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This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The data collection occurred between September and December Each day care center was evaluated for three non-consecutive days, totaling 42 days and meals. Dietary intake was assessed by a direct food weighing method. For the nutritional calculation, DietWin r Profissional 2. Sodium intake exceeded up to three times the recommendation.
In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the intake of protein, calcium, and sodium, and to compare it to the recommended daily intake, considering it important to promote future nutritional improvements in the school environment. The selection process of daycare centers and the adopted criteria are described in another publication Of the eight selected daycare centers, one was excluded because it presented no interest in participating in the survey in the period of data collection.
The present study is a cross-sectional, descriptive study developed in the 14 nurseries in the seven selected nurseries. To assess dietary intake, we used the direct weighing of food to ensure the precision and accuracy of the results, considering the average intake of the group.
This methodology has been used repeatedly in Brazilian nurseries, thus, constituting an instrument for this purpose 10 , 15 , All institutions worked full time, from Monday to Friday, and we evaluated all catered meals breakfast, morning snack or hydration, lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner , during three non-consecutive days, totaling 42 days of analysis and meals. The weighing of solid foods was performed with a Plenna r portable digital scale with capacity of 5kg.
Liquid foods were measured with the aid of a graduated container plastic cup every 50mL and with a capacity of mL. We collected uneaten food in plastic bags, considering as discarded any food left in the cup or plate.
To calculate the nutritional value of the meals, we used the DietWin Profissional 2. Fajumensis , the proboscidean cf. Phiomia or Hemimastodon, the sirenian Halitherium, and a reported anthropoid canine Hooijer ; Pickford ; Jacobs et al.
In addition, Arsinoitherium is now known from the latest Oligocene of Kenya. The presence of a Kelba-like ptolemaiadan, a unique primate, and Arsinoitherium may indicate a latest Oligocene or even earliest Miocene age for Malembo Point. The assemblage certainly has differences from the Fatum fauna and may indicate the presence of a lowland West Africa faunal province near the Paleogene-Neogene boundary in age and distinct from other regions such as the East African Rift Valley or the Fayum.
The Neogene began about 23 Ma and extends until the Pleistocene 1. It is divided into Miocene 23 Ma to 5. This period saw the expansion of the large mammals, and the appearance of hominids.
In the Miocene the climate warms again and grasslands and savannas spread. In the Pliocene, the Earth had become similar to the one we know today. The Neogene foraminifera of the Angolan coastal basins, including those from the Miocene Quifandongo series of the Cuanza Basin, are known from a diversity of planktonic and benthic taxa widely used in oil industry offshore correlations or as palaeoenvironmental indicators.
Rocha , Graham et al. Invertebrates are surprisingly poorly known and comprise, at least, the nautiloid mollusc Aturia luculoensis, the decapod crustacean Callianassa floridana from the Miocene Burdigalian of Cabinda Basin Newton , several taxa of Miocene echinoid echinoderms such as Clypeaster borgesi, Echinolampas antunesi, Rotula deciesdigitata, Rotuloidea vieirai, Amphiope neuparthi , and Plagiobrissus sp. Nevertheless, bivalve and gastropod molluscs are undoubtedly the most diverse and abundant invertebrate taxa of the marine Neogene of Luanda, Benguela and Namibe, with several rich fossil sites, some of them presently in course of study.
Mammals are known from Benguela and the Cuanza provinces where Projecto PaleoAngola collected skulls of fossil baleen whales. An odontocete has also been found from Barra da Cuanza.
In Angola the most abundant group of Neogene vertebrates are the Elasmobranchii chondrichthyans 18 taxa; see Supplementary Material. Aetobatus, Carcharhinus egertoni, Carcharhinus priscus, Carcharias taurus, Carcharocles megalodon , Carcharodon carcharias, Galeocerdo cuvier, Hemipristis serra, Isurus benedeni, Isurus oxyrinchus, Mitsukurina, Myliobatis, Negaprion brevirostris, Paragaleus, Pristis, Pteromylaeus bovina, Rhinoptera brasiliensis, and Sphyrna zygaena Antunes Five bony fishes are known, the actinopterygians Cybium, Sparus, Sphyraena barracuda, Tachysurus, and Tetrodon.
