Mauro Pezze'. Michal Young. Mauro Pezze'. Software Testing and Analysis: Process, Principles, and Techniques Mauro Pezz`e and Michal March Chapter 14 Structural Testing The structure of the software itself is a valuable source of. (c) Mauro Pezzè & Michal Young example: analysis instead of testing for race conditions Software test and analysis does not stop at the first release. Software Testing and Analysis: Process, Principles, and. Techniques. Mauro Pezze. Universitä di Milano Bicocca. Michal Young. University of Oregon.
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PDF | On Jan 1, , Mauro Pezzè and others published Software Testing and Analysis: Process, Principles, and Techniques. By incorporating software testing and analysis techniques into Mauro Pezzè This book was typeset by the authors using pdf LATEX and printed and bound. Software Testing and Analysis: Process, Principles, and Techniques. Mauro Pezzè Chapter Integration & Component-based Software Testing [ppt | pdf ] .
For example, if one statement remains unexecuted despite execution of all the test cases in a test suite, we may devise additional test cases that exer- cise that statement. This is consistent with usage in the testing research literature. For example, if there were a fault in the statement at line?? Based on this simple observation, a program has not been adequately tested if some of its elements have not been executed. Control flow elements include statements, branches, conditions, and paths. Unfortunately, a set of correct program executions in which all control flow elements are exercised does not guarantee the absence of faults. Exe- cution of a faulty statement may not always result in a failure.
Tutorials that explain how to work with modules that conform to this interface can be found here and here. Then you type another command, which again produes an answer, and so on.
VTUsouls is a platform created for students, from students where you can get all the updates regarding VTU and all study materials of ccn notes vtu semesters and streams. Smalltalk compilers What is the purpose of VTU Model question papers 2nd sem: Before every exam which is conducted by VTU, they release a model question papers that help students in preparing for the exam.
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A nice instruction for installing Python on Windows is at The books development by creating an account on GitHub. L is the number of possible intensity values, often VTU proposes to have world wide electronic presence by establishing data network interconnecting the VTU campus at Machche, four regional offices and all the affiliated colleges of VTU in a secure private network and open up access to this network to the worldwide communities for collaborative learning using Internet technology.
Visit www. Contrary to e. A phase is a logically interrelated operation that takes source program in one representation and produces output in another representation.
Since Python 3 is not backward compatible and not all the modules are upgraded into Python 3, we will use the latest version of Python 2 2.
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This course will introduce students to the basics of the Structured Query Language SQL as well as basic database design for storing data as part of a multi-step data gathering,. In OS X or Linux, to start the Python interpreter is as simple as typing the command python on the command line in a terminal shell. Objects have types. You can also expect the similar kind of question in the upcoming exam. Tech should study one Open elective each in the 5 th and 6 th Semester as a part of their Programme.
Be aware that placing the origin in the upper left is another common convention. Python is designed to be highly readable. The process could be interrupted and put back in the ready-queue.
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Tech should study one Open elective each in the 5 th and 6 th Semester as a part of their Programme. Be aware that placing the origin in the upper left is another common convention.
Python is designed to be highly readable. The process could be interrupted and put back in the ready-queue. An applet can be a fully functional Java application because it has the entire Java API at its disposal. Computer science and engineering branch is an important part of VTU. Vtu 7th Sem Web Programming Lab Manual Pdf vtu 7th sem web programming lab manual pdf vtu 7th sem cse web lab manual network lap manual pgms vtu b.
Notes and Worksheets The session 1 notes PDF include the syllabus, some administrivia and an introductory tutorial to Python. CIL compilers 1.
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The Python Workbook Book Description: While other textbooks devote their pages to explaining introductory programming concepts, The Python Workbook focuses exclusively on exercises, following the philosophy that computer programming is a skill best learned through experience and practice. Python compilers Electrode Potential and Cells 1.
Figure 2. It is an interpreted language, with a rich programming environment, including a robust debugger and profiler.
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Cyclomatic testing does not require that any particular basis set is covered. Rather, it counts the number of independent paths that have actually been covered i. They are not well suited to integration testing or sys- tem testing. It is difficult to steer fine-grained control flow decisions of a unit when it is one small part of a larger system, and the cost of achieving fine- grained coverage for a system or major component is seldom justifiable.
Usu- ally it is more appropriate to choose a coverage granularity commensurate with the granularity of testing. Moreover, if unit testing has been effective, then faults that remain to be found in integration testing will be primarily interface faults, and testing effort should focus on interfaces between units rather than their internal details.
In some programming languages FORTRAN, for example , a single pro- cedure may have multiple entry points, and one would want to test invoca- tion through each of the entry points.
More common are procedures with multiple exit points. For example, the code of Figure Each of these ing would have been exercised already if even the simplest statement coverage criterion were satisfied during unit testing, but perhaps only in the context of a simple test driver; testing in the real context could reveal interface faults that were previously undetected. Exercising all the entry points of a procedure is not the same as exercising all the calls.
For example, procedure A may call procedure C from two distinct points, and procedure B may also call procedure C. In this case, coverage of calls of C means exercising all three of the points of calls.
