Three Kingdoms tells the story of the fateful last reign of the Han dynasty ( B.C.-A.D. ) when the Chinese empire was divided into three warring kingdoms. The bestselling Journey to the West comic book by artist Chang Boon Kiat is now back in a brand new fully coloured ronaldweinland.infoy to the. The book The Journey to the West, Revised Edition, Volume 1, Translated and Edited by Anthony C. Yu is published by University of Chicago Press.
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Page 1. Journey to the West. Wu Cheng−en. Page 2. Table of Contents. Journey to the. Format Type: PDF (eBook) File Size: mb Journey to the West is one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature. It was written in the 16th. Journey to the West Never_Split_the_Difference__Negotiating_as_-_ ronaldweinland.info Never Split the Difference: Negotiating as if Your Life Depe.
Wu Chengen Vol. Moreover, this thinker assumed that the universe is a spatial and temporal expression of the spirit. His school of thinking is called School of the mind Xinxue. His ideas were either an influence on some Ming philosophers, such as Wang Yangming, or at least similar to their ideas. Lu believed that mind xin , pattern li , and way dao are the most important and frequently interchangeable concepts.
He promises to hold a Grand Mass for the Dead that will help ease their suffering, and promises to spread the teachings of Buddhism. The emperor becomes blood brothers with the monk, issues him an official passport and sends him on his way with great fanfare. Only then, at chapter 13, does the monk finally begin his journey, along the way picking up his four companions: Sun Wukong, Pa-Chieh, Sha Monk, and a small dragon who is transformed into a white horse.
Each of these had been banished from heaven for some type of transgression, but was saved by Kuan-yin to help the monk on his quest. In this case, the three religions are Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism. Despite all of these residual characteristics of oral storytelling, however, the narrative is clearly the product of a literate, bureaucratic class. The book is insistently textual.
Texts pervade the narrative, starting with the very reason for the quest itself — to obtain written scriptures. It also typifies literate culture in that it is highly satirical.
The story gleefully pokes fun at a Chinese bureaucracy that 1 apparently cannot get anything done unless someone has written permission to do so, and 2 refuses to believe something officially exists unless it has been inventoried in a written file. This is a problem whether one is on earth, in heaven, or in the Region of Darkness. When Sun Wukong is , he finds himself escorted to the afterlife, which resembles nothing if not a Kafka-esque bureaucracy.
Age: three-hundred and forty-two years. A good end. All I want is to erase my name. Wu-kung took the ledger on monkeys and crossed out all the names he could find in it. Now I am truly not your subject. The power of the written record is absolute. This is as true for written orders as it is for ledgers. Early on in the narrative, the Dragon King of the Ching River is executed because he failed to follow written instructions precisely.
Rain will come at the hour of the Horse and reach its limit at the hour of the Sheep.
Instead the Dragon King allowed it to rain only three feet and 40 drops 1. These are not the heroes of oral narrative: they are divided from themselves in that they recognize the existence of an interior life separate from external appearances. In The Journey to the West, the main characters could be described as heroic in proportion, and in this respect, they contrast with the protagonists that begin to show up in 16th and 17th C European literature.
At the same time, however, the narrator repeatedly emphasizes the fact that their success depends on their acting as one unit. If one of the group leaves, or if they continue to argue with one another, the quest will fail.
The narrator emphasizes this by associating each of the characters with one of the five basic elements of Taoist alchemy: water, fire, wood or mercury, metal, and earth.
According to Anthony Yu, Monkey, for instance, is often associated with metal, particularly gold. Rather than portraying a single character who undergoes an internal struggle that must be resolved, The Journey West represents a single psyche using five separate characters.
In order to succeed, they must come to function as though they were a single mind. This divided collectivity may have something to do with a fundamental difference between how Europeans and Chinese perceive evil. For westerners, evil is seen as something to be wiped out — it exists in and of itself and the evil thing must be eliminated. When St. George battles the dragon, he just has to kill it. The idea is to get rid of it. Everything belongs here and has its proper place.
Evil results when something steps out of its place. Even the adversaries that get killed must have their true natures restored to them, even if this happens through their deaths. In one instance, an evil Taoist magician turns out to have been a tiger.
By revealing his true nature, even in death, cosmic balance is restored; existence begins to function once again as a harmonious whole. The five characters of the narrative need to learn how to function in the same way, as a harmonious whole, a single psychic unit, not as separate individuals.
The arguments between Sun, Pa-chieh, and Hsuan-tsang externalize the internal struggles faced by one who seeks enlightenment. Pa-chieh embodies the struggle against physical desires. By the end of the quest, those tendencies that are too extreme must be tempered, and those traits that are weak must be enhanced or cultivated. In order to achieve this harmony, it is the trickster figure — Monkey — who plays the greatest role.
In his origins, he is wholly outside the cosmological system, a fact which Monkey initially does everything he can to emphasize.
The narrator tells us: You see, though this monkey resembled a human being, he was not listed under the names of men; though he resembled the short-haired creatures, he did not dwell in their kingdoms; though he resembled other animals, he was not subject to the unicorn; and though he resembled flying creatures, he was not governed by the phoenix.