The Quaternary 2. This period is characterised by the return of glaciations at higher elevations and latitudes, the dominant role of the genus Homo in all terrestrial habitats and the extinction of much of the megafauna. In Angola, the Quaternary biodiversity is again marked by the high number of mollusc taxa 73 or more , of which 29 are bivalves such as Arcopsis afra, Barbatia complanata, Cardium indicum, Chama crenulata, Glycymeris concentrica, Lutraria senegalensis, Noetiella congoensis, Ungulina cuneata from the Middle Pleistocene of Pipas Namibe Basin and 44 gastropods mainly known from Namibe Basin, such as Cantharus viverratus , Columbella adansoni , Conus babaensis , Siphonaria capensis , and Terebra senegalensis Miller and Carpenter ; Sessa et al.
Other invertebrates such as corals, arthropods and echinoderms are known but reduced to a handful of known taxa, such as Cladangia carvalhoi from the Pleistocene of Salinas de Bero, Saco, Namibe Wood In most situations they occur in a variety of raised-beach and lagoonal deposits related to coastal uplift and major sea-level changes Carvalho The post-glacial Holocene is marked by the accretion of sand-spits and deltaic facies with rich coquinas, including the bivalve Senilia senilis as a typical species Dinis et al.
See Supplementary Material for the updated list. Large land mammals, including Bubalus , Syncerus cf. Pickford et al. The most thoroughly studied of the Humpata fossils are those of the extinct baboon. Cercopithecid primates from Humpata caves include Soromandrillus quadratirostris , cf.
Theropithecus sp. Pleistocene deposits in Namibe provided remains of fossilized ostrich Struthio eggshells, artiodactyl bones and numerous human artifacts - including Acheulean hand axes amygdaloid bifaces suggesting the presence of early humans, such as Homo ergaster or H. Measuring paleobiodiversity is challenging due to the sparse and limited availability of data, compared with modern extant faunas.
The vast preponderance of the fossil taxa is marine which is consistent with the geological settings and paleogeography, related to the opening of the South Atlantic and repeated inundation of the Angolan continental margin.
For this study, we compiled a list of taxa using species, genus or the lowest known taxonomical clade reported in the scientific literature for Angola see Supplementary Material. Of the resulting list of more than fossil taxa, many may require systematic revision and the final number will depend on the validity of the taxonomy.
According to current knowledge, at least 67 taxa 6. The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.
Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. A Paleontological Perspective. Open Access. Studies of Paleobiodiversity The study of paleobiodiversity, i.
Moreover, the definition and discrimination of species in the fossil record can be problematic. Open image in new window. The chances of finding Paleozoic or Jurassic fossils from Angola are essentially zero.
Despite the incompleteness of the fossil record and consequent limitations to the study of the paleobiodiversity, cooperative research and modern databases can, however, improve approximation of the estimated number of species in the fossil record.
The PaleoBiology Database paleobiodb. The fossil record can be used as a lower limit for the alpha paleobiodiversity for specific times and locations in Angola, although it is likely an underestimate of true paleodiversity in the vast majority of cases. The total of all fossil species is a gross underestimation of paleodiversity for the full extent of the time involved, exacerbated by missing intervals of fossiliferous rocks.
However, the pattern through time can inform an understanding of general trends. Table 4. Plants and Invertebrates The Triassic paleoflora of Angola includes the extinct genera Glossopteris , Sphenopteris , and Noeggerathiopsis Teixeira a , Vertebrates The only Triassic vertebrates known from Angola are fishes, including the Elasmobranchii Lissodus cassangensis, the paleoniscoids Perleidus lutoensis Teixeira , Palaeonisciformes canobiid Marquesia moutai , Halecostomi Angolaichthys lerichei Teixeira, the ray-finned Teffichthys lehmani and T.
Plants, Protists and Invertebrates Cretaceous plant remains in Angola seem to be rare see Supplementary Material , but several examples of unstudied field contexts with transitional facies, namely above the Cuvo units, might come to reveal new fossil sites.
