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During the Spanish Civil War, the Portuguese cinematic propaganda intensified its campaign against communism and in favour of the Iberian fascism. Keywords: Cinema; fascism; propaganda; dictatorship; Salazarism; Portugal Summary: 1. The cinema and the Estado Novo during the Spanish War. Censorship and propaganda. The film production of the SPN. The greatest production of the Salazarist cinema. Introduction This article addresses some interesting aspects of one of the least studied European film industries existing during the establishment of the fascist dictatorships in various European countries after the s.
Soc Sci Med. Safety from crime and physical activity among older adults: a population-based study in Brazil. J Environ Public Health. Elderly victims of abuse: a five year document analysis.
Rev Bras Geriatr Gerontol. Estud Interdiscipl Envelhec. Alternatives for logistic regression in cross-sectional studies: an empirical comparison of models that directly estimate the prevalence ratio. Zou G. A modified Poisson regression approach to prospective studies with binary data. Am J Epidemiol. Minayo MCS. Soc Quest.
Esc Anna Nery Rev Enferm. Rev Panam Salud Publica.
Improving the neighborhood environment for urban older adults: social context and self-rated health. Approaches for estimating prevalence ratios. Occup Environ Med. Lauro, This documentary was shown thanks to the initiative of the Sindicato Nacional dos Profisionais do Cinema National Union of Cinema Professionals in collaboration with the Mocidade Portuguesa Portuguese Youth , which was an organisation of young militant defenders of the Estado Novo.
The cinematic propaganda showed the Portuguese people the progress achieved by the Fascist German and Italian states, while the war conflicts unfolded in Spain.
But the documentaries about Hitler and Mussolini were not always well received by the Portuguese people, especially after the Spanish War, in April , when both dictators had already shown their imperialist cards on the European board. Sometimes the images of both leaders were booed by the Portuguese public when they appeared on screen [ 2 ]. However, the general interest shown by the Portuguese audience towards the documentaries related to the war events in Spain forced the film entrepreneurs and the SPN, which had the power to decide which films could be publicly shown, to introduce war films during the screenings of feature film to attract audiences with propagandistic intentionality.
In the daily newspapers, mainly during the last year of war, it was common to find various advertisements of cinemas promoting newsreels about the events occurring in Spain. No advertisements about these documentaries were found in the Portuguese newspapers in late or in the first half of despite these documentaries had high social expectations cf. This fact makes us believe that Salazar, aware of the importance of the propagandistic use of cinema, viewed with mistrust the films that were not produced by the SPNnor controlled directly by any other state agency, and so he restricted their dissemination through private distributors.
Anyways, censorship became more tolerant as the Francoist side was winning the battle. Two years after the creation of the cinema section, in September , the film archive of the SPNalready contained 50 films, many of them with sound, and produced exclusively by its staff or the Portuguese production companies that were hired to do specific works.
The documentaries were shown for free in the headquarters of the trade unions, public squares, and the atriums of the villages, etc. One of the first initiatives that employed the film discourse was put into action on 14 December, , as part of an anti-communist campaign directed mainly to the Portuguese proletariat. Immediately, the government decided to create a more complex and effective traveling organism that could take its propaganda to the Portuguese provinces more quickly and often, without having to build cinemas around the country.
Paulo, The sessions were staged just like political meetings.
Several meetings were held per day in various places and there were special screenings for children accompanied by their teachers. There were in total sessions, 11 of which were diurnal and aimed for children.
During the first trip, the trucks of the SPNvisited 74 towns, mostly small villages, whose inhabitants were unaware of the existence of cinema. More than one hundred thousand people went to see the documentaries and to listen to the 96 propaganda discourses given during the film sessions by the local authorities and popular characters supporting the Estado Novo.
