lodging establishment and the guest.

They are an asset to a well-run lodging establishment. The key clerk can be found in very large, full-service hotels that do not have electronic key systems. This clerk is responsible for issuing keys to registered guests and for related security measures.

Often he or she will sort incoming mail for registered guests and the management staff. This position has become obsolete in most hotels. The elevator operator, a person who manually operates the mechanical controls of the elevator, is almost an extinct species in the lodging establishment.

This person has been replaced by self-operated elevators and escalators. The concierge Figure provides extensive information on entertainment, sports, amusements, transportation, tours, church services, and baby-sitting in the area. The concierge provides information on tourist attractions and entertainment in the area to hotel guests. This person also obtains theater tickets and makes reservations in restaurants. In most cases, the concierge is stationed at a desk in the lobby of the lodging property.

The desk clerks perform multiple duties such as reservations and registrations, and they act as cashiers, telephone operators, and so forth. In limited-service properties, the general manager may also assist, when needed, to process reservation requests, check guests in upon arrival, and check guests out upon departure.

Because there are usually no departmental transactions from restaurants, banquets, lounges, gift shops, or spas, the night auditor is mainly concerned with posting room and tax charges and preparing statistics for the hotel.

With the utilization of computer technology, the completion of the night audit has been reduced to a minimum of time. As previously mentioned, this task may be performed early in the morning prior to guest checkouts. To ensure that the proper attitude prevails, the atmosphere in which employees work must motivate them to excel and nurture morale and teamwork.

He or she can now easily track information such as zip codes of visitors, frequency of visits by corporate guests, and amount of revenue a particular conference generated and pass this information on to the marketing and sales department. An unsold guest room is a sales opportunity lost forever.

The general manager sets the goals, objectives, and standards for all departments to follow. The assistant manager offers the various department heads additional insight into meeting the operational needs of the establishment. The food and beverage manager, housekeeper, and plant engineer provide essential services to the guest. The director of marketing and sales develops programs to attract guests to the lodging property.

A job description is a listing of required duties to be performed by an employee in a particular position. A job analysis is useful in that it allows the person preparing the job description to determine certain daily procedures. These procedures, along with typical responsibilities and interdepartmental relationships involved in a job, form the basis for the job description.

Meets with the night auditor to discuss the activities of the previous night. Notes any discrepancies in balancing the night audit. Assists desk clerks in guest checkout. Discusses with the banquet manager details of groups that will be in-house for banquets and city ledger accounts that have left requests for billing disputes. This information will be typed and distributed to the telephone operators.

Handles guest billing disputes. Works on forecasting sheet for the coming week. Receives feedback on budget targets from last month. Checks with the housekeeper on progress of room inspection and release. Checks with the director of security for information concerning security coverage for the art exhibit in the ballroom.

They also challenge the person in the job to use prior experience and theoretical knowledge to accomplish the tasks at hand. The Art of Supervising The art of supervising employees encompasses volumes of text and years of experiences.

Management experts have analyzed some of the complexities of supervising employees. Some of your other management courses will explain in detail the concept of management. This chapter covers a few concepts that will assist you in developing your own supervisory style.

These are areas for participation, growth, and limitation on the management team. At this time, a manager should review personal career goals with this organization. The ports of entry to the position of general manager described in chapter 1 will help an aspiring general manager clarify goals. This information will help you to understand which of the various areas of the hotel will provide good exposure and experience.

What helps each employee perform at his or her best? The emphasis is on each employee; different incentives motivate different people. General Manager Typical duties: Operates and monitors reservation system for guest room rentals. Participates with all department heads in an effective communications system facilitating the provision of guest services. Plans and participates in the delivery of marketing programs for the sale of rooms and other hotel products and services.

Interfaces with various department heads and controller regarding any billing disputes involving guests. Prepares forecast of room sales for upcoming week, month, or other time period as required. Maintains business relationships with various corporate community leaders.

Performs these and other duties as required. Review cycle: The young person who prefers the second shift 3: Tuition reimbursement may motivate the recent graduate of an associate degree program who wants to continue toward a four-year degree. This same incentive will mean little to someone uninterested in higher education.

By using this knowledge, a manager can promote not just the best interests of the employee but also the best interests of the hotel. Another supervisory responsibility is to achieve a balance among varying personalities in a group work setting.

This is a constant and evolving situation. This is common practice and a situation that needs to be addressed as part of the job. Once the new supervisor shows himself or herself capable and competent, the supervisor can move on to the day-today tasks. They also want to make sure that their supervisor will be their advocate with top management. All new supervisors will be tested in this way.

After working out whatever personality clashes may exist among the employees, the manager must be objective about the strengths and weaknesses of the staff.

