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BUKU DIBAWAH BENDERA REVOLUSI PDF

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It aims at offering a modest proposal, or an outline, sketching many possibilities of reading Indonesian works. It deals with a daunting question often posed by Indonesian students and scholars whether Indonesia can produce a philosopher or philosophical works. This article starts with addressing the question and looks for possible answers through classical Indonesian works not only from writing tradition but also material cultures, such as architectural works. It argues that Indonesian works are materials and sources worth rereading and reinterpreting through which Indonesian philosophers or philosophical works can be reclaimed, or at least unearthed. Although these works may not sound philosophical, the ways in which readers appreciate them can lead to the discovery of a unique Indonesian philosophy.

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This book is not yet featured on Listopia. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. Still, to combine religious traditions and Western philosophy is as complicated as the question itself. As Islam is the religion of the majority of Indonesians, Islamic philosophy based on faith and theological discussion becomes an issue which always occupies Indonesian scholarship.

However, the question is not entirely new. Early leaders of nationalist movement, as mentioned above, were aware of this issue. But in fact Muhammad Yamin was in the right direction when trying to combine Western thought and the history of the archipelago. In other words, Yamin sought to find the past in order to create the identity of the future. In Sumatera many also returned to Sriwijaya, the old kingdom which predated Majapahit, uniting the archipelago by building sea transportation.

The answer to our question whether Indonesia has its own philosopher is yes, it does, but we should do as what early Indonesian leaders have done so, that is by appreciating the previous works but with the spirit of reinterpretation.

Now the question over the existence of Indonesian philosophers is not a modest curiosity. It involves search for identity and foundation not only in scholarly works but also a broader national scope which have been addressed since the revolution of Indonesian independence. A Proposal To answer the question about the existence of Indonesian philosophers is a long run project.

This paper does not intend to give a final and complete answer. Nor does this paper present an example of the project. However, this paper will propose a sketch, or outline, of what can be done to define Indonesian philosophy and to define Indonesian philosophers. Once again, to argue that Indonesia ever produces its own philosophers does not mean that we will present self-proclaiming local philosophers with their philosophical compendiums. Nagasaki, Japan: Hakkojo, Their works are written in various forms of poems, diaries, doctrinal religious teachings, or merely unclear records carved on the stones of temples.

The term philosophy is not mentioned explicitly. But our task is to rediscover some elements, or foundation, of philosophy in them and to systematize them. In doing so, we should reread them based on philosophical principles. As we know in hermeneutical philosophy the task of interpretation is never once completed, but reinterpretation is demanded in different time and space.

Thus, what Indonesians have written should be reinterpreted based on new demands and new way of reading, thus giving new meaning based on new contexts.

Nor are their works similar in any level to those of the known modern philosophers. But as a basic rule, thinkers or philosophers earned great names due to their works which were appreciated in the scholarly world afterwards.

They did write great books, so much so that their disciples venerated them. But they earned reputation, mainly because later generation appreciated their works and continued their legacy. He remains indeed influential and is respected until today for his great mastery in fiqh Islamic law.

But in fact his works such as al-Umm or al-Risalah are not sufficient in defining his greatness. The greatness of thinkers came into reality after their death with their works having influenced the world afterwards. Plato is great not only because of his Republic26 which is influential on many cultures and has been translated into Latin, Syriac, Arabic, English and other hundred world languages. Similar cases are with other Western thinkers whom later generations venerated. We have no school of Majapahti, Demak, Mataram, Yogyakarta, Solo, Ciputat, or Sapen, or other literary circles that reinterpret, or at least appreciate, their works.

To argue in this vein, Indonesia indeed has thinkers with their works influential on later generations, such as Negara Kertagama29 whose fame lies in the words Bhinneka Tungga Ika, adopted as the Indonesian symbol of diversity and unity.

However, Kertagama needs new readers who are committed to see the work in a different way and in a new light and to reinterpret what it contains. Kertagama, like the Republic, will live on in the hands of new readers who are prepared to assign new meanings. F Ferrari, trans. By doing so, this article offers an outline of four possible sources of knowledge epistemology which can be further developed by our generation: 1 Hindu-Buddhist tradition; 2 local wisdom; 3 Islamic literature; and 4 modern foundation of thinking.

Let us briefly explain one by one: 1 Reinterpreting the previous Hindu Buddhist traditions is rereading not only written works such as books but it also covers material cultures, such as temples or ancient architectural works. If we are fortunate to find an old manuscript, then our task is also to appreciate the source. Note that material cultures still beg our new way of reading. We are fortunate that old writings such as Syang Hyang Kamahayanikan is still at our disposal.

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But generally speaking, we inherit too few writings from this old tradition. However, material sources in the form of temples found across Yogyakarta, East Java, Central Java, Sumatera and Kalimantan are at our disposal which can be read with new interpretation.

