thevetia seed protein concentrate of reduced cardiac glycoside content. Alcoholic Thevetia peruviana otherwise known as the bush milk. Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum. Taxonomic (Download Help) Thevetia peruviana TSN Synonym(s): Thevetia neriifolia Juss. ex Steud . Download full-size image. Highlights. ▻ Seeds of Thevetia peruviana contain a mixture of at least six glycosides. ▻ The structures of two unknown thevetia.
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Download scientific diagram | Thevetia peruviana (Yellow oleander) plant. from publication: Yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) seed oil biodiesel as an. PDF | Thevetia peruviana are potentially lethal plants after ingestion. Download full-text PDF . Thevetia peruviana plants are toxic to most vertebrates as. Thevetia peruviana, Cascabela thevetia also known as Thevetia format with transparent background avaialble for download at the link below.
Description[ edit ] Cascabela thevetia is an evergreen tropical shrub or small tree. Its leaves are willow-like, linear-lanceolate, and glossy green in color. They are covered in waxy coating to reduce water loss typical of oleanders. The long funnel-shaped sometimes-fragrant yellow less commonly apricot, sometimes white flowers are in few-flowered terminal clusters. It is effectively drought resistant and tolerant to high temperatures, hence found in various states of India like Bihar , Delhi , Gujarat , Madhya Pradesh ,, Rajasthan , Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh where semi arid climate is prevalent.
Prior to the transesterification, oils were usually extracted from oil seeds through various methods such as mechanical [ 6 , 7 , 8 ], pressurized solvent extraction [ 9 ], soxhlet extraction [ 10 ], ultrasonic extraction [ 11 , 12 ], aqueous enzymatic oil extraction AEOE [ 13 , 14 ], stirring and shaking extraction [ 15 ] to mention a few.
These methods have been reported to be used for the extraction of vegetable oils and other plant essential components, each with intrinsic advantages and shortcomings [ 16 ]. Mechanical pressing is not only the oldest and easiest method widely used, but also a method which produces oil of low value.
Meanwhile, in the literature [ 17 ], the use of supercritical CO2 extraction was reported, the oil yield obtained was higher compared to that obtained from using solvent extraction. Though the produced oil has high purity, it also has high operating and investment costs.
Solvent extraction, however, has various advantages, including high yield, less turbidity, as well as environmentally friendly and cost-effective properties [ 18 , 19 ] as in the case of an extraction of oil from Jatropha curcus, described by Kim et al. All three, Umer et al. In addition, Adepoju et al. In another study, Betiku et al. These oils however have already been applied as feedstocks in many applications, such as paint, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and others.
The use of seed oil has already been demonstrated by Rudolf Diesel, but owing to its high viscosity, partial ignition, deposition of particulate matters and lower volatility, it cannot suitably work like a conventional fuel in a modern engine designed for modern fuel, [ 25 ].
Hence, different techniques such as pyrolysis [ 26 ], microemulsion [ 27 ], and transesterification [ 28 ] have been applied to overcome these problems. Among these, transesterification has been studied and reported to be most effective, time-saving and economical, when blended or used directly in either a modern engine or diesel fuel engine, respectively [ 29 , 30 ].
Nevertheless, transesterification of biodiesel produced from the refined edible oil is not viable, owing to food threats and high production cost. Therefore, non-edible vegetable oil is a good alternative to overcome the problems with regard to food threat and the lowering of production cost [ 2 ]. The use of non-edible oilseeds such as Azadirachta indica, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossipifolia, Calophhyllum inophyllum, Hura crepian, Chrystophyllum albidium, and Thevetia peruviana have been extensively discussed in the literature [ 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 ].
Although some of these oils are characterized by high amounts of free fatty acid FFA , they are an alternative for the cost reduction of the transesterification process.
When choosing calcinated potassium silicate oils characterized by high amounts of FFA, they can easily be converted without esterifying, but due to the high cost of potassium silicate, the first solution is better than the latter. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts have reportedly been applied to biodiesel production.
Dhoot et al. Heterogeneous catalysts mainly involve the use of a solid base catalyst, which can easily be separated from the transesterified product, and is always active at the boiling point temperature of methanol during transesterification [ 39 ]. Apigeninmethyl ether has been isolated from seed shells. A number of flavonol glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin have been isolated from the leaves. Leaves also contain polyhydroxy-dinormonoterpenoids and their apiosylglucosides.
The plant is commonly used in domestic medicine in tropical America and in tropical Asia. Thevetia peruvina is used traditionally in treatment of amenorrhoea, malarial fever, jaundice, hemorrhoids, constipation, headaches, skin disorders etc. The main medically active compounds found in the plant are a range of cardiac glycosides. Of these glycosides, peruvoside has been investigated most thoroughly.
