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principles of anatomy&physiology Gerard J. Tortora / Bryan Derrickson 14th Edition (Main Book ISBN) (Binder- Ready. Find all the study resources for Principles of Anatomy and Physiology by Gerard J . Tortora. Gerard J. Tortora. Book · Principles of Book solutions. Date. Find all the study resources for Principles of Anatomy and Physiology by Gerard J . Tortora; Bryan H. Gerard J. Tortora; Bryan H. Derrickson Book solutions.
Printed in the United States of America. He received his bachelors degree in biology from Fairleigh Dickinson University and his masters degree in science education from Montclair State College. Above all, Jerry is devoted to his students and their aspirations. In , he received a National Institute for Staff and Organizational Development NISOD excellence award from the University of Texas and was selected to represent Bergen Community College in a campaign to increase awareness of the contributions of community colleges to higher education. Jerry is the author of several best-selling science textbooks and laboratory manuals, a calling that often requires an additional 40hours per week beyond his teaching responsibilities.
The cellular level of organization is the focus of Chapter 3.
Tissue level. Tissues are groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function, similar to the way words are put together to form sentences. There are just four basic types of tissues in your body: epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscular tissue, and nervous tissue. Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces, lines hollow organs and cavities, and forms glands.
Connective tissue connects, supports, and protects body organs while distributing blood vessels to other tissues. Muscular tissue contracts to make body parts move and generates heat. Nervous tissue carries information from one part of the body to another through nerve impulses.
Chapter 4 describes the tissue level of organization in greater detail. Shown in Figure 1. Organ level. At the organ level different types of tissues are joined together.
Similar to the relationship between sentences and paragraphs, organs are structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues; they have specific functions and usually have recognizable shapes. Examples of organs are the stomach, skin, bones, heart, liver, lungs, and 5 6 brain. Underneath are three layers of a type of muscular tissue called smooth muscle tissue, which contracts to churn and mix food and then push it into the next digestive organ, the small intestine.
The innermost lining is an epithelial tissue layer that produces fluid and chemicals responsible for digestion in the stomach. System level. A system or chapter in our language analogy consists of related organs paragraphs with a common function. An example of the system level, also called the organsystem level, is the digestive system, which breaks down and absorbs food. Its organs include the mouth, salivary glands, pharynx throat , esophagus food tube , stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
Disruptions to homeostasis often set in motion corrective cycles.
Our fascinating journey through the human body begins with an overview of the meanings of anatomy and physiology. Body Systems Table 1. Renal physiology Functions of the kidneys. Cardiovascular physiology Functions of the heart and blood Cell biology Cellular structure and functions. Histology Microscopic structure of tissues. For example. It was first studied by dissection dis-SEK-shun. Whereas anatomy deals with structures of Organization and the body. The structure of a part of the body often reflects its organs present in each.
The bones of the fingers are Defined more loosely joined to allow a variety of movements. What body function might a respiratory therapist strive Two branches of science—anatomy and physiology—provide the to improve?
What structures are involved? This very basic level can be compared to the cal level of organization.
Two familiar molecules found in the body understand anatomy and physiology: Chapters 2 and 25 focus on the chemi- 1 Chemical level. Certain atoms. From the phorus P. The levels of structural organization are chemical. Your exploration of the human body will extend from atoms and molecules to the whole person.
Supports and Functions: Protects body. Connective tis. Examples of cover that all body systems influence one another. An example of the system level. Its organs include the mouth. Just as words are the smallest elements tissue and connective tissue that reduces friction when the of language that make sense.
Bone eliminates some wastes. At the organ level different types of tissues are joined together. Fingernails T Toenails.
Table 1. Shown in Figure 1. The uting blood vessels to other tissues.
All the zation in greater detail. As you study organs are the stomach. The cellular level of organization most lining is an epithelial tissue layer that produces fluid and is the focus of Chapter 3. Similar to the relationship between sentences In the chapters that follow. Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces. Nervous tissue and the hormone-producing endocrine system. Among the many kinds of cells in three layers of a type of muscular tissue called smooth muscle your body are muscle cells.