Keep in mind that Hindu Buddhist temples contain unlimited wisdoms and priceless knowledge about the way our ancestors brought and put Indian traditions into the context of Nusantara. In short, the idea and reason behind adopting and adapting foreign wisdom put in the new context of Nusantara still challenge our new way of reading. Like material cultures preserved in the architectural works, this source also needs rereading.

Of course, the history of Indonesian religiosity witnesses that Sumatera is a home to Hamzah Fansuri,30 Nuruddin al-Singkili, and other Sufi writers who penned their wisdom by mixing local culture, Persian, Indian, and Arab tradition to express their religiosity. Keep in mind that Sulawesi is also a place where syncretistic tradition remains alive until today. New traditions are often born in this island. Likewise, Nusa Tenggara also gives birth to a unique tradition of mingling Hinduism, Islam and local traditions.

In this vein, we readers should reinterpret their revelations. Many historians, anthropologists, and sociologists, however, were tempted to treat them as an ethnological data rather than as a system of philosophical reflection which deserves a special attention. Furthermore, numerous works by later leaders, such as Tan Malaka, Soekarno, Yamin, Tjokroaminoto, and others, who injected the spirit of nationalism to Indonesians, as mentioned earlier in this article, can also serve as another epistemological foundation.

By reading these works with a critical attitude, at least the foundation of epistemology of Indonesian philosophy can be unearthed. Bur Rasuanto, trans. New Haven [etc.

BUKU SOEKARNO DIBAWAH BENDERA REVOLUSI PDF

Recalling ancient wisdom But before proceeding to the latest modern work, a foundation of the past should be discovered. Perhaps the oldest writing in the archipelago which remains at our disposal is the Sang Hyang Kamahayanikan which contains Buddhist Tantric philosophy showing how to achieve enlightenment.

The statues of Tatagatha can also be found in many Buddhist temples in Central Java and Yogyakarta the main verb is missing. Thus comparison can be made between Tatagatha in Kahamayanikan and the statues of the temples.

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Borobudur, for instance, shows various attitudes and positions of Tatagatha which can be compared to the description in the book. Iconography which serves as the foundation of building of the Borobudur remains vital in our endeavor to unearth ancient epistemology which influenced later culture and religious traditions. Borobudur itself as material culture needs rereading, such as how to achieve enlightenment in the version 33 I.

Sang Hyang Kamahayanan Mantranaya. These phases symbolize the steps taken in achieving enlightenment in Buddhist Borobudur; the three worlds are also described in Hindu Prambanan, and in mosques of Demak, Yogyakarta, and other shrines. To explain them briefly, the world kamadathu basically means underground world which contains examples of sinful deeds which should be avoided.

Revolusi pdf dibawah bendera buku

The second world of rupadhatu contains laws and rules in the world of human kind which more or less is comparable to sharia in Islam. Sharia is a central theme in nowadays Indonesia, as the fever of Sharia can be felt in many local regulations which can threaten the integration of the country and nation. The third world Arupadhatu sounds similar to, and indeed has becomes inspiration for, the sufi path of Islamic tradition.

Arupadhatu is the world where material and worldly affairs have no values, the immaterial world of ascetism and sufism. Hindu tradition can also serve as another foundation of indigenous epistemology. Hindu tradition leaves us with some architectural achievements visible in Central Java, Yogyakarta, and East Java. Sumatera and Kalimantan also give us this evidence, as various temples can also be found in these islands. These architectural achievements represent the worldview of Hinduism relating to the system of beliefs in Gods, Goddesses, saints, and the way in which society in the archipelago was structured in terms of political, societal, and religious hierarchy.

Pdf revolusi dibawah buku bendera

Take for example the immense temples of sewu thousand in the complex of Prambanan in the border of Yogyakarta and Klaten. The work of Ramayana, and also Mahabarata, has become an inspiration not only for Hindu and Buddhist believers, but they also remain influential in the later Islamic literature and religiosity. The story is as old as the history of India in telling the blurred difference and border of good and evil, treacherous and heroic, and loyal and disloyal.

The work teaches us about the story of brothers and cousins who were involved in war for power, wealth, and love which have been reinterpreted in various forms and stages in arts, religions, and politics. Norms, ethics, philosophies, and other fields inspired later narrations in new Islamic tradition in the archipelago. The war has indeed inspired innumerable Indonesian literary works from one generation to another.

One of the famous examples of the lesson learned from the war event is the way in which conversation between two heroic figures: Krisna and Arjuna.