Large scale clinical trials with 1, patients showed that all forms of cardiac insufficiency can be successfully treated with peruvoside. Of the other glycosides thevetin has effectively been used clinically in cases of cardiac decompensation, although its effective dose is rather close to its toxic dose.
Thevetin A is far less potent than mixture thevetin. The potency of neriifolin as a cardiac glycoside is only moderate. The latex is applied to decayed teeth to relieve toothache and is used to treat chronic sores and ulcers.
The bark is a powerful antiperiodic and febrifuge. A tincture of the bark is used in the treatment of malarial fever and snakebites. Water in which the leaves and bark have been macerated is taken to cure amenorrhoea.
A decoction of the leaves is taken to treat jaundice, fever and as a purgative for intestinal worms. The leaf sap is used as eye drops and nose drops to cure violent headaches.
The seeds may be used as a purgative when treating rheumatism and dropsy and as an abortifacient. The pulverized seeds are sometimes an ingredient of suppositories to alleviate hemorrhoids.
The oil from the kernel is applied topically to treat skin complaints. Table 1: Traditional uses of different parts of Thevetia peruviana Plant Parts Traditional Uses Stem Bark Malarial fever, snake bites, febrifuge, purgative, emetic, intermittent fever, sores, amenorrhoea Seeds Abortifacient, emetic, hemorrhoids, skin complaints, used as a purgative when treating rheumatism and dropsy Leaves Jaundice, fever, as a purgative for intestinal worms, as eye drops and nose drops to cure violent headaches, colds ISSN: Int.
Any trimming is best carried out after flowering or shortly before the growing season in order to induce profuse flowering.
The plant is grown to provide shade and for soil conservation. It shades out neighboring plants and its litter is allelopathic releasing substances that discourage the growth of other plants.
Oil obtained from the seeds is used for industry and in soap making. The wood is white and is used to make tool handles and building poles. The wood is also used for fuels.
Biological pest control:- The kernels act as a contact poison; mashed with a soap solution they are used as an insecticide. The bark and seeds are used to poison rats. The extract proved to be effective against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa whereas Proteus vulgaris showed susceptibility only at higher doses.
The extract also showed moderate anti-microbial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Mucor, Rhizopus and Penicillium species Reddy, Thevetia peruviana seed oil was used to make a surface coating.
The paint exhibited inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans in a concentration dependent manner Kareru et al. The antimicrobial activity of ethanol leaves extract was tested against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Shigella and Staphylococcus.
The extract showed significant activity against E. The antimicrobial potential of the experimental plant leaves extract as compared with callus extract was evaluated. Among the gram-negative bacteria the Pseudomonas aeruginosa seemed to be sensitive against all concentrations of Thevetia peruviana leaf and callus extracts, while Escherichia coli showed resistance with all concentrations of extracts. Callus extract of the plant possess higher activity in comparison with leaf extract against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus and gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains Alhashimi et al.
The antimicrobial activity of seed kernel extracts were analyzed against human skin pathogenic microbes. Anti- microbial efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Nocardia asteroids and Candida albicans strains were effective for ethyl acetate than chloroform and methanol fractions, but lower concentrations of chloroform fractions showed higher sensitivity against C.
Antioxidant activity:- Antioxidant activities of three morph forms of Thevetia peruviana, Juss fruit wall extracts were evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol were taken as organic solvents. Antidiabetic activity:- The in vivo antidiabetic activity of Thevetia peruviana bark was performed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats which showed significant activity in a conc.
Piscicidal activity:- The leaf and bark extracts of Thevetia peruviana was administered for 24 hrs. The different solvents used were acetone, diethyl ether, ethyl alcohol, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride.
Therefore, scientists are still utilizing new alternatives in attempts to find novel compounds and strategies for the treatment of this disease [ 4 ]. Plants are a valuable source of new biologically active molecules due to the presence of hundreds of biologically active components [ 5 ].
One of the plant families i. Thevetia peruviana Pers. Schum, also known as Cascabela peruviana L. Lippold, yellow oleander or lucky nut in the West Indies, shows a diverse array of properties ranging from being a cardiotonic to a toxin. All parts of the plant are poisonous due to the presence of cardiac toxins, but the fruit of T.
There are many known cases of intentional and accidental poisoning of humans through ingestion of fruits and leaves [ 9 ].
Whereas about 10 fruits consumed may be fatal for an adult, a single fruit may be lethal for a child. The common clinical set of symptoms resembles digitalis poisoning with marked nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dysrhythmias, and hyperkalemia [ 10 ]. Although the anticancer potential of parts of T. Therefore, the T. Methods A T. A specimen of T. The methanolic extracts were filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure using a rotary evaporator Yamato RE DMSO concentration in the culture medium was less than 0.
The methanolic extract of T.