Who is the agitator? Who is the complainer? Objective views of staff are probably shared by the rest of the team. Often, the staff members are quite aware of the shortcomings of their co-workers. They also know whom they can rely on to check out the full house and check in the convention three hours later. Some supervisors will respond negatively to such accommodation of the staff. Of course, authority is important, but any supervisor who wants to maintain that authority and have objectives met by the staff must constantly rework his or her strategy.

Adequate personnel training discussed in Chapter 12 makes the job of a supervisor much easier. When training is planned, executed, and followed up, the little annoyances of human error are minimized. As previously discussed, each job description lists the major duties of the employees, but the gray areas—handling complaints, delivering a positive image of the lodging property, selling other departments in the hotel, and covering for a new trainee—cannot be communicated in a job description.

On-the-job training, employee training that takes place while producing a product or service, and videotape training are excellent methods for clarifying the gray areas of different tasks of a job.

Employees will always have special scheduling needs as well as other job-related requests. Supervisors should try to accommodate their needs. A longtime employee might ask you how he or she can advance in the organization. You may not have an immediate response, but you can indicate that you will act on the request in the near future. Sometimes employees know that a good thing takes time to develop. For example, a desk clerk who is in need of additional income may have requested overtime hours.

The more systematic the communication process can become, the better for all concerned. For example, messages that will affect the next shift of desk clerks can be recorded in the message book, a loose-leaf binder in which the front desk staff on various shifts can record important messages.

The guest who complains about the maintenance of a room must have the complaint passed along to the right person. Inquiries about hotel services, reservations, city ledger accounts—a collection of accounts receivable of nonregistered guests who use the services of the hotel—accounts payable, scheduled events, and messages for registered guests constitute only some of the many requests for information.

Desk clerks and telephone operators are expected to know the answers to these questions or know to whom they should be referred.

Some of this advice is based on my own experiences. One of the jobs I was responsible for as a front desk clerk included manning the switchboard. This job was truly stressful, involving accuracy at every contact. Finding the right department head to meet the request of an incoming caller or ensuring that a message is passed along to a guest are only some of the tasks required every minute a person is on the job. If a message is conveyed inaccurately or if an employee fails to complete the communication process, hospitality is not projected to the guest.

Ways of applying employee empowerment concepts will be explored in chapter Ensuring that an employee can conduct business without constant approval from a supervisor is the goal of empowerment. The mastery of empowerment requires a supervisor to train employees and to practice much patience. Employees who have been accustomed to direct supervision on all matters will not readily adapt to a work environment that requires independent thinking to solve challenges.

Table page 68 compares these projected costs with the projected revenue generated by room rentals, which allows for a preevaluation of income and labor expenses. Does this happen frequently in the hotel business?

Unfortunately, it does.

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Chapter Recap This chapter outlined the organizational structure of various lodging properties and typical job responsibilities of department managers. This process allows the future professional to see the major responsibilities of the job and the various departmental relationships involved. Forecasting, scheduling, developing a supervisory style, motivating personnel, balancing staff personalities, delegating tasks, training, and effectively communicating are only a few of the skills a good supervisor must master.

It is a lifelong effort developed through continuing education and trial and error. If you are employed in the hotel industry, sketch the organization chart of the property where you work. Have you seen this hierarchy change since you have been employed there? If so, what do you think caused this change?

Compare the organization of a full-service hotel and a limited-service hotel. How can a limited-service property operate with such a seemingly minimal staff? If you are employed in the hotel industry, describe the tasks your general manager performs on a daily basis.

Describe the tasks your department director performs on a daily basis. What relationship do both of these departments have to the overall success of the hotel? Which positions are most crucial to providing guest service? Rank the importance of these resources in providing service to guests and supervising employees.

Give examples. Why should the job analysis be performed prior to preparing a job description? Do you think this procedure is necessary?

Why or why not? What are the three steps required in preparing a schedule? How do you think your supervisor developed his or her supervisory style? What do you think will be the basis for developing your supervisory style?

Why does trying to understand individual motivations help in supervising? What are some of the personality clashes you have noticed where you work? How did your supervisor handle them? Would you have handled them differently if you were the supervisor? There was Milo Diaz, personnel manager, who was always calling her to post her schedules on time and authorize payroll forms.

Thomas Brown, executive housekeeper, seemed a great friend off the premises of the hotel, but at work, he continually badgered the front desk clerks on guest check-in and checkout problems. She knows the schedules are to be posted by Tuesday morning of each week, but several of her employees give her last-minute requests for days off.

Her payroll forms are usually delayed because she wants to spend time with the guests who are registering or checking out. It was his third night on the job, and no one had thought to explain what constitutes an emergency call to the executive engineer.

Ana was very uneasy CASE knowing that her colleagues had reported major errors on her behalf. However, Margaret Chu took an approach that was very different from that of other general managers with whom Ana had worked.