It is believed that Krisna is the reincarnation of God who taught Arjuna about the philosophy of life in war. The war is not only about annihilating the enemies whom Arjuna detested, but about the war inside human mind in the forms of lush, desire, and performing duty. Other old works in the Hindu and Buddhist traditions, whose practices mostly did not survive, need rereading using new perspectives based on current demands in the globalizing world.

Both material and literary works are worth reinterpreting which should produce a new and fresh perspective in seeing the history of Indonesia. In short, the archeological attempt of Indonesian epistemology can be performed by appreciating the heritage of the past which comes in various forms and styles, which perhaps were no longer practiced in today society. But to grasp the past is not an easy task. In other words, archeological works, and rereading manuscripts, should be promoted to build an epistemological foundation, based upon a new way of reading of the old tradition.

What is the difference between reading common history and seeking epistemological foundation through archeology lies in the effort of finding new meanings and reinterpreting not for the sake of narratives or chronological order, but to find a new epistemology, to look for clues where the knowledge did come from in Indonesian context and to what extent the new knowledge can be built based on old and perhaps common materials; this also involves new methods of hermeneutical practices which can lead to new results.

Keep also in mind that later Islamic literature still reflects the old Hindu and Buddha foundation. Take Serat Dewa Ruci for example. The story of search for truth can be interpreted as the search of true knowledge, which is later reinterpreted in many shadows puppet plays.

If Islamic literature in the past presents a new interpretation of the Hindu and Buddhist legacy, modern Indonesian philosophy can do the same task with new methods and perspectives.

But we should read the work in a different way and attitude.

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That is, we should treat the work as a record of a worldview, and epistemology, describing how Javanese perceived this world. From this work we can learn how history runs based on Javanese wisdom. Borobudur itself as material culture needs rereading, such as how to achieve enlightenment in the version 33 I. Sang Hyang Kamahayanan Mantranaya. Naskah-Terjemahan- Penjelasannya Tahun: Lokesh Chandra New Delhi: Golden Tales of the Buddhas Hongkong: The philosophy of three worlds, or three phases of enlightenment: These phases symbolize the steps taken in achieving enlightenment in Buddhist Borobudur; the three worlds are also described in Hindu Prambanan, and in mosques of Demak, Yogyakarta, and other shrines.

To explain them briefly, the world kamadathu basically means underground world which contains examples of sinful deeds which should be avoided. The second world of rupadhatu contains laws and rules in the world of human kind which more or less is comparable to sharia in Islam.

Sharia is a central theme in nowadays Indonesia, as the fever of Sharia can be felt in many local regulations which can threaten the integration of the country and nation. The third world Arupadhatu sounds similar to, and indeed has becomes inspiration for, the sufi path of Islamic tradition.

Arupadhatu is the world where material and worldly affairs have no values, the immaterial world of ascetism and sufism. Hindu tradition can also serve as another foundation of indigenous epistemology.

Hindu tradition leaves us with some architectural achievements visible in Central Java, Yogyakarta, and East Java. Sumatera and Kalimantan also give us this evidence, as various temples can also be found in these islands.

These architectural achievements represent the worldview of Hinduism relating to the system of beliefs in Gods, Goddesses, saints, and the way in which society in the archipelago was structured in terms of political, societal, and religious hierarchy.

Dibawah pdf revolusi buku bendera

Take for example the immense temples of sewu thousand in the complex of Prambanan in the border of Yogyakarta and Klaten. Veronique Degroot Yogyakarta: The work of Ramayana, and also Mahabarata, has become an inspiration not only for Hindu and Buddhist believers, but they also remain influential in the later Islamic literature and religiosity. The story is as old as the history of India in telling the blurred difference and border of good and evil, treacherous and heroic, and loyal and disloyal.

The work teaches us about the story of brothers and cousins who were involved in war for power, wealth, and love which have been reinterpreted in various forms and stages in arts, religions, and politics. Norms, ethics, philosophies, and other fields inspired later narrations in new Islamic tradition in the archipelago.

The war has indeed inspired innumerable Indonesian literary works from one generation to another. One of the famous examples of the lesson learned from the war event is the way in which conversation between two heroic figures: Krisna and Arjuna.

It is believed that Krisna is the reincarnation of God who taught Arjuna about the philosophy of life in war. The war is not only about annihilating the enemies whom Arjuna detested, but about the war inside human mind in the forms of lush, desire, and performing duty.

Other old works in the Hindu and Buddhist traditions, whose practices mostly did not survive, need rereading using new perspectives based on current demands in the globalizing world.

Both material and literary works are worth reinterpreting which should produce a new and fresh perspective in seeing the history of Indonesia. Austin, In short, the archeological attempt of Indonesian epistemology can be performed by appreciating the heritage of the past which comes in various forms and styles, which perhaps were no longer practiced in today society.