Vertebrates In the Catoca Diamond Mine, in Lunda-Sul Province, mammaliamorph, crocodylomorph, and sauropod tracks were discovered in Early Cretaceous crater lake sediments. Vertebrates In Angola, a peak of vertebrate paleobiodiversity is observed in the Late Cretaceous, with more than taxa recognised Antunes ; Antunes and Cappetta ; Jacobs et al. In contrast to the diversity of chondrichthyans, the Late Cretaceous bony ray-finned fish from Angola are represented by ten taxa only, most likely due to the difficulty of identification of isolated remains, in comparison with the abundance of shark and ray teeth.
The teleost genus Enchodus is known from various species Enchodus bursauxi, E. The Coniacian provided the bizarre durophagous cryptodiran turtle Angolachelys mbaxi Mateus et al. Indeterminate plesiosaur remains have also been recovered from this region.
Mosasaurs are represented by Angolasaurus bocagei Fig. II Paleontologia. Tenerife, — Google Scholar. Antunes MT Paleontologia de Angola. Curso de Geologia do Ultramar. Partie 2: An analysis of sediment sources and dispersal from textural and compositional data.
J Hum Evol 64 5: Green PF, Machado V Pre-rift and synrift exhumation, post-rift subsidence and exhumation of the onshore Namib1e margin of Angola revealed from apatite fission track analysis. Howarth MK Cretaceous ammonites and nautiloids from Angola. Description des especes, Mollusque.
Boletim do Museo e Lab. Kender S. Palaeoenvironments and assemblage distributions. Kaminski MA, Coccioni R eds Proceedings of the seventh international workshop on agglutinated foraminifera.
Fish Fish 1 2: Different researches have performed studies on the management of the febrile infant and they point out that this is a dilemma faced by every physician who takes care of children. Motivated by this subject, a descriptive and retrospective study of febrile infants was conducted. The study was carried out to evaluate febrile infants without evident cause at the baseline evaluation who attended the emergency service during a period of 9 months with the objective of identifying the definite diagnosis at admission.
The type of bacterial infection was accurately assessed and the presence of this was related to clinical and laboratory parameters. The greatest number of febrile infants evaluated and admitted to hospital were 91 days months old. The lowest percentage. Se ha observado una mayor frecuencia de infecciones por Campylobacter spp. MALT oculares.
Purulent pelvic collections are common pathologies observed in contemporary gynaecological practice. Subwoofer Placement for Home Theater Installation They may originate from chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, from abortions or following normal deliveries.
Bacterial flora of sturgeon fingerling.
The study on microbial populations is a suitable tool to understand and apply control methods to improve the sanitary level of production in fish breeding and rearing centers, ensure health of sturgeon fingerlings at the time of their release into the rivers and also in the conversation and restoration of these valuable stocks in the Caspian Sea, Iran.
A laboratory research based on Austin methods Austin, B. The factors which may induce changes in bacterial populations during different stages of fife are the followings: Flora and vegetation of walls in the town of Krosno Odrzanskie Poland. Full Text Available The flora and vegctation of walls in Krosno Odrzanskie West Poland is described based on field research conducted in and The vascular flora consists of 96 species from 35 families. Predomination of apophytes and plants capable of vegetation propagation was obscrved.
Los concentrados fueron suministrados por las p. Las investigaciones relacionadas con este problema emergente son indispensables para reconocer y desarrollar programas para su vigilancia y control. Estafilococo Epidermides, E. La morbilidad materno-fetal del primer grupo fue del 1. Labella, Alejandro; Trento, I.
Bacterial diversity in the sediments of a temperate artificial lake, Rapel reservoir Diversidad bacteriana en sedimentos de un lago artificial temperado, embalse Rapel. Full Text Available Rapel reservoir is an eutrophic system in Chile that has undergone a series of anthropogenic impacts in recent decades.
To provide a better understanding of the processes occurring in the reservoir, we examined bacterial composition from surface sediments using traditional microbiology techniques and molecular biology tools. Our results showed significant temporal variation in the physical and chemical composition of the water column, but no depth-related differences during the study period.
