Applied Hydraulics And Pneumatics Srinivasan PDF. Download Applied Hydraulics Srinivasan.R, “Hydraulic and Pneumatic controls”, Vijay Nicole, 2. Hydraulic & Pneumatic Controls by R Srinivasan. our price , Save Rs. download Hydraulic & Pneumatic Controls online, free home delivery. Types of fluid power systems; Properties of hydraulic fluids – General types of fluids – Hydraulic and Pneumatic controls; R. Srinivasan; Vijay Nicole; 2.
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Dec 01, Fluid Power Ebook, Edition 1: Fluid Power Basics. Fluid Power Basics starts with background information about simple air and hydraulic circuits, principles of fluid power operation and physical laws governing fluid power. Subsequent chapters cover different types of hydraulic fluids, fluid rating, operating parameters, and how to apply them. Next, a discussion on plumbing of fluid power systems covers tubing, pipe, and hose installations.
Subsequent chapters cover different types of hydraulic fluids, fluid rating, operating parameters, and how to apply them. Next, a discussion on plumbing of fluid power systems covers tubing, pipe, and hose installations. A short section on vacuum and its applications is followed by basic circuit information.
Coverage then shifts to discussing different components that make up a complete hydraulic or pneumatic system: reservoirs, filters, pumps, flow meters, gauges, and valves. Subsequent chapters cover flow and pressure controls, special-purpose valves, and accumulators. The book also covers all types of actuators, including cylinders, rams, motors, and rotary actuators.
Application of these components in different circuits gives a general overall view of how they are used. The only drawback this system has is that the no. However, the no.
Comparing and contrasting the above mentioned alternatives, Electro-pneumatic shifting comes out as the best alternative and is hence recommended. Storage tank and regulator. Figure 2. Pressure Regulator Gauge. Manifold and solenoid assembly.
Pneumatic actuators. The solenoid valves Figure 3 are responsible to control the low of 4. Electric control. These valves work on 12V from the vehicle battery and are controlled by a microcontroller. A storage tank is responsible for storing compressed gas and The routing from the tank to the valves and from valves to the releasing it at a high pressure for the actuators.
A paintball-style tank actuators is done through polyurethane tubing connected using can be used to store the working gas.
However, paintball tanks have a push-connectors. Hence, a pressure regulator is attached to the tank to reduce and maintain the output pressure to the required working value. The output pressure can be varied through an adjustment screw Figure 1 on the top of the regulator.
The gauge on the pressure regulator Figure 2 allows correct output pressure to be set.
For the gas to be used in the storage tank, CO2 and compressed air are considered to be viable options. But compressed air requires pressure pumps which are not very economical and are not readily available. CO2 is chosen as it is cheaply available commercially and can be stored in paintball tanks. Solenoid valves.
A Pneumatic Actuator is a piston-cylinder arrangement which generates the required force for gear shifts. It can be a double-acting or a single-acting design. Double-acting actuators allow powered extension and retraction at the same time as opposed to single-acting which can either pull or push. The gear-shift actuator connects to the ratcheting drum via an adjustable splined lever Figure 4.
The amount of torque on the drum can be adjusted by adjusting the position of the actuator on the lever. The clutch actuator is connected to the pull lever via a clutch cable Figure 5.
This allows freedom for the lever to rotate while keeping the stroke constant. Pressure Regulator Screw. For this, the dimensions of the actuators need to be calculated. For shifting the gears on the Honda CBRRR, a force of N needs to be applied onto the shift lever, over a travel distance of 25mm for either upshift or downshift.
Thus a double acting push-pull type actuator with a bore of 16mm and stroke of 50mm was selected. A pressure of psi on this actuator is enough to shift the gears. To actuate the clutch on this engine, a force of about N is required. The travel distance of the clutch is about 25mm. Hence a single acting pull type actuator is selected with a bore of 25mm and stroke of 25mm.
The same pressure of psi is supplied to the clutch as well as the shifter. From these dimensions, we can calculate that 0.
Splined Lever. Since the number of upshifts and downshifts are equal for a race, we can assume that the total air for a "shift couple" is 1 gram. A sample autocross track was needed to be selected to carry out the design simulations.
From lap time simulations on the Kari Motorway, Coimbatore, a gear track map was obtained as shown in Figure 6. This map shows the engaged gear at all the positions on the track. A driver is expected to shift about 27 times per lap on this track. For a 20 lap race, the total number of shifts comes to , i. Keeping in mind pressure luctuations and leakage losses, a tank capacity of grams was chosen to be enough for an endurance race.
Pneumatic Shifting System Schematic The automatic shifting system consists of a gear control unit GCU which acts as the central control system. The driver requirement Figure. Clutch actuator and Pull-Lever Assembly. Along with the other related sensors inputs the actuation for the corresponding relay to operate the solenoid valve is accomplished.
The schematic for the system layout is represented by the following block diagram Figure 7. Figure 6. Engaged Gear Track-map. Block diagram of Electro-Pneumatic Shifting System.
Comparison between Manual and Automatic Sequences The proposed system offers simpliied clutching and shifting Figure. Manual Vs Developed Sequence- Launch. This can be represented by a step-by-step sequence analysis of driver engagement for both the conventional and the pneumatic systems.
The sequence comparison for Upshifts is Algorithms for the Different Sequences shown in igure 8. Upshift Sequence When the test car was run with a solenoid based Translogic power shift gear actuator, an upshift time of ms was recorded. Moreover, the driver had to manually actuate the clutch, adding to his effort. With the pneumatic shifter design, the driver was able to shift without manually actuating the clutch, also known as lat shifting.
The advantage of lat shifting is that, the driver can shift without letting go of the throttle and the engine constantly remains in the power band.
This is possible by cutting the fuel and ignition for the engine appropriately. When ignition and fuel is cut for the engine, the rpm of the engine falls enough for the next gear to be engaged without the use of clutch. It was manually calculated that for a successful upshift the time needed was 50ms. Along with the valve actuation time of 8. The precise timing control was made feasible by making use of a microcontroller. A microcontroller which has a resolution of Figure 8.
Manual Vs Developed Sequence- Upshift. The coding was based on C programming if the drivers are amateurs, launching the car at exact clutch bite point language. The process low for the Upshift algorithm is shown in is not always possible. Subsequent chapters cove Fluid Power eBook, Edition 2, Chapter 1: Accumulator Circuits - Part 1.
Hydraulic accumulators make it possible to store useable volumes of non-compressible fluid under pressure. A 5-gal container completely full of oil at psi will only discharge a few cubic inches of fluid before pressure drops to 0 psi. Fluid Power eBook, Edition 1, Chapter 2: