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The Tao of Music: Sound Psychology. OJ US/Data/Arts-Photography. / 5 From Reviews. John M. Ortiz. *Download PDF | ePub | DOC | audiobook |. the tao of music pdf. 1. If you can talk about it, it ain't Tao. If it has a name, it's just another thing. Tao doesn't have a name. Names are for ordinary things. the tao of music pdf the tao of music sound psychology using music to change your life Reviewed by Piero. Bergamaschi For your safety and comfort, read.
You can assist by editing it. May Learn how and when to remove this template message Two main methods for music therapy in this age group include group meetings and individual sessions. Both methods may include listening to music, discussing concerning moods and emotions in or toward music, analyzing the meanings of specific songs, writing lyrics, composing music, performing music, and musical improvisation. Using music that an adolescent can relate to or connect with can be successful in helping adolescent patients view the therapist as a safe and trustworthy adult, and to engage in the therapeutic process with less resistance. They are subject to numerous health risks, such as abnormal breathing patterns, decreased body fat and muscle tissue, as well as feeding issues. The coordination for sucking and breathing is often not fully developed, making feeding a challenge.
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The results of correlational studies testing the association between music training and spatial outcomes show no clear-cut association, with five out of 13 studies reporting a positive correlation between music training and spatial outcomes and eight a negative, null, or mixed results. Forgeard et al. Another study Costa-Giomi, found that children receiving piano lessons improved more than controls in visual-spatial skills but only during the first 2 years of instruction, with no differences between the groups by the end of the third year.
A study with adults showed that musicians did not perform better than non-musicians in a spatial working memory task Hansen et al. It appears, therefore, that instrumental music training may aid the acquisition of spatial abilities in children rather than bring about a permanent advantage in musicians. Finally, Schlaug et al. A meta-analysis of the studies investigating the influence of musical training on math performance did not show convincing evidence in favor of a transfer effect Vaughn, Also in more recent studies no positive relation between musical training and performance in a mathematical skills tests Forgeard et al.
Executive function The notion of executive function refers to the cognitive processes orchestrated by the prefrontal cortex that allow us to stay focused on means and goals, and to willfully with conscious control alter our behaviors in response to changes in the environment Banich, They include cognitive control attention and inhibition , working memory and cognitive flexibility task switching.
Hannon and Trainor proposed that musical training invokes domain-specific processes that affect salience of musical input and the amount of cortical tissue devoted to its processing, as well as processes of attention and executive functioning.
In fact, the attentional and memory demands, as well as the coordination and ability to switch between different tasks, which are involved in learning to play an instrument, are very large.
This learning depends on the integration of top-down and bottom up processes and it may well be that it is the training of this integration that underlies the enhanced attentional and memory processes observed in the musically trained Trainor et al. Executive functions seem thus highly solicited when learning to play an instrument Bialystok and Depape, In fact, Moreno et al.
Similarly, in terms of working memory capacity, a recent longitudinal study showed that children that had been included in months long instrumental music program outperformed the children in the control group that followed a natural science program during the same period Roden et al.
General IQ and academic achievement Extensive amount of research on how music can increase intelligence and make the listener smarter has been carried out Rauscher et al. The outcome of this research shows that not music listening but active engagement with music in the form of music lessons sometimes confers a positive impact on intelligence and cognitive functions although such results are not always replicated. A major discussion in this area is whether musical training increases specific skills or leads to a global un-specific increase in cognitive abilities, measured by a general IQ score.
For children, music lessons act as additional schooling—requiring focused attention, memorization, and the progressive mastery of a technical skill. It is therefore likely that transfer skills of executive function, self-control and sustained focused attention translate into better results in other subjects, and eventually in higher scores of general IQ. General IQ is typically tested with Raven's Progressive Matrices Raven, , although various types of intelligence can also be tested on specific tests.
These tests require different kinds of cognitive performance, such as providing definitions of words or visualizing three-dimensional objects from two-dimensional diagrams, and are regarded as a good indicator of mental arithmetic skills and non-verbal reasoning. For example, Forgeard et al. Measuring intelligence implies the sensitive discussion on genetic predisposition and environmental influence, and experience-acquired abilities.
Schellenberg points out that children with higher cognitive abilities are more likely to take music lessons and that this fact can bias studies in which participants are not randomly assigned to music or control conditions Schellenberg, a. Similarly, also the socioeconomic context is known to influence the probability that children get access to musical education Southgate and Roscigno, ; Young et al. Controlling for this potentially confounding factor, Schellenberg reported a positive correlation between music lessons and IQ in 6—11 year olds, and showed that taking music lessons in childhood predicts both academic performance and IQ in young adulthood holding constant family income and parents' education.
In another study, two groups of 6 year-olds were tested, one of which received keyboard or singing lessons in small groups for 36 weeks Schellenberg, , and the other children received drama lessons.
The latter did not show related increases in full-scale IQ and standardized educational achievement, but notably, the most pronounced results were in the group of children who received singing rather than piano lessons. Modest but consistent gains were made across all four indexes of the IQ, including verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, and freedom from distractibility and processing speed, suggesting that music training has widespread domain-general effects.