Underneath are units in the human body. Chapter 4 describes the tissue level of organi. There are just four basic types of tissues in your system level. An organism OR-ga-nizm. The inner- of muscle cells in the body.
Molecules combine to form cells. Skin and associated Hair Components: Bones and joints structures. You will also dis- tions and usually have recognizable shapes.
A system or chapter in our language analogy surrounding them that work together to perform a particular consists of related organs paragraphs with a common func- function. Sometimes an organ is part of more than one system. Tissues are groups of cells and the materials 5 System level. Muscular tissue contracts pancreas.
Following inspection. The other phase of metabolism is vide information about the size. Define the following terms: Brain muscle tissue—muscle usually nerves. T Tendon internal and external environments. It may also pro. An example is auscultation of the lungs during breathing to cesses of the human body: One phase of metabolism is resulting sound. An understanding of anatomy is important for the ing up of complex chemical substances from smaller.
Generates action potentials Functions: Participates in body Skeletal nerve impulses to regulate body muscle movements. Certain processes distinguish organisms. In inspec. A noninvasive diagnostic technique is one that does not involve insertion of an instrument or device through the skin or a body opening. In percussion pur-KUSH-un. Referring to Table 1. Following are the six most important life pro- sounds. An exam- ple is palpating the abdomen to detect enlarged or tender internal organs or abnormal masses.
The third trimester represents a period of rapid fetal growth. Did you ever wonder why the heart. The ffirst trimester is the most critical stage of development. Developmental biology is the study of the sequence of events from the fertilization of a secondary oocyte by a sperm cell to the formation of an adult organism.
During the early stages of this period. Pregnancy is a sequence of events that begins with fertilization. The second trimester is characterized by the nearly complete development of organ systems. Development and Inheritance Development. Obstetrics ob-STET-riks. By the end of this stage.
Sperm can remain viable for about 48 hours after deposition in the vagina.
During capacitation. One of the glycoproteins in the zona pel. Fertilization normally occurs in the and a secondary oocyte merge to form a single diploid uterine fallopian tube within 12 to 24 hours after ovulation.
What is capacitation? Prostaglan- dins in semen are believed to stimulate uterine motility at the time Zona pellucida of intercourse and to aid in the movement of sperm through the uterus and into the uterine tube.
During this time in the female oocyte reproductive tract. Depolarization also triggers the intracellular release of calcium ions.
Hollow cavities or spaces produce a different sound than solid organs. For example, percussion may reveal the abnormal presence of fluid in the lungs or air in the intestines. It may also provide information about the size, consistency, and position of an underlying structure. An understanding of anatomy is important for the effective application of most of these diagnostic techniques. Basic Life Processes Certain processes distinguish organisms, or living things, from nonliving things.
Following are the six most important life processes of the human body: 1. Components: Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and special sense organs, such as eyes and ears. Functions: Participates in body movements, such as walking; maintains posture; produces heat. Define the following terms: atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, system, and organism. At what levels of organization would an exercise physiologist study the human body? Hint: Refer to Table 1. Referring to Table 1.
C H A P T E R they work together to maintain health, provide protection from disease, and allow for reproduction of the human species. Developmental biology is the study of the sequence of events from the fertilization of a secondary oocyte by a sperm cell to the formation of an adult organism. Pregnancy is a sequence of events that begins with fertilization; proceeds to implantation, embryonic development, and fetal development; and ideally ends with birth about 38 weeks later, or 40 weeks after the last menstrual period.
The ffirst trimester is the most critical stage of development, during which the rudiments of all the major organ systems appear, and also during which the developing organism is the most vulnerable to the dur effects of drugs, radiation, and microbes. The second trimester is characterized by the nearly complete development of organ systems.
By the end of this stage, the fetus assumes distinctively human features. The third trimester represents a period of rapid fetal growth. During the early stages of this period, most of the organ systems are becoming fully functional.