But to grasp the past is not an easy task. In other words, archeological works, and rereading manuscripts, should be promoted to build an epistemological foundation, based upon a new way of reading of the old tradition. What is the difference between reading common history and seeking epistemological foundation through archeology lies in the effort of finding new meanings and reinterpreting not for the sake of narratives or chronological order, but to find a new epistemology, to look for clues where the knowledge did come from in Indonesian context and to what extent the new knowledge can be built based on old and perhaps common materials; this also involves new methods of hermeneutical practices which can lead to new results.

Keep also in mind that later Islamic literature still reflects the old Hindu and Buddha foundation. Take Serat Dewa Ruci for example. The story of search for truth can be interpreted as the search of true knowledge, which is later reinterpreted in many shadows puppet plays. If Islamic literature in the past presents a new interpretation of the Hindu and Buddhist legacy, modern Indonesian philosophy can do the same task with new methods and perspectives. But we should read the work in a different way and attitude.

That is, we should treat the work as a record of a worldview, and epistemology, describing how Javanese perceived this world. From this work we can learn how history runs based on Javanese wisdom. Indeed, knowledge of reality was produced in this serat, babad and other forms of writing. For example, Serat Diponegoro as discussed and translated by Peter Carey contains many important wisdom, connecting cultures, faiths, politics, economy, and war.

Thus, through serat we see the past more clearly. After explaining the possibility and presenting the outline of rereading the legacy of the past, we should realize that modern Indonesian writings offer a richer material with which we can offer different perspectives in reclaiming an epistemology born in Indonesia. Various philosophical and epistemological foundations can lead us to a further criticism and appreciation from which new knowledge can be cultivated in new Indonesian contexts.

Certainly, modern Indonesian period covers the first foundation of building Indonesia itself as promoted by the leaders who dreamed of the independence of Indonesia: What is clear is that they combined Western philosophy and search of national identity, leading to the foundation of building the nation. Furthermore, modern Indonesian epistemology which was built from the awareness for the independence gave birth to at least two later kinds of thinking: Olthof, ed. HR Sumarsono Yogyakarta: Narasi, An Account of the Outbreak of the Java War, R Carey Kuala Lumpur: Printed for the Council of the M.

Muhammad Subuh, for example, founded Subud movement embraced by people from more than hundred countries in the world. This project is a long run, which demands our commitment and patriotism. The realization of the project in unearthing and reclaiming Indonesian philosophy depends on our attitude and spirit whether our faith in our own tradition and culture are firm.

In reality, inferiority complex often becomes a main obstacle with the belief that Indonesian literary works and heritage do not produce any system of thinking much less philosophy. Indeed, Indonesian tradition of writing and philosophizing the world, God, and human being cannot be compared to Greece, Latin, Arab, or modern European tradition.

Given this, our effort should not cease. Whether Indonesia does have philosophers who produce 41 Sudjatmoko, Dimensi Manusia dalam Pembangunan: Pilihan Karangan Jakarta: LP3ES, Subud, Soenarto Mertowardojo, Sasangka jati: Paguyuban Ngesti Tunggal, In fact, from the periods of Hindu-Buddha, Islam, and Western colonialism, Indonesians, like other people living in other parts of the world, never stop thinking of themselves, their society, environment, faith, and this universe.

Our task is to reclaim what are not appreciated well yet and to reread them.

Bibliography Ali, Kecia. Oxford, England: Ansor, Muhammad. Arps, Bernard, and Ki Anom Soeroto. Tall tree, nest of the wind: Audi, Robert. The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy. Brandes, Jan Laurens Andries. Calder, Norman. Studies in Early Muslim Jurisprudence. Clarendon Press, Campanini, Massimo. Commins, Saxe, and Robert N Linscott, eds. Man and Spirit: The Speculative Philosophers. New York: Man and the State: The Political Philosophers.

Man and the Universe: The Philosophers of Science. Babad Dipanagara: Translated by P. R Carey. Kuala Lumpur: Indonesian Political Thinking, ,. Ithaca N. Geertz, Clifford. The Religion of Java. Glencoe, Ill.: The Free Press, Abangan, santri, priyayi: Edited by Bur Rasuanto. Translated by Aswab Mahasin. Pustaka Jaya, Islam Observed: Yale University Press, The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. Freedom and Fulfillment: Translated by Richard Joseph McCarthy.

Translated by Richard J.

Dibawah bendera revolusi pdf

American University of Beirut, Edited by Muhammad Mahdi Sharif. Haryono, Timbul. Howell, Julia Day. London, New York; New York: Ishii, Kazuko. New Delhi: The Modernization of Islam in Indonesia: Jakarta and Montreal: Aku mau Translated by Vissia Ita. Jakarta; Yogyakarta: Letters from Kartini: An Indonesian Feminist,