He said that the learning of Urdu, for example, is vital because a major part of the. Promised Messiah's(a.s.) magnificent and unparalleled books, 'Spiritual. Urdu Learning through English. Topics Urdu Language, learn urdu, urdu. Collectionopensource it is very good English Learning Book. ronaldweinland.info 2 / Page 3. ronaldweinland.info- ronaldweinland.info 3 /
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This book in your hand is an easy way to learn Urdu through English. A native speaker of English language is presumably aware of at least the basics of English. Documents Similar To Learn ronaldweinland.info Learn to Read Urdu. Uploaded by. Ronnan Hussain. an Introduction to Urdu Script. Uploaded by. nadim siddiqui. urdu. time you open the pages of See You At The Top. The dust jacket is different, and to start with "The End" is certainly d Learn hindi through telugu pdf books.
October 19, at am Wlkmaslm Sis Fathima, Jazakallah for the kind words. I am glad to hear that you learnt Urdu on your own. Even I could not learn it in my childhood because of my English education. For understanding Quran, Arabic is the best language, as Allah has chosen this language for Quran. Apart from Quran there are some wonderful urdu books by the Indo-Pak authors which could help you understand Islam better.
Do different scripts make a language two languages?
In the linguistic diversity of the world and history of lan- guages, often a language is written in more than one script. Merely different scripts are not enough to consider a language as different languages. For instance, the Serbian language has been written historically in both Cyrillic and Latin scripts, and the tradition of using two scripts still continues.
Many Indian languages have been simultaneously written in different scripts; Punjabi is written in Gurumukhi and Shahmukhi, and also sometimes in Devanagari. Konkani was written in more than three scripts for a long time until it was standardised in Devanagari.
There have been instances in history where one same language is written in different scripts. Different scripts do not provide a sufficiently strong basis to classify a language as different languages.
Such pluralisation according to the rules comprises the majority of cases in Urdu. However, in the high register of the language, Urdu often uses Persian and Arabic words and pluralization that is not recognisable in Hindi.
Some Perso-Arabised plurals are commonly used in Hindi with a semantic shift. The legal vocabulary in Hindi is mostly drawn from Urdu. The legacy of the colonial judicial system, that solely used Urdu to conduct its business during colonial times, still remains in place.
It is not uncommon to see court papers in Hindi loaded with many Urdu terms. One can see the depic- tion of court scenes in the popular culture of Bollywood and television that truly represents the linguistic features of legal Hindi. This specific spelling rule applies mainly to non-indigenous South Asian words, but the scope of this spelling convention now includes indigenous words too. On the other hand, in oral Hindi and Urdu, such declensions are always uttered without failure.
Table 1. The overwhelming majority of possession in Urdu is expressed by these postpo- sitions, which are part of the common grammatical rules of Hindi and Urdu. However, there are constructions called Izafat, which also express possession, that is typical of Urdu and very rarely used in Hindi.
In Urdu, they are more or less used as phrases. The presence of Izafat is very common in the high register of Urdu and can be often heard in political and religious discourses in television, radio and newspapers. The Izafat in Hindi is rather rare and used only in phrases. Some occasional use of Izafat in Bollywood film titles, songs and dialogues can also be seen in Hindi. Although the common day-to-day language is very similar in Hindi and Urdu — in fact, it is not possible to Teaching Hindi and Urdu as Hindi-Urdu separate them at that level — but when it comes to the high register of political, philosophical, reli- gious discourses, the vocabularies diverge significantly.
Hindi draws its high register vocabulary from Sanskrit and Urdu from Persian and Arabic. A common example of use of such high register vocabulary would be the political discourses on televisions in India and Pakistan or newspapers in Hindi and Urdu. A substantial part of the Sanskritised Hindi would be as incomprehensible to a native Urdu speaker as Persianised and Arabised Urdu to a speaker of Hindi who has had education and training in Hindi.
Below are the two examples, one each from Hindi and Urdu. Urdu: An opening statement by a new talk show host.
Captial Talk men khushamdid. Sabiqah vazir-e- azam Nawaz Sharif sahib ki taqriron ka ek jumla abhi tak zer-e-bahas hai5.
Hindi: News headlines of the Day. Do muthbher men char atanki dher. Mare ja- nevalon men jaish ka kukhyat atanki Khalid bhi shamil. Gujarat me liya chunav ayog ne taiyarion ka jayaza. Sabhi dalon ke pratinidhiyon se mulaqat6. In two encounters four terrorists killed. Among dead terrorists is the infamous Khalid.
The Election Commission oversees the preparation of elections meets with the representatives of all the parties. The bolded words in the sentences belong to the high register of Urdu and Hindi respectively that are used in political discourses and are not easily intelligible to a common speaker of the other language. In the Urdu sentence, along with the Perso-Arabised vocabulary, there are two Izafat con- structions too; vazir-e-azam Prime Minister and zer-e-bahas under furious discussion.