In the second half of , the SPNtook its mobile cinema section to the south of the country, and crossed several dozens of villages, which due to their isolation were surprised by the propaganda that reminded them, through devastating images, that the war in Spain was not fiction and that Salazar would ensure the peace in Portugal with their help. In , it incorporated another team to its activities, which allowed it to extend its propaganda to more places. In May , a film session with these motives was held in Salgueiros, a district of Viseu, in the fair field of Lima Loureiro.
The event was attended by 2, people. During , the SPNconcentrated its cinematic propaganda in Portugal, by using most of the film copies available in the mobile cinema. This prevented the organism from properly meeting the orders made by nationalist organisations like the Falange, which requested Portuguese films.
Adaptations of foreign documentaries for the Portuguese public were commonplace in the film activities of the SPN, which added comments or signs to advance their manipulative agenda. However, the production date is unknown. Its images were probably bought from some foreign production company that had camera operators on the loyal side. The editors from the SPN transformed the shots of the documentary into a cinematic libel against the government of Madrid. As ruas oferecem um conjunto desolador.
There were, however, images of semi-destroyed buildings, children playing amid the ruins, and many images of two burnt-down churches. The documentary even showed the famous images of the mummified nuns displayed at the entrance of the temple.
One of the most emblematic productions of the SPN related to the events in Spain is perhaps the silent documentaryComicios Anti-Comunistas Anti-Communist Rallies , which had legends that lasted almost fifteen minutes. This documentary was produced in and fortunately for the film history of Portugal the ANIM still retains a copy of it.
The camera makes an endless wipe shot over the heads expecting to hear the discourses of their leaders. The film shows the banners with messages about the social peace achieved by the government, the virtues of corporatism, and praise for Salazar and the head of state, General Carmona.
In Coimbra, the documentary begins with a travelling shot through the crowd waiting in line at the edge of the River Mondego, which is the beginning of the demonstration through the streets of the city. There were groups of people holding posters that identified them with some corporate union, as well as professors and students from the University of Coimbra that were also holding messages against communism cf.
Torgal, Dai o vosso apoio a Salazar!. Por um Portugal maior!. Viva Salazar! The posters show profile pictures of Carmona Head of State and Salazar, and the camera zooms on the text long enough to allow its reading. In the middle of the flood of demonstrators there is a bus decorated with the Nazi, Portuguese and Spanish flags at the front, as well as nationalist messages on the sides. There are uniformed boys and girls parading amid Nazi and Italian flags.
Some of them are shown in close up, waving handkerchiefs and singing the Portuguese anthem. In another shot there is a group of students in typical national costumes greeting with great enthusiasm. The speeches are given at the end of the demonstration from an incredibly high podium which has the pictures of the Head of State and the Head of the Government on its sides.
The film, which was shot by the company Tobis Portuguesa, is conceived as the greatest film work of the Estado Novo, which intended to put the Portuguese cinema at the same level of the German, Italian and Russian cinema, in its use as an effective weapon of propaganda [ 4 ].
The feature film is a mixture of fiction and reality, because the plot is made with contemporary images of the political and social Portuguese life. The character, named Cesar Valente with ironic intent , aims to organise a revolutionary movement in Lisbon as he evades the police. But, little by little, he realises that what he is trying to achieve with his revolution makes no sense because the Portuguese society is happy living in a completely heavenly place forged by the Estado Novo.
Prevalence ratios and respective confidence intervals were estimated using Poisson regression. The fear of falling because of defects in sidewalks and the perception of violence in the neighborhood were not associated with social participation. Social participation is recognized as a strategy for active aging 2 , 3 , which reinforces the important association between the life scenario and the protagonism of the aging individual. The World Health Organization WHO has programs that include social participation, such as Active Ageing 2 , in which it is one of its three pillars, and Age-friendly City 4 , in which it is one of the eight areas to be considered for an accessible city.
Furthermore, participation and context are concepts present in the model also proposed by the WHO to explain functionality 5 , which is the paradigm of aging.
In this model, participation is presented as one of the components of functionality, which is the result of the interaction of the individual or population with certain health conditions and contextual factors.