He had, therefor, a separate ledger. To avoid destruction, heaven must find a way to incorporate Monkey into the cosmos. Hsuang-tsang does this by forcibly teaching Sun impulse control, such that, by the end of the quest, his disruptive powers become a force for positive transformation, rather than chaotic destruction — his abilities benefit the community, rather than his ego. European stories focus on the development of the ego and use the individual psyche as the locus for struggle, a narrative entirely consistent with a religious world view focused on personal salvation — whether that salvation comes through works or through faith.
In contract, The Journey to the West focuses on how many elements or egos struggle to work together. The locus for struggle in this narrative is communal, consistent with a concept of salvation that depends on the abandonment of the ego. Conventions for writing out Chinese words in English has evolved, and so the spelling of character and place names varies depending on publication dates.
In Anthony C. In academic articles, the title of the novel is spelled Hsi-yu Chi, or Xiyou ji, depending, again, on the date of the publication in English. Interestingly enough, Kuan-yin is predominantly represented as male, though is popularly portrayed as able to take on other forms Keown. Perhaps the author of The Journey West chose to portray the bodhisatva as female because the narrative overwhelming emphasizes her compassionate and merciful nature.
The dragon is the son of the Dragon King of the Western Ocean. The difference between an Arhat and a Buddha is that the Buddha attains enlightenment by himself, whereas the Arhat does it by following the teachings of another. As taught in early Buddhism, the Arhat attains exactly the same goal as the Buddha.
The fact that he does this through brute force may make contemporary readers a bit uncomfortable. He is therefore always able to recognise a demon in disguise while the rest of the pilgrimage cannot. However, his eyes become weak to smoke , makes Sun Wukong the strongest member of the pilgrimage by far. Besides these abilities, he can also pluck hairs from his body and blow on them to convert them into whatever he wishes usually clones of himself to gain a numerical advantage in battle.
The monkey, nimble and quick-witted, uses these skills to defeat all but the most powerful of demons on the journey. Sun's behavior is checked by a band placed around his head by Guanyin , which cannot be removed by Sun Wukong himself until the journey's end. Tang Sanzang can tighten this band by chanting the "Ring Tightening Mantra" taught to him by Guanyin whenever he needs to chastise him.
Tang Sanzang speaks this mantra quickly in repetition. Sun Wukong's childlike playfulness is a huge contrast to his cunning mind. This, coupled with his great power, makes him a trickster hero.
His antics present a lighter side in what proposes to be a long and dangerous trip into the unknown. Once an immortal who was the Marshal of the Heavenly Canopy commanding , naval soldiers of the Milky Way , he drank too much during a celebration of the gods and attempted to flirt with the moon goddess Chang'e , resulting in his banishment to the mortal world.
He was supposed to be reborn as a human but ended up in the womb of a sow due to an error on the Reincarnation Wheel, which turned him into a half-man, half-pig monster. Zhu Bajie was very greedy, and could not survive without eating ravenously. Staying within the Yunzhan Dong "cloud-pathway cave" , he was commissioned by Guanyin to accompany Tang Sanzang to India and given the new name Zhu Wuneng.
However, Zhu Bajie's appetite for women led him to the Gao Family Village, where he posed as a normal being and wedded a maiden. Later, when the villagers discovered that he was a monster, Zhu Bajie hid the girl away, and the girl wailed bitterly every night.
His weapon of choice is the jiuchidingpa " nine-tooth iron rake ". He is also capable of 36 transformations as compared to Sun Wukong's 72 , and can travel on clouds, but not as fast as Sun. However, Zhu is noted for his fighting skills in the water, which he used to combat Sha Wujing, who later joined them on the journey.
He is the second strongest member of the team.
Being spiritually the lowest of the group, at the end of the journey, he remained on earth and was granted the title "Cleaner of the Altars", that is, he was allowed to "clean" the offerings off the altars by eating and drinking them.
He was exiled to the mortal world and made to look like a monster because he accidentally smashed a crystal goblet belonging to the Queen Mother of the West during a Peach Banquet. The now-hideous immortal took up residence in the Flowing Sands River, terrorising surrounding villages and travellers trying to cross the river. They consequently took him in, as part of the pilgrimage to the West.
Sha's weapon is a magic wooden staff wrapped in pearly threads. He also knows 18 transformation methods and is highly effective in water combat.
Sha is known to be the most obedient, logical, and polite of the three disciples, and always takes care of his master, seldom engaging in the bickering of his fellow disciples. He has no major faults nor any extraordinary characteristics. Perhaps this is why he is sometimes seen as a minor character. He does however serve as the peacekeeper of the group mediating between Sun and Zhu and even Tang Sanzang and the others. He is also the person whom Tang Sanzang consults when faced with difficult decisions.
Sha eventually becomes an arhat at the end of the journey, giving him a higher level of exaltation than Zhu Bajie, who is relegated to cleaning every altar at every Buddhist temple for eternity, but lower spiritually than Sun Wukong or Tang Sanzang, who are granted Buddhahood.