To conclude the section on differences between Hindi and Urdu, one can say without any hesi- tation that the differences between modern Hindi and Urdu arise only when the non-indigenous non-South Asian component influenced by the Islamic legacy of India is added to the contempo- rarily existing native language, whatever it may be — script, grammatical components pluralisation or genitive constructions or simply vocabulary.
On the other hand, the Sanskritised vocabulary is also similarly alien to a native Urdu speaker. While discussing the evolution of Urdu, Rehman also states that the language was also known as Hindavi and Dehalvi. The common ancestral variety of both Hindi and Urdu is also known to linguists as Khariboli. The further development of the language into Hindi and Urdu is the product of late 19th century politics.
Although the Perso-Arabic script was introduced to an in- digenous language which already had a script, it did not deal with the structural grammar or make any changes to it. The Perso-Arabic script needed to adjust to the sound system of the language, but it did not attempt to completely redefine the grammar, although some Perso-Arabic grammatical elements managed to get into the grammar of the language.
The distinctions that are mentioned above are rare and mainly used in the high register of both languages.
For instance, pluralisation, as mentioned in 2. The spelling convention that are mentioned in 2. The oral representation of the language neutralises this distinction and declines the nouns as they would have been written in Hindi with proper declension.
In fact, in the majority of cases, even in Urdu and even in the written form, this type of declension follows the indigenous pattern.
And Izafat 2. Here too the indigenous pattern overwhelmingly domi- nates in usage, both orally and in the written form. A native speaker of Hindi and a native speaker of Urdu would not need a third language to hold a conversation on any mundane topic. The vocabulary related to everyday life is similar to a very high extent and the grammar, as we explained in 2.
The biggest part of the differentiating vocabulary in Hindi and Urdu is represented in nouns and adjectives. The other types of words such as pronouns, postpositions, numbers, verbs, and so forth, are highly similar. It is no surprise that the higher registers of Hindi and Urdu mainly comprise the differentiating nouns and adjectives, whereas the rest of the words in the sentences remain the same.
This course discusses various language conflicts and issues from South Asia. The major body of the students in the course are from India and Pakistan, who know Hindi and Urdu as mother tongues.
I did not restrict them to any topic, and they could choose any sentences they wanted. As expected, they chose very common sentences from everyday life.
Then, I asked the students who knew Hindi to translate these 6 sentences into Hindi, and I asked the same of the Urdu speaking students.
As I expected, the translation to both Hindi and Urdu were exactly the same. Although this was not a scientific experiment, it is representative of the common perception of extreme closeness of the two languages. These cultural elements are independent of any religious affiliations, for example, folk songs and dances, folktales, some wedding rituals, some common attire, some festivals such as the kite flying festival of Basant Panchami.
The modern pop culture is in fact outright independent of any religious affiliation as so forth any Hindi or Urdu affiliation. The popular culture of Bollywood is equally claimed by both Hindi and Urdu speakers, and is used in Hindi-Urdu as a foreign language classrooms. As there has been a lot of research on incorporating cultural elements in foreign language classes, Hindi and Urdu both can, to a great extent, utilise the same material for teaching the cultural com- ponent of Hindi-Urdu.
The cultural component of honorifics that are represented in pronouns in Hindi-Urdu are pre- cisely the same in both languages. They are used similarly in when people are speaking Hindi and Urdu.
Hindi-Urdu The rise in interest in South Asian studies in academia in western universities corresponds to the rise in the number of South Asian language courses. Most of the universities started teaching Hindi as the first modern South Asian language. More and more universities in fact started teaching Hindi and Urdu both as one foreign language of Hindi-Urdu.
A variety of reasons social, political, academic, emotional, financial etc. One of the main reasons the South Asian academic world likes to cite for offering Hindi-Urdu as one foreign language is the idea that Hindi and Urdu are not two different languages, but just one single language with two different varieties.
The wider context behind such a statement consists in the common ties between Hindus and Muslims — mainly cultural, but also historical.
This ideological stance in academia is mainly driven more by the sense of a culturally common South Asian com- munity, in contrast to Hindu and Muslim communities, back home in India and Pakistan, as well as in diaspora.
There are also very strong linguistic grounds to back their statement of Hindi and Urdu being one single language with two different varieties. Until the partition of India and a few decades later, Hindi and Urdu literatures were not clearly distinguished from one another. Many writers were claimed by both languages and their respective language speakers.
Their writings were published in both Devanagari and Nastaliq, with a little bit of editing to make them comprehensible for the respective readers.
