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Heat Treatment: Principles And Techniques by RAJAN, T. V., SHARMA, C. P., SHARMA, ASHOK PDF. Download ISBN: from PHI Learning. Buy Heat Treatment: Principles And Techniques by RAJAN, T. V., SHARMA, C. P., SHARMA, ASHOK PDF Online. ISBN from PHI Learning. Heat Treatment: Principles and Techniques T.V. Sharma, C.P. Sharma, and Techniques by T.V. Sharma, C.P. Sharma, Ashok Rajan Free PDF d0wnl0ad.
At no time during the experiment was the total mass of steel samples in the bitumen more than g. From the samples normalized, ten impact test samples, ten tensile test samples and ten hardness test samples were austempered in pairs. A pair comprised one impact test samples, one tensile test sample and one hardness test sample. A pair was put in the steel container and placed in the electric furnace. After one hour, all the samples were removed from the bitumen and allowed to cool in air to room temperature. This procedure was repeated for four other pairs that were quenched in the bitumen for 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours and 5 hours respectively. All the samples austempered in bitumen were later cleaned using kerosene to remove bitumen that might be left on their surfaces.
The chemical inertness of Ta makes it an ideal substance for equipment and a substitute for platinum Pt [ 3 ]. Ta is a highly bioinert metal to manufacture biomedical components, such as hip, knee joints, and other orthopaedic implants because it is not harmed by bodily fluids and also does not irritate the flesh of the implant.
The elasticity of Ta helps to avoid stress shielding of hip and knee replacements as well [ 4 ]. Ta is also a candidate material to be used in prostheses instead of Ti in the near future. In spite of the facts that Ta is a highly corrosion resistant, chemically inert, etc. In general, a usage of Pt is a possible option due to its high chemical inertness and high temperature stability, where Ta can be substituted for more expensive Pt, but it is not considerable from the economic and commercial point of view.
Therefore, an increase in strength and wear performance, and also an extension in service life of Ta are in high demand. One of the easy and possible ways to control the wear performance of metallic materials by increasing its strength is controlling its microstructure, in particular, producing nano-grains with grain boundaries of mostly high angle misorientation via surface severe plastic deformation S2PD , which is a cold-forging process [ 6 , 7 ].
These processes develop a severe deformation and high strain, which cause the creation of gradient micro- and sub-micrometer grains, whose size is gradually increasing with the depth and finally reaches the actual initial size of matrix and coarse grains in a certain of depth [ 10 , 13 ].
As a consequence, sufficient S2PD and SPD processes result in the apparent modification in microstructure in terms of highly misoriented nano-sized grains.
The results of S2PD and SPD processes, such as microstructural state alteration, are strongly responsible for the subsequent increase in mechanical properties of metallic materials, which in turn has a direct correlation to the wear performance of metallic materials [ 6 ]. S2PD and SPD processes are capable of increasing the hardness, yield strength, and elastic strain featuring tendency to saturation, but it is not beneficial in terms of ductility [ 15 ].
Generally, nano-sized grains have some benefits in comparison with the coarse grains, not only in terms of strength of a material, but also superplastic deep drawing. A wide range of metallic materials such as aluminum [ 6 ], titanium [ 7 , 9 , 12 ], stainless steel [ 8 ], Inconel [ 11 ], etc.
For example, Huang et al.
It was found that the grain size was refined significantly due to the increase in hardness, but some coarse grains appeared with increasing the numbers of rotations. Mathaudhu et al. It was concluded that the refined nano-grains with the size of — nm was found to be beneficial for Nb3Sn superconductor.
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This comprehensive and well-organized text skillfully blends the theoretical and practical aspects of heat treatment. It discusses, in rich detail, about heat treatment of commercial steels, cast irons and non-ferrous metals and alloys. The book also offers an in-depth analysis of topics such as nature of metals and alloys; principles of heat treatment of steels; heat treatment processes; possible defects, causes and remedies in heat treatment; and inspection and quality control in heat treatment.
This second edition of the successful text has gone through considerable modification on the basis of responses received. Additional figures have been added for greater clarity and understanding. Multiple choice questions and other pedagogically arranged questions help students to assess their subject knowledge.