Here you can download the free Computer Networks Notes Pdf Material - CN Notes Pdf of Latest & old materials with multiple file links to download. computer. HANDWRITTEN NOTES of computer Network. UNIT I. ISO-OSI Model ( Transport layer,Network layer,Datalink layer,Physical layer). Download. M.C.A. DEGREE EXAMINATION, FEBRUARY/MARCH DMC –– COMPUTER NETWORKS (ii) Write short notes on Domain Name Service. (8).
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Tech Students. We provide B. Introduction to Computer Network: A network can be defined as a group of computers and other devices connected in some ways so as to be able to exchange data. Each of the devices on the network can be thought of as a node; each node has a unique address. Addresses are numeric quantities that are easy for computers to work with, but not for humans to remember.
The main function of this layer is to make sure data transfer is error free from one node to another, over the physical layer. The functions of the data Link layer are : Framing: Framing is a function of the data link layer.
It provides a way for a sender to transmit a set of bits that are meaningful to the receiver. This can be accomplished by attaching special bit patterns to the beginning and end of the frame.
Error control: Data link layer provides the mechanism of error control in which it detects and retransmits damaged or lost frames. Flow Control: The data rate must be constant on both sides else the data may get corrupted thus , flow control coordinates that amount of data that can be sent before receiving acknowledgement.
Access control: When a single communication channel is shared by multiple devices, MAC sub-layer of data link layer helps to determine which device has control over the channel at a given time.
Network Layer Layer 3 : Network layer works for the transmission of data from one host to the other located in different networks. It also takes care of packet routing i.
The functions of the Network layer are : Routing: The network layer protocols determine which route is suitable from source to destination. This function of network layer is known as routing.
Logical Addressing: In order to identify each device on internetwork uniquely, network layer defines an addressing scheme. Such an address distinguishes each device uniquely and universally. Transport Layer Layer 4 : Transport layer provides services to application layer and takes services from network layer.
The data in the transport layer is referred to as Segments. It is responsible for the End to End delivery of the complete message.
Transport layer also provides the acknowledgment of the successful data transmission and re-transmits the data if an error is found. It also adds Source and Destination port number in its header and forwards the segmented data to the Network Layer.
Generally, this destination port number is configured, either by default or manually. For example, when a web application makes a request to a web server, it typically uses port number 80, because this is the default port assigned to web applications.
Many applications have default port assigned. It also performs sequencing and reassembling of the segmented data. The functions of the transport layer are : Segmentation and Reassembly: This layer accepts the message from the session layer , breaks the message into smaller units.
Each of the segment produced has a header associated with it. The transport layer at the destination station reassembles the message. Service Point Addressing: In order to deliver the message to correct process, transport layer header includes a type of address called service point address or port address.
Thus by specifying this address, transport layer makes sure that the message is delivered to the correct process. This type of transmission is reliable and secure.
Connection less service: It is a one phase process and includes Data Transfer. In this type of transmission, the receiver does not acknowledge receipt of a packet. Each of the devices on the network can be thought of as a node; each node has a unique address. Addresses are numeric quantities that are easy for computers to work with, but not for humans to remember. Some networks also provide names that humans can more easily remember than numbers.
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Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. Content in this Article. Related Topics. Computer Networks Syllabus- B. Define Encapsulation and Peer to Peer communication in the layered architecture. With neat sketch Explain Packet switching technique in detail.
Give brief explanation about copper cables with neat sketch. Describe the stop and wait for protocol with neat sketch.
Explain Distance Vector routing algorithm with an example.