In fact, most native readers would not know if a particular author was a Hindi or Urdu one. Scholars who study other aspects of South Asia would certainly find knowledge of both lan- guages handy for their field work. For example, most of the texts of the religious Bhakti movements can be found in Devanagari script.
At the same time, most of the archived documents are in Urdu because of the fact that the lower level bureaucracy of Colonial India was conducted in Urdu. For anyone to study modern South Asia, especially the colonial times, the knowledge of both Hindi and Urdu is indispensable. There are other practical reasons for this merger. And it can be used to make a sales pitch to a bigger clientele.
The merger can make students interested in both Hindi and Urdu together. On the other side of the merger, one cannot be careful enough not to alienate potential students who are interested in only one of the two languages. It is not inconceivable that a student may have a personal or familial inclination toward a particular language, Hindi or Urdu, and may reject the other.
So far, in my personal experience of teaching Hindi-Urdu in the University of Toronto Mississauga, I have found that students are more attracted, than reluctant, to take the course. There has not been much research done specifically on the patterns of enrollment in Hindi, Urdu or Hindi-Urdu. The data from the two years covered in the survey and give an interesting picture of the choices students made in taking one of the three options: Hindi, Urdu and Hindi-Urdu see Table 2.
Table 2. Even Hindi-Urdu seems to be more attractive to students than Urdu alone. From the limited data, one can conclude that the merger of Hindi and Urdu to Hindi-Urdu is mainly based on ideological grounds, as it is clearly seen that the merger does not bring increased enrollments; rather, the enrollment is substantially less in Hindi-Urdu.
The merger is also done with the aim of equipping future scholars with maximum linguistic skills to work on medieval and pre- independence India. Although the merger does numerically expand the size of the body of native speakers, it is not reflected in the classes of Hindi-Urdu as a foreign language. There has not been a standard approach in this regard. As many top universities teach Hindi-Urdu in a single course, here I will survey their teaching ap- proaches.
Since there has not been any research done on teaching approaches used by various uni- versities, I base the following part of the article on my personal communications with the professors of some North American Universities where Hindi-Urdu is taught. The students are taught Devanagari Hindi script first and later, once they are fairly comfortable with Devanagari, Nastaliq Urdu script is gradually introduced.
The time of introduction of Nastaliq also varies in universities. The most common approach is to introduce Nastaliq in the middle of the first semester, which is usually the 6th or 7th week. Some universities start Urdu in the second semester. In some universities, Urdu is introduced as a small component of the course and is not given equal amount of time and grade points. The rationale behind this approach lies in the level of difficulty of the scripts.
Devanagari is a comparatively easier script and more precise for the language Hindi-Urdu. It also is more intuitive R. Delacy, personal email communication, July 30, compared with the Urdu script. The lan- guage and its sound system, that is, the wide range of vowel and consonantal sounds, can be more precisely represented in Devanagari script. As we have seen in 2.
A word written in Urdu without short vowels can be uttered in two, or sometimes three or four, ways. Some letters behave like both consonants and vowels depending on the context. Only the context allows a reader to know exactly what that word is. With these complexities of the Nastaliq script, when a foreign language learner comes across a new word, he will not know its exact pronunciation. On the other hand, with Devanagari the pro- nunciation is more or less the same as how the word is written in accordance with the pronunciation rules.
Since Hindi and Urdu at the basic foreign language level do not differ much from each other and share a very high percentage of common vocabulary, it is helpful for the student to learn Teaching Hindi and Urdu as Hindi-Urdu the basic vocabulary with Devanagari. Later, when Nastaliq is introduced, the student already knows the word and this helps him to correctly pronounce the word.
In other words, for learning Urdu as a foreign language, a small corpus of basic words already known to the student can be helpful and increase the pace of learning. Delacy, personal email communication, July 30, rely on this. In Harvard University, the course starts with the introduction of Nastaliq for the first three weeks and at the beginning of the second semes- ter, Devanagari is introduced.
Introducing Nastaliq first has some psychological advantage. Learning the so-called tougher script gives students a better grounding in it, and later, when Devanagari, the so-called easier script, is introduced, the students would have already achieved a big milestone.
When Devagnagari is in- troduced first, some kind of reluctance is often observed among the students in learning Nastaliq. The choice of one script or another to start with also depends on the training of the instructor. There are very rare native speakers-teachers of Hindi-Urdu who have learnt both scripts from the beginning.
The non-native speakers-teachers also bring their training to the classroom. If they were trained to teach one script or another first, they would prefer to teach the same way. In higher level classes, Hindi and Urdu are usually separated or, if they are taken together, the students are given the choice to focus on only one script. In the University of Toronto Mississauga, Hindi-Urdu was taught both at the introductory and intermediate levels and they had planned to teach both languages at the advanced level in two separate courses.