To detect temporal changes in bacterial composition, cultivable heterotrophic bacteria, heterotrophic iron oxidizing bacteria, and sulfate-reducing bacteria were extracted from the surface sediments and their concentration measured. Microbial diversity in sediments was represented by closest relatives of eight different bacterial phyla.
La diversidad bacteriana en los sedimentos estuvo representada por 8 diferentes Phyla del dominio Bacteria. Los filotipos m. Flora juhid. Kalleim osa kinnisvara. Prevalencia de vaginosis bacteriana en trabajadoras sexuales chilenas Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in Chilean sex workers.
To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis BV in Chilean sex workers and relate the findings to sociodemographic, sexual, and clinical variables. All of them were interviewed to obtain their sociodemographic and sexual history. A clinical examination was performed that included the characteristics of vaginal discharge, pH, and amine test.
A vaginal sample was taken for Gram stain. The Nugent criteria were used for the diagnosis of BV. Somme epidemiological aspects of bacterial meningoencephalities that occurred in Cuba from are described according to available data from the National Surveillance Service. A total of cases involving children under 15 years old were reported throughout the country in this period of time.
The most affected age group was under 5 years. The most frequent identified agents were Haemophilus influenzae type B Hib, Streptococcus pneumoniae Spn and Neisseria meningitidis Nm. The incidence of Hib decreased by 4 times thanks to massive vaccination program, particularly in under 5 years-old children, from the year on.
Spn is the main causative agent of bacterial meningoencephalities and the most lethal one in Cuba. General lethality rate increased from Further studies will allow deepening into the epidemiology of these infections and monitoring the changes that might occur as a. Tratamiento de agrandamiento gingival inducido por fenitoina asociado a placa bacteriana.
Se reportan medicamentos tales como los bloqueadores de los canales de calcio, inmunosupresores, anticonvulsivantes que producen estos efectos adversos. Occasionally a situation may arise in which the purpose of the maintenance of working length is compromised such as overenlargement.
This situation allows the extrusion of filling materials, mainly sealer cements, causing post treatment complications such as inflammatory reactions, injury to adjacent structures orbital pain, inferior alveolar nerve injury, headache, etc.
Lichen flora of Tomaszow Mazowiecki. Lichens are not indicators of air pollution. They are indicators of a complex of microclimatic conditions that enable them to maintain a positive balance of assimilation and of respiratory processes in a given station within the town as well as in natural habitats.
BV was established when at least 3 out of 4 criteria were found. For the infertile patients the figures were 20 Sertula Florae Colombiae — XV: Resistencia bacteriana a los antimicrobianos: Una terrible amenaza. Geographical features of the flora of the region have been analyzed. The major endemic complexes of the flora being investigated are described. Natural Vegetation of the Flora area.
A review article summarising the recent ideas about the natural vegetation in the area covered by the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea Anticancer Drugs from Marine Flora: An Overview. They are taxonomically diverse, largely productive, biologically active, and chemically unique offering a great scope for discovery of new anticancer drugs.
The marine floras are rich in medicinally potent chemicals predominantly belonging to polyphenols and sulphated polysaccharide Bacillus cereus, B.
Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para la flora argentina a Dennstaedtia dissecta, hallada en la provincia de Misiones. Full Text Available La microbiota es el conjunto de microorganismos que se localizan de manera normal en distintos sitios del cuerpo humano. Varios factores permiten que se mantenga el equilibrio necesario para conservar la salud. Destacan los lactobacilos Lactobacillus casei, L. The microbiota is the group of microorganisms that live normally in different parts of the human body.
Several factors allow the maintenance of the required equilibrium to preserve health. It has been described that one of the most important functions of the normal flora is the resistance they confer to humans against invasion by pathogenic agents by different mechanisms such as production of bacteriocins, lactic acid or hydrogen peroxide. Among the most noticeable microorganisms are lactobacilli Lactobacillus casei, L. Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host.