In that Draft version produced 31st March Commonly available testing tools can measure coverage of entry and exit points. The search function in Figure It was called at only point, from one other C function in the same unit. Coverage of calls requires exercis- ing each statement in which the parser and scanner access the symbol table, but this would almost certainly be satisfied by a set of test cases exercising each production in the grammar accepted by the parser.
When procedures maintain internal state local variables that persist from call to call , or when they modify global state, then properties of interfaces may only be revealed by sequences of several calls.
In object-oriented pro- gramming, local state is manipulated by procedures called methods, and sys- tematic testing necessarily concerns sequences of method calls on the same object.
While these complications may arise even in conventional procedural programs e. Not surprisingly, then, approaches to systematically exercising sequences of pro- cedure calls are beginning to emerge mainly in the field of object-oriented testing, and we therefore cover them in Chapter This is primarily exception handling.
The relations among these criteria are illustrated in Figure The search function was analogous in this case to a private internal method of a class. The hierarchy can be roughly divided into a part that relates requirements for covering program paths, and another part that relates requirements for covering combinations of conditions in branch decisions.
The two parts come together at branch coverage. Above branch coverage, path-oriented criteria and condition-oriented criteria are generally separate, because there is con- siderable cost and little apparent benefit in combining them. Statement cov- erage is at the bottom of the subsumes hierarchy for systematic coverage of control flow. Applying any of the structural coverage criteria, therefore, im- plies at least executing all the program statements.
This is true even for the statement coverage criterion, weak as it is. Unreachable statements can occur as a result of defensive programming e.
Stronger coverage criteria tend to require coverage of more infeasible ele- ments. For example, in discussing multiple condition coverage, we implicitly assumed that basic conditions were independent and could therefore occur in any combination. In reality, basic conditions may be comparisons or other relational expressions and may be interdependent in ways that make certain combinations infeasible.
Fortunately, short- circuit evaluation rules ensure that the combination hFalse; Falsei is not re- quired for multiple condition coverage of this particular expression in a C or Java program.
In the trivial case where these if statements occur together, the problem is both easy to understand and to avoid by placing the second if within an else clause , but essentially the same interdependence can occur when the decisions are separated by other code. The other main option is requiring justification of each element left un- covered.
Explaining why each element is uncovered has the salutory effect of distinguishing between defensive coding and sloppy coding or maintenance, and may also motivate simpler coding styles. However, it is more expensive because it requires manual inspection and understanding of each element left uncovered and is unlikely to be cost-effective for criteria that impose test obligations for large numbers of infeasible paths.
This problem, even more than the large number of test cases that may be required, leads us to conclude that stringent path-oriented coverage criteria are seldom useful. Structural coverage criteria are not incremental in this sense.
Even a small change has an unpredictable effect on coverage. If a set of test cases has achieved a certain level of coverage before the change, it is impossible to determine what level of coverage the same test set will produce after the program change. This implies that measurement of structural coverage in quickly evolving software cannot be used in the same way it might for a stable unit. For example, during development of a unit, structural coverage might be used to identify untested elements, but measures of satisfaction of cover- age would be of little value.
When the unit is delivered to an independent test group, structural coverage could be more profitably used as an indicator of the thoroughness of testing by the developers, or as a termination condition. Open Research Issues Devising and comparing structural criteria was a hot topic in the 80s.
It is no longer an active research area for imperative programming, but new pro- gramming paradigms or design techniques present new challanges. Poly- morphism, dynamic binding, object oriented and distributed code open new problems and require new techniques, as discussed in other chapters.
Appli- cability of structural criteria to architectural design descriptions is still under investigation. Usefulness of structural criteria for implicit control flow has been addressed only recently.
Early testing research, including research on structural coverage criteria, was concerned largely with improving the fault-detection effectiveness of test- ing.
Today, the most pressing issues are cost and schedule. Better auto- mated techniques for identifying infeasible paths will be necessary before Draft version produced 31st March Alternatively, for many applications it may be more appropriate to gather evidence of feasibility from actual product use; this is called residual test coverage monitoring and is a topic of current re- search.
The incrementality problem described above is particularly impor- tant in the context of rapid cycles of product development and change, and will surely be a topic of further testing research for the next several years.
In particular we expect further research in inferring coverage during regression testing. It is a classic despite its age, which is evident from the limited set of techniques addressed and the programming language used in the examples. The excellent survey by Adrion et al. Frankl and Weyuker [FW93] provide a modern treatment of the subsumption hierarchy among structural coverage criteria. Woodward et al. Cyclomatic testing is described by Mc- Cabe [McC83].
Related Topics Readers with a strong interest in coverage criteria should continue with the next chapter, which presents data flow testing criteria. Others may wish to proceed to chapters that describe application of structural testing in the par- ticular problem domains.
Chapter 16 describes testing programs with com- plex data structures, and Chapter 17 discusses testing object-oriented pro- grams.
Readers wishing a more comprehensive view of unit testing should continue with Chapters 20 on test data generation and 21 on design of test scaffolding. Tool support for structural testing discussed in Chapter The process context of structural testing is described in Chapter