Intelligence measurements are often used to predict academic achievement. One question in this domain of research is therefore how musical activities influence academic achievement in children and adolescents.
Despite initial claims that this effect may be primarily due to differences in socioeconomic status and family background, intervention studies as well as tests of general intelligence seem to show a positive association between music education and academic achievement. For example in a study by Southgate and Roscigno longitudinal data bases which include information on music participation, academic achievement and family background were analyzed. Their results show that indeed music involvement in- and outside of school can act as a mediator of academic achievement tested as math and reading skills.
However, their results show also that there is a systematic relation between music participation and family background. Nonetheless, a recent study found that academic achievement can be predicted independently of socioeconomic status only when the child has access to a musical instrument Young et al. Interestingly, this finding emphasizes that musical activities with an instrument differ from other arts activities in this respect. Furthermore, it has been suggested that executive functions act as a mediator in the impact of music lessons on enhanced cognitive functions and intelligence.
Schellenberg a had the goal to investigate in detail this hypothesis of the mediating effect of the executive functions.
He designed a study with 9—year old musically trained and un-trained children and tested their IQ and executive functions. Schellenberg's results suggest that there is no impact of executive functions on the relation between music training and intelligence.
However, other studies have reported such an influence. For example there has been evidence that musical training improves executive function through training bimanual coordination, sustained attention and working memory Diamond and Lee, ; Moreno et al. These authors did find a positive influence of musical training on executive functions and argued that this difference of results is due to the fact that in Schellenberg's study no direct measure of selective attention was included, which supposedly plays a crucial role in music.
Social skills Apart from the concept of general IQ, Schellenberg b studied the influence of musical training in children on emotional intelligence but did not find any relation between them. Moreover, another study with 7—8 year-old children found a positive correlation between musical training and emotion comprehension which disappeared, however, when the individual level of intelligence was controlled Schellenberg and Mankarious, Also other studies with adults did not find any correlation between musical training and emotional intelligence Trimmer and Cuddy, One study by Petrides and colleagues with musicians did find a positive correlation between length of musical training and scores of emotional intelligence Petrides et al.
There seems to be thus a still contradictory picture concerning the association between emotional intelligence and musical education. This result is interesting insofar as it could be thought that musical training could also increase social competences, given that active musical activities have shown to enhance communicative and social development in infants Gerry et al.
Moreover, a study by Kirschner and Tomasello found that in children at the age of 4 musical activities produced behaviors of spontaneous cooperation. Another way to test social skills is to investigate the sensitivity to emotional prosody, which is a precious capacity in social communication. Studies have shown that musical training enhances the perception and recognition of emotions expressed by human voices Strait et al.
Thus, like with regards to emotional competence, the literature linking musical education and the recognition of emotional prosody is equivocal. The impact of musical education on social skills might therefore have to be investigated more in depth, comparing aspects such as music teaching methods in groups vs.
Plasticity Over the Life-Span Musical activities can have a beneficial impact on brain plasticity and cognitive and physical abilities also later in adult life after the critical and sensitive periods in childhood Wan and Schlaug, For example, Herdender and colleagues showed that musical ear training in students can evoke functional changes in activation of the hippocampus in response to acoustic novelty detection Herdener et al.
In general, at an advanced age, a decline of cognitive functions and brain plasticity can be observed. However, physical as well as cognitive activities can have a positive impact on the preservation of these abilities in old age Pitkala et al.
In this sense, musical training has been proposed as a viable means to mitigate age-related changes in auditory cognition for a review see Alain et al. In turn, a recent study by Oechslin et al. In another study by Hanna-Pladdy and Mackay , significant differences between elderly musicians and non-musicians 60—83 years were found in non-verbal memory, verbal fluency, and executive functions.
This shows as well that musical activity can prevent to some degree the decline of cognitive functions in ageing. However, these differences could be due to predisposition differences. Nonetheless, Bugos et al.
They found that persons over 60 who only began to learn to play the piano and continued during 6 months showed improved results in working memory tests as well as tests of motor skills and perceptual speed, in comparison to a control group without treatment. Dalcroze Eurhythmics, which is a pedagogic method based on learning music through movements and rhythm as basic elements has also been administered to seniors.
One study showed that a treatment with this method during 6 months positively influences the equilibrium and regularity of gait in elderly Trombetti et al.
Given that falls in this population are a major risk, it is especially important to engage in training of these physical abilities at this age, which seems to be more efficient in combination with musical aspects of rhythmical movement synchronization and adaptation within a group. Although there are promising results suggesting that older musicians compared to matched controls show benefits not only in near-transfer but also some far-transfer tasks such as visuospatial span, control over competing responses and distraction Amer et al.
Apart from the study of Bugos et al. Variables Modulating Brain Plasticity via Musical Training One challenge in assessing developmental changes in the brain due to long-term learning such as musical training is that many studies demonstrating structural brain differences are retrospective and look at mature musicians, which does not rule out the possibility that people with certain structural atypicalities are more predisposed to become musicians.
If this is the case, then the distinction between innate and developed differences is rather difficult.