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These professionals are involved in manufacturing, designing, marketing, distributing, and sales. They focus on the design of individual components, testing and research, mechanical systems, and oversee the final production activity. INR 5 to 6 Lacs Quality Engineer Quality Engineers are responsible for determining quality improvement by identifying methods relevant to a manufacturing process. They develop experiments by applying fractional factorial techniques. They also analyze data by completing hypothesis, process capability analysis tests, and normal distribution. INR 4 to 5 Lacs Production Engineer Production Engineers are responsible for supervising a team that includes the production coordinator and assistant directors. They are also responsible for hiring, scheduling, budgeting, and handling insurance issues on the set.
The word automobile comes from the Ancient Greek word auts, "self" and the Latin mobilis "movable" ; therefore automobile means a vehicle that moves itself. These words in turn are said to have originated from the Gaulish word karros a Gallic Chariot. Most definitions of the term specify that Automobiles are designed to run primarily on roads, to have seating for one to eight people, to typically have four wheels, and to be constructed principally for the transport of people and goods.
In this Unit, you will develop an understanding of the concept of wheel and role of wheel cart. You will also learn various stages of development over several hundred years that made possible the invention of an Automobile as we know it today. You will understand how various automobiles were developed in past. The wheel has been used by man since the beginning of civilization.
Most primitive technologies since the invention of the wheel have been based on its principles. The invention of the Wheel was perhaps in the late Neolithic age. It is likely that it happened along with other technological advances that gave rise to the early Bronze Age.
While the exact time and place of the invention of the wheel has been disputed but its beginnings can be seen across ancient civilizations. This means that the Wheel is about 5, years old!
The first use of the wheel for transportation was in Mesopotamian chariots in BC. There are Fig : Wheel many references to wheeled chariots in Indian mythology also dating to around 3, BC. It is interesting to note that wheels may have been used in industrial or manufacturing applications before they were used on vehicles.
Wheel and its structure Its hard to imagine any mechanized system that would be possible without the wheel or the idea of a symmetrical component moving in a circular motion on an axis. From tiny watch gears to automobiles, jet engines and computer disk drives, the principle is the same.
Fig : Use of Wheel Early wheels were simple wooden disks with a hole for the axle. Because of the structure of wood, a horizontal slice of a tree trunk is not suitable, as it does not have the structural strength to support weight without collapsing; rounded pieces of longitudinal boards are required.
The oldest known example of a wooden wheel and its axle were found in in the Ljubljana Marshes some 20 km south of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. According to the radiocarbon dating, it is between 5, and 5, years old. It has a diameter of 72 centimetres 28 and has been made of ash wood, whereas its axle has been made of oak. The spoked wheel was invented more recently, and allowed the construction of lighter and swifter vehicles. In the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley and North Western India, we find toy-cart wheels made of clay with spokes painted or in relief, and the symbol of the spoked wheel in the script of the seals, already in the second half of the 3rd millennium BC.
The earliest known examples of wooden spoked wheels are in the context of the Andronovo culture, dating to ca BC.
Soon after this, horse cultures of the Caucasus region used horse-drawn spoked -wheel war chariots for the greater part of three centuries. They moved deep into the Greek Peninsula where they joined with the existing Mediterranean peoples to give rise, eventually, to classical Greece after the breaking of Minoan 12 AutoL1U1-NQ History and Evolution of Automobiles dominance and consolidations led by pre-classical Sparta and Athens.
Celtic Chariots introduced an iron rim around the wheel in the 1st millennium BC. The spoked wheel was in continued use without major modification until the s, when wire wheels and pneumatic tires were invented. The invention of the wheel has also been important for technology in general, important applications including the water wheel, the cogwheel see also antikythera mechanism , the spinning wheel and the astrolabe or torquetum.
More modern descendants of the wheel include the propeller, the jet engine, the flywheel gyroscope and the turbine. Therefore we see that a wheel is a circular component that can rotate on its centre. Wheels, in conjunction with axles, allow heavy objects to be moved easily while supporting a load.
The wheel is the main component of the wheel and axle assembly. Wheel and axle were used in the first carriages. We shall learn about these later.
Fig : Wheel A wheel greatly reduces friction by facilitating motion by rolling together with the use of axles. In order for wheels to rotate, a moment needs to be applied to the wheel about its axis, either by way of gravity, or by application of another external force. The wheel is a device that enables efficient movement of an object across a surface where there is a force pressing the object to the surface. Common examples are a cart pulled by a horse and the rollers on an aircraft flap mechanism.
The low resistance to motion compared to dragging is explained as follows: the normal force at the sliding interface is the same. We can see the importance of wheel in various places and its role. Our national flag also contain a circle like wheel. Wheel is very important in our daily life. Some of important drawings of wheel are given herewith. List the items where wheel has been used in machinery: S. Items No. Fill in the blanks 1. Session 1: Invention of Wheel Checklist for Assessment Activity Use the following checklist to see if youve met all the requirements for Assessment Activity.
Part A Differentiated between different types of wheel.
Part B Discussed in class the following: What is wheel? A handcart is pulled or pushed by one or more people. However, from history we learn that animals instead of men were used for pulling the cart. Animals can provide more power.
Normally a cart was pulled by a pair of draught animals. The draught animals used for carts may be horses or ponies, mules, oxen, water buffalo or donkeys, or even smaller animals such as goats or large dogs. Carts have been mentioned in literature as far back as the second millennium B.