Research conducted with several. Fermentation Tecniques and Applications of Bacterial Cellulose: Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose is a polymer obtained by fermentation with microorganismsfrom Acetobacter, Rhizobium, Agrobacterium and Sarcina genera. However, the main problem is the production in mass that is constrained by low yield. It is therefore necessaryto develop some alternatives. Anticancer drugs from marine flora: The marine floras are rich in medicinally potent chemicals predominantly belonging to polyphenols and sulphated polysaccharides.
The chemicals have displayed an array of pharmacological properties especially antioxidant, immunostimulatory, and antitumour activities. The phytochemicals possibly activate macrophages, induce apoptosis, and prevent oxidative damage of DNA, thereby controlling carcinogenesis. In spite of vast resources enriched with chemicals, the marine floras are largely unexplored for anticancer lead compounds.
Hence, this paper reviews the works so far conducted on this aspect with a view to provide a baseline information for promoting the marine flora -based anticancer research in the present context of increasing cancer incidence, deprived of the cheaper, safer, and potent medicines to challenge the dreadful human disease. Acacia bonariensis; Baccharis articulata; Blepharocalyx salicifolius; Castela tweedii; Eichhornia azurea; Eichhornia crassipes; Erythrina crista-galli; Gaillardia megapotamica var.
Prevenir las infecciones adquiridas en los hospitales, en especial las causadas por microorganismos resistentes, es una prioridad. Mediante el software Whonet 5. Objetivou-se avaliar a quantidade de placa bacteriana dental removida pela escova dental e dedeira. Estudio de caso: Meliaceae y Anacardiaceae.
Sleumer trompillo, Anacardium occidentale L. It alerts to Tonsillar Surface Micro Flora: To determine the best method of identifying core tonsillar flora.
Quasi-experimental study. Eighty-seven patients of recurrent tonsillitis undergoing tonsillectomy were included. All the patients, after being anaesthetised, had surface swabs taken from the tonsillar surface followed by tonsillar aspiration with a 5cc syringe. The Academic Performance Test TDE 2 is a standardized and validated test for the Brazilian population that assesses both the performance of reading aloud and writing by dictation which are known as the subtests Reading and Writing, respectively.
These subtests seek to eliminate interference as much as possible in interpretation and understanding using isolated items single words. The TDE was created approximately 10 years ago and has been frequently used to measure the performance of basic skills learned in school. It is also one of the instruments used in the diagnosis of learning disorders.
Despite its frequent use, the literature on the test so far is limited in a number of important ways. First, there are very few studies investigating the validity of the TDE among the Brazilian population, and the studies available rely on small samples and lack an assessment of concurrent mental disorders and a proper characterization of cognition. Second, recent research has pointed out some concerns related to discrimination, item difficulty, and the original criteria of the test.
Third, as far as we are aware, there is no study investigating the TDE from a person-centered perspective eg, Latent Class Analysis [LCA] , which allows us to investigate classes of subjects that are distinct from each other in both writing and decoding performance simultaneously.
LCA is a form of cluster analysis initially introduced by Lazarsfeld and Henry in These groupings should then be validated to confirm whether the instrument assesses what it proposes. Also, for a proper analysis of basic skills in the domain of the alphabetic principle, it is important to consider performance in both writing and reading simultaneously.
Here, we make use of a large sample of children to investigate the suitability of test items and to explore and validate classes of subjects with problems in reading and writing simultaneously.
Indeed, if the children, who were classified as having different levels of reading and writing skills, show corresponding performance in direct measures of reading, this result will be taken as concurrent validity for the instrument. Conversely, discriminant validity will be granted if no associations are found between reading and writing ability and measurements that are not directly related to reading and writing skills.
Materials and methods This report is part of a large, community school-based study, performed in multiple steps combining standardized evaluation from a psychiatric and cognitive neuroscience perspective, genetics, and neuroimaging to inform preventive strategies in developmental psychiatry. The methodological aspects of the project were extensively reviewed by Salum et al; 9 they are briefly presented here: 1 screening; 2 psychiatric assessments; and 3 cognitive evaluation, where assessments of IQ and decoding and writing skills via the TDE were collected.
Written consent was obtained from all the parents of the participants, and verbal assent was obtained from all the children. When appropriate, written assent also was obtained from the children.