Margaret asked her to prepare a list of strategies that she could use in working toward improvement in the following areas: Chu has asked you to assist Ana in developing strategies to use for improving her ability in the art of supervising employees. What would you suggest? STUDY A local hotel developer has called you to assist her corporation in designing job descriptions for a new hotel.

Employee motivation Personnel training Effective scheduling of employees Communication Empowerment Prepare job descriptions for the following management positions: Continued Step 3. Reservations Manager: Bell Captain: Continued Step 4. After noticing that the connection for the teleconference is communications with other departments not working, he stops by the front desk and asks if the convention representative could come to the conference room. The desk clerk on duty offers to locate the convention representative and send her to the room.

It sets the stage for a pleasant or an unpleasant visit. Guests, often in an unfamiliar setting and anxious to proceed with their business or vacation plans, are eager to learn the who, what, when, where, and how of their new environment. Developing positive personal relationships is part of the communication process, but it cannot be relied on to ensure that accurate and current information has been relayed.

This chapter provides some background for you as you begin your professional career. It is also important to note that intradepartmental communication communication inside a department is applicable to this discussion.

These general objectives help department Figure However, in reality, it requires constant effort to manage the details of employees, materials, procedures, and communication skills to produce acceptable products and services. The guest history is a valuable resource for marketing and sales, which uses the guest registration information to target marketing campaigns, develop promotions, prepare mailing labels, and select appropriate advertising media.

The process of completing the booking of a special function such as a wedding reception, convention, or seminar depends on the availability of sleeping rooms for guests. The marketing and sales executives may have to check the lists of available rooms three, six, or even twelve months in the future to be sure the hotel can accommodate the expected number of guests. The switchboard operator is a vital link in the communication between the prospective client and a salesperson in the marketing and sales department.

Housekeeping room status can be described in the following communication terms: These issues are of immediate concern to the guest as well as to supervisors in the hotel. Reporting of room status is handled on a face-to-face basis in a hotel that does not use a property management system PMS. Sometimes even regular reporting of room status is not adequate, as guests may be anxiously awaiting the opportunity to occupy a room. Timely distribution of the room sales projections assists the executive housekeeper in planning employee personal leaves and vacation days.

The front desk also relies on housekeeping personnel to report any unusual circumstances that may indicate a violation of security for the guests. Guest requests for additional or special amenities and guest room supplies may be initiated at the front desk. The prompt relay of requests for extra blankets, towels, soap, and shampoo to housekeeping is essential.

This is hospitality at its best. These vital services help an overworked food and beverage manager, restaurant manager, or banquet captain meet the demands of the public. Incoming messages for the food and beverage manager and executive chef from vendors and other industry representatives are important to the business operation of the food and beverage department.

If the switchboard operator is given instructions on screening callers such as times when the executive chef cannot be disturbed because of a busy workload or staff meetings, or vendors in whom the chef is not interested , the important messages will receive top priority. Photo courtesy of Radisson Hospitality Worldwide. When a hotel does not have point-of-sale terminals that interface with PMS point-of-sale terminals, the desk clerk is responsible for posting accurate charges on the guest folio and relies on transfer slips.

For example, the restaurant supervisor working the breakfast shift will want to know how many guests will be in the hotel so he or she can determine how many servers to schedule for breakfast service.

These guidelines help to maintain control of paid-outs. The front desk staff may also provide labor to prepare the daily announcement board, an inside listing of the daily activities of the hotel time, group, and room assignment , and marquee, the curbside message board, which includes the logo of the hotel and space for a message. The daily posting of scheduled events on a felt board or an electronic bulletin board provides all guests and employees with information on group events.

The preparation of the marquee may include congratulatory, welcome, sales promotion, or other important messages. He also works with the front desk on obtaining a thorough knowledge of the needs and location of banquet and meeting guests through a ten-day forecast of banquet and meeting events. The communication emphasis at the Houston Hilton is extended into a nine-week cross-training program, in which all departments food and beverage, front desk, housekeeping, sales, etc.

This training effort allows the salesperson to appreciate the duties of a cook, the waiter or waitress to understand the duties of a front desk clerk, and the front desk clerk to value the duties of a housekeeper.

DeCaire offers the following advice for students wanting to make a career in the hotel industry: This effort will pay big dividends for your career growth. This service might seem minor in the overall delivery of service, but it is essential to the lost or confused guest. Front desk clerks, as shown in Figure , must be ready to provide information for all departmental activities in the hotel.

This information is also used to measure management ability to meet budget targets. He processes money that comes in and expenses and taxes that are paid out. Heale says his relationships with desk clerks, cashiers, and night auditors are important; however, his relationship with their respective managers is more important.