All of you have heard about the Indian sacred book Mahabharat which depicts Lord Krishna as the sarathi the Charioteer of the Rath; the Chariot carrying Pandav prince Arjuna, in the battle field of Kurukshetra. In the Mahabharata war all the leaders used a rath for fighting in the war. Types of carts Larger carts may be drawn by animals, such as horses, mules, or oxen. They have been in continuous use since the invention of the wheel, in the 5th millennium BC. Carts may be named for the animal that pulls them, such as horse cart or oxcart.
In modern times, horse carts are used in competitions. A dogcart, however, is usually a cart designed Fig : Use of Wheel Cart Fig : Different types of cart 17 AutoL1U1-NQ History and Evolution of Automobiles to carry hunting dogs: an open cart with two cross-seats back to back; the dogs could be penned between the rear-facing seat and the back end.
A bullock cart or ox cart is a two-wheeled vehicle pulled by oxen draught cattle. It is a means of transportation used since ancient times in many parts of the world. They are still used today where modern vehicles are too expensive or the infrastructure does not favour them.
Carts are used especially for carrying goods. Bullock cart is pulled by one or two bullocks. The cart is attached to a bullock team by a special chain attached to yokes, but a rope may also be used for one or two animals. The driver and any other passengers sit on the front of the cart, while the load is placed at the back.
Horse Power How many men would be needed to equal the power of a Horse? Experiments were conducted to get answer to this interesting question. It was found that, on an average 10 men were needed to equal the power of one Horse. This is the reason why mankind thought of using Horses for pulling the cart.
This led to the development of a Horse Carriage. Session 2: Invention of Wheel Checklist for Assessment Activity Use the following checklist to see if youve met all the requirements for Assessment Activity. Part A Differentiated between different types of Carts. Part B Discussed in class the following: What is a Cart? Engineers kept on improving the Horse Carriage design bit by bit. Parallerly, man was working on a system that could be self propelled, meaning that the system could be run without any man or animal force required for moving it.
In the year the very first such model was developed in the form of a toy. Fig: Cugnot Steam trolley This was actually a steam engine. In this the Jonathan Holguinisburg power of steam was used to provide momentum to the toy.
Further improvements continued in various parts of the world. Then in the year , the first cars powered by an internal combustion engine appeared. The fuel used for running this was fuel gas instead of steam. Of course, the process of using Fuel Gas is different than the process required for using Steam. Steam engine requires External combustion, whereas, fuel gas uses the principle of Internal Combustion.
We shall study this in detail later. Meanwhile, engineers continued to improve designs till the year when the first modern gasoline- or petrol-fueled engine was developed in Europe. It is important to note that inventions in science and technology can not often be used immediately by general public. One reason is that the cost of developing new technology is very high. Also, the first models usually do not have any comfort features. However, when more people demand the new models, the cost starts to come down.
More features can also be added for making it attractive for general consumers. Karl Benz a brilliant German engineer designed and patented the first practical model Fig: First practical car model in This model used internal combustion Engine and was called Motorwagen.
It was an integral design, without the adaptation of other existing components and included several new technological elements to create a new concept. He began to sell his production vehicles in Fig: Photograph of the original Benz Patent-Motorwagen, first built in and awarded the patent for the concept given here In , Benz was granted a patent for his first engine, which had been designed in Many of his other inventions made the use of the internal combustion engine feasible for powering a vehicle.
His first Motorwagen was built in , and he was awarded the patent for its invention, basis his application on January 29, Benz began promotion of the vehicle on July 3, , and about 25 Benz vehicles were sold between and , when his first four-wheeler was introduced along with a model intended for affordability. They also were powered with four-stroke engines of his own design.
Emile Roger of France, already producing Benz engines under license, now added the Benz automobile to his line of products. Because France Fig: Bertha Benz, the first was more open to the early automobiles, initially long distance automobile driver in the world more were built and sold in France through Roger, than Benz sold in Germany.
Bertha Benz, the first long distance automobile driver in the world in the photograph given here In August Bertha Benz, wife of Karl Benz, undertook the first road trip by car, to prove the road-worthiness of her husband's invention.
During the last years of the nineteenth century, Benz was the largest automobile company in the world with units produced in They started producing different models. But these automobiles were very expensive and very few rich people could afford them like Kings, Queens and Rajas in India. An average person could only dream but could not afford to own a car. Many attempts were being made in Europe and America for reducing costs. The large-scale, production-line manufacturing of affordable automobiles was started by Ransom Olds at his Oldsmobile factory in based on the assembly line techniques pioneered by Marc Isambard Brunel at the Portsmouth Block Mills, England in The assembly line style of mass production and interchangeable parts had been pioneered in the U.
This concept was greatly expanded by Henry Ford, beginning in With the introduction of this new manufacturing process, FORD Motor company launched the first large scale production of their Model T.
In , an assembly line worker could buy a Model T with four months' pay of some two hundred Fig: Car Ford Model T American car makers in existence in In Europe much the same happened. Morris set up its production line at Cowley in and soon outsold Ford, while beginning in to follow Ford's practice of vertical integration. Most British small-car assemblers, from Abbey to Xtra had failed.
Citroen did the same in France, coming to cars in Fuel Injection System Carburettor Turbocharger and Supercharger Auto Governor Exhaust System Engine Cooling Lubrication System. Clutch 2. Transmission 3. Over drive and Fluid Drive 4. Propeller Shaft and Differential 5. Wheel and Tyre 6. Steering and Front Axle 7. Suspension System 8.
Frame and Body 9. Brake System. Battery 2. Generator 3. Starting Motor 4. Ignition System 5.
Lighting and Wiring. Engine Troubles 2.
Engine Tuning 3. Inspection and Testing 4. Air Pollution 6. Auto Safety 7.