In Princeton University, after the introductory course of Hindi-Urdu, where both languages are taught, the languages are separated at the intermediate level. Since there are very few students at advanced levels, the languages are again brought together in one classroom, but the students are given the choice to choose one script or the other. If a student chooses to use both scripts, they are welcome to do so.
The material is presented in both scripts Fauzia Farooqi, personal email communication, August 22, To my knowledge, there is only one university in North Amer- ica that uses this approach. Khan, personal email communication, No- vember 13, The students are given the opportunity to study either Hindi script and vocabu- lary, or Urdu script and vocabulary. Both scripts are taught simultaneously in the same class. This approach, though manageable, requires a heap of extra work from the instructor.
However, there are some serious chal- lenges in combining Hindi and Urdu into one language and organising them in one classroom.
Both books follow the same organization in terms of the number of units, lessons, and exercises, except in the sound and script section.
Both books follow exactly the same pedagogical tools and same patterns of contents using the respective languages and scripts. The idea to meet the needs of the clientele of both Hindi and Urdu as a foreign language through one set of pedagogical tools is not new. The main idea of the book that comes with audio-lingual tools is to teach a spoken version of Hindi and Urdu, a point of convergence where the distinction is superficial.
In line with the discussion on historical, political and lin- guistic dimensions of the Hindi-Urdu controversy, the book has authentic texts written in Hindi and Urdu by various authors suitable only for superior or distinguished proficiency levels. July 18, at 3: Md Imteyaz Khan says: January 11, at March 20, at 7: Wlkmaslm Br.
Manaarah, Alhamdulillah I have added a part of these books. Jazakallah Fawaz. March 21, at Wa feeka baarakallah.
Jameela Junaid says: August 7, at 5: Muhammad Anisul Islam says: April 9, at 8: April 9, at Prakhar Misra says: April 25, at 3: July 1, at 2: I am just beginning to start to learn Urdu — this site is great. July 1, at 9: Jazakallah Brother Adam.
Inshallah I will update the site with new material soon Fawaz. July 19, at 1: July 21, at 5: Dear Brother Kesav, I will keep in touch with you, which city do you belong to? July 23, at 2: July 23, at 4: Aslkm Brother Sameer, Jazakallah for the kind words.
Hope that helps Remember in Duas. Ahamadhi Fathima says: October 19, at 2: Remember me in ur duas. Allah hafiz. October 19, at Wlkmaslm Sis Fathima, Jazakallah for the kind words. October 23, at 1: Assalamu Alaikum Bhaiya. Jazakallah Khair Fathima. August 18, at August 19, at Sunil says: August 30, at 8: If possible e mail me some basic Urdu Learning Books, regards, Sunil.
September 1, at Hi Sunil, I am working on uploading new Urdu Learning Books, especially for someone who has no knowledge about the arabic alphabets. Will keep you updated. September 2, at Regards, Sunil. TRS says: September 5, at Mohammed hashim says: September 10, at Ajju says: September 20, at 5: September 21, at September 26, at 9: September 28, at 8: October 7, at Lyn Petersen says: October 22, at 3: October 23, at 6: Hi Lyn, Let me introduce you Mohammed Khalid.
Regards Fawaz. October 24, at October 25, at Noor, Jazakallah for the kind words. Inshallah will add new books. Pls remember me in your duas. Yasmeen Basheer says: October 27, at Wlkmaslm Sis. November 2, at 5: November 6, at 5: Aslkm Sis.
Rafeeq Ahmed says: February 12, at Shukran Jazeelan Fawaz bhai, I heard this nazam from my father in my chilhood. February 18, at Aslkm Rafeeq Bhai, Thanks. Please remember me in your duas.
November 19, at Wlkmaslm Furqan Bhai, Working on the second book, Inshallah will update soon. Nwaythazinaung says: December 3, at Jazakallah Nwaythazinaung. My name is Syed Fawaz Ahmed. Mir Azhar Ali says: December 17, at 2: January 15, at January 15, at 9: Aslkm Hadi Farroukh Inshallah will update the books soon. I have been very busy recently hence the delay. January 21, at Aftab says: April 6, at July 23, at 3: July 23, at 5: Inshallah I ll let you know.
Please email me your mobile no. Saket Khandare says: July 26, at 5: August 24, at 3: August 25, at 3: Nihal says: November 15, at May 17, at Sheetal Pahadi says: May 28, at June 17, at 9: Sir as a beginner I want to know what all basic I should go through to learn urdu. Help says: June 17, at 3: Unable to download Hamari Kitab Urdu and English. Please fix the links. Utpal says: July 22, at 4: November 28, at December 8, at 1: December 27, at December 29, at Thank you very much….
Superb for urdu beginners…. Anindya says: January 8, at Sandeep Karan says: March 11, at