He audits the work of the desk clerks, cashiers, and night auditors but does not directly supervise them. If they make mistakes, Mr. Heale tries to show them why. He makes sure they receive proper training, which includes letting them know the results of audits when they occur and making them aware of their individual performance. They work together to forecast room sales and do the auditing of daily cash banks. Heale alert each other to any problems and work together to solve them.

Heale know when a guest has exceeded his or her credit limit. He adds that everyone in a hotel is a salesperson. Selling is a big part of his job through fostering a good relationship with local vendors. His efforts may encourage vendors to become customers of the hotel. Maintenance employees must know the occupancy status of a room before attending to plumbing, heating, or air-conditioning problems. If the room is reserved, the two departments will work out a time frame so the guest will be able to enter the room or be assigned to another room.

Cooperative efforts produce the best solutions to sometimes seemingly impossible situations. Figure depicts the essential communication and planning by departmental managers to provide guest services at a time that will not interfere with delivering hospitality.

Office Administration Student’s Book: Answer Key

Likewise, the requests from guests for the repair of heating, ventilating, and airconditioning units; plumbing; televisions; and other room furnishings are directed to the front desk. These requests are then communicated to the maintenance department. The front desk clerk must keep track of the repair schedule, as guests want to be informed of when the repair will be made.

These departments work together very closely in maintaining guest security. If so, guidelines for and training in screening methods must be provided. The human resources management department may also develop guidelines for the front desk clerk to use in initially screening candidates.

For example, the guidelines may include concerns about personal hygiene, completion of an application, education requirements, experience, and citizenship status. This information will help the executives in the human resources management department interview potential job candidates.

Each situation will describe some communication problems between departments, trace the source of miscommunication, analyze the communication system, and present methods that will help improve communications.

The purpose of this method of presentation is to help future professionals to develop a systematic way of continually improving communications. Situation 1: On arriving at the hotel, they approach the front desk and ask if Mr. Benton, the director of marketing and sales, is available. The desk clerk checks the duty board and sees that Mr. Benton has left for the day. What are you here for anyway?

Gerard, the assistant general manager, arrives on the scene and asks what he can do for the Magnates. Magnate has a number of concerns: Who will be in charge of their party? Will their two favorite servers be serving the cocktails, appetizers, and dinner? He knows everything. Benton left no instructions about who will be serving the party, and he has not seen any tulips in the walkin.

Magnate declares that this party will be a disaster. Magnate decides to proceed with the party and take up the lack of professional service later. Later has arrived: Magnate has complained to the general manager and I.

Business Organisation and Office Management

Owner—owner of City Hotel—and both are upset about the situation. Magnate and I. Owner are coinvestors in a construction project. Even if the two men were not business associates, the treatment of any guest in such a shabby way spells disaster for future convention and banquet sales. Communication is a two-way process, and both senders and receivers must take active roles. Benton, the director of marketing and sales, did not do his homework.

Assuming he was aware of I. Magnate, he should have adjusted his work schedule so that he could be there for the party. Although Mr. Gerard, the assistant general manager, would not normally be involved in the details of a party, in this case, the VIP status of the guests would be a reason for him to be aware of the presence of the Magnates in the hotel.

At times, a member of the management team will fail to communicate the particulars of an upcoming event. They are also responsible for learning about the backgrounds of the people, associations, and corporations that stay at and conduct business with the hotel. Several things can be done to avoid this type of situation. Weekly staff meetings may also provide an opportunity for the director of marketing and sales to give brief synopses of who will be in the hotel in the coming week.

At that point, any special requests for VIP treatment could be noted. Situation 2: It is a busy Tuesday morning at the front desk. The Rosebud Flower Association guests is checking out of the hotel.

The Franklin Actuary Society guests is beginning to arrive for registration. It is They tell him that there are do not disturb signs on the doors of the majority of the rooms. It is now 3: Only about 20 percent of the rooms needed have been released by housekeeping. Therefore, he does not make the announcement. Samantha opens it and reads the card out loud: All he asked for was a late checkout time for his group.

For example, new employee orientation would include a discussion on the policy for communicating requests for late checkout to the supervisor on duty. A decision made by one employee affects the work of many people. A typical review of procedures could include the following: Consult with the reservations manager to determine the expected time of departure for the guests or groups of guests currently in the hotel and expected times of arrival of those who will be registering the next day.

Consult with the director of marketing and sales to determine if any special group requests concerning checkout departure on arrival times have been granted. Consult with the housekeeper to determine the effect of a delayed checkout time on daily operations of the housekeeping department.

The delivery of service in a hotel requires the employee to be able to meet the needs of the guests by exercising his or her authority and taking responsibility for conveying an atmosphere of hospitality. Situation 3: