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An epic poem in blank verse. These examples may contain colloquial words based on your search. He orients Eve's thoughts towards herself only, and he is succesful in inducing in her the feelings of jealousy and resentment towards God, who "Forbids us good, forbids us to be wise" PL IX However, in contrast to Wormwood and Screwtape's attempts, his are fully successful. To conclude, the devils in Paradise Lost and Screwtape Letters are artistically and psychologically very complicated characters.
This dual perspective, however, does not indicate much difference between society and individual. On the contrary, it shows the reader how society shapes the individual and how an individual, like Beelzebub, Satan, or Screwtape perfectly fits the standards of uniformity.
Though the spirits have names or some sort of identity, as individuals they do not matter. What matters is the evil force that can work through them. The Miltonic figure of the devil however, seems to be more sublime, poetical and emotional than Lewis' which, as a consequence, makes Lewis' cruel and insensitive type more convincing. Milton's Satan seems to be all together too perfect. Many literary critics, among them Dryden, have strong objections towards Satan eqipped with so many 'good- leader' features.
Dryden claims that Milton is deeply mistaken in presenting Satan as a hero, instead of Adam. George Williamson, Milton and others When it comes to 26 the purpose of living, the devils in Lewis and Milton have the same aims — to fight God and his angels through the plotting against humanity.
They also use the same methods of tempting, though on the surface it may not appear so, due to the different conventions applied in Paradise Lost and The Screwtape Leters. It serves as an introduction to the following study of the devils' vision of God and themselves. The outstanding features of demonic character, that is pride, stubborness and self-importance, may be at least partially responsible for the unusual strategy of comprehending facts that the devils employ.
The devils from Paradise Lost are more creative in inventing epithets: they call God "Almighty" From the way the devils talk about God and the vocabulary they choose to describe Him, the reader may learn about the Devils' general attitude towards Heaven and its Ruler. Not only does the variety of presented epithets suggest the creativity of Milton's Devils, but also the respect that they still show to God, unlike Lewis' devils.
The Devils in Paradise Lost respect God, but this respect comes out of fear, not 27 admiration. The demons are petrified by God's power. The adjective "iron" has two meanings here: firstly, it suggests the ruling that is hard and does not accept any opposition, secondly, it reveals the strong emotional attitude of the ruled towards the Ruler: hatred. The demons in Paradise Lost do not understand God's plan and do not care about it.
However, they do not want to expose themselves to further punishment, that is why they still show God and His Son respect in words. The devils may disagree with God, but they cannot reject His greatness, however they detest it. It looks as if the Devils thought that the great power God possesses is ill-handled. The Devils watch God fulfilling his salvation plan with horror.
They believe God is unfair, because, for one thing, 'He often makes prizes of humans who have given their lives for causes He thinks bad on the monstrously sophisticated ground that the humans thought them good and were following the best they knew. They also believe that God's readiness to help humans who ask Him for it is a shame. The devils see direct and friendly relations with humans 28 as something degradating, indecent.
Screwtape passes on a comment that God 'is cynically indifferent to the dignity of His position, and ours [the Devils'], as pure spirits. However, the reader is supposed to hear the voice of the implied author and read the true message behind the Screwtape's sarcastic remarks: God is a good and caring Father. At one point Screwtape himself reveals to Wormwood that the idea of love and redemption is not merely propaganda but 'appalling truth.
An especially important one seems to be that which desribes the status of God and Satan in the Universe and serves as a warning against the power of Satan as well: "At present the Enemy [God] says 'Mine' of everything on the pedantic, legalistic ground that He made it: Our Father [Satan] hopes in the end to say 'Mine' of all things on the more realistic and dynamic ground of conquest. Satan understands that a 'new Race call'd Man' is going to be 'favour'd more' PL II and only because of that it becomes the target in his evil attempts to thwart God's plan.
Humans from the very beginning were perceived only as a tool, not even as an enemy. Man must be destroyed because Satan 'onely in destroying Almost immediately Satan realizes that, as he expected, humans are 'stupidly good' and innocent PL IX 30 which, in his opinion, would be eqivalent to saying that they are a less experienced and more naive, ergo worse creation than he is.
Satan also notices that Adam and Eve are not equally equipped with virtues and that Adam is more intelligent than Eve.
PL IX After the successful act of seducing the first people, Satan is bold enough to claim his rule over Man, based on the belief that God will surely abandon unfaithful humans after their disobedience. PL X From the attitude and amount of attention given by Satan to Man, the reader may assume that in the conflict between Hell and Heaven, man does not take any active part; the human race is treated by demons only as a means of revenge.
The view of Lewis' devils on humans is comparable to Milton's devils opinion on the subject, but only at first sight. Surely Screwtape does not speak about humans with respect.
He calls them 'two leg animals' or 'disgusting little human vermin. For instance, the demons use sensuous tempations because they learnt that what affects a human body also affects a human soul. To be specific, Screwtape knows why the different sexes argue with each other, identifies the reasons for their behaviour and willingly uses this knowledge against them to win their souls.
The devils also know that "no human is ever very near [honesty]" 33 and that people do not desire the presence of God as much as they think they do, because of the false image of God in their heart. However, Screwtape does not underestimate people as much as Milton's Satan did. Screwtape pities the fact that 'all mortals tend to turn into the thing they are pretending to be' therefore alerts Wormwood to any good-willed intention to become a good Christian on the part of a 'patient' It shows that, though sinful and easily deceived , man can still fight with the devils 31 thanks to the power of faith.
Because of man being strong in faith and supported by God, the devils have a difficult task in winning their souls. However, the comparison to the butcher's job would be probably more precise: A human appears to be a 'prey' that is slain by the fallen angels.
Screwtape once more presents the reader with a very vivid metaphor to illustrate this: "We [devils] want cattle who can finally become food; He [God] wants servants who can finally become sons.
Lewis' demons treat humans as the enemy's creation, and in addition, as a food which they can feed on. The demons will not miss any opportunity to harm humans. Nevertheless, if Hell's power was unlimited, man would already become an extinct species and the Earth would be converted into wasteland. Apparently, Evil is limited by God, who still has strict control over the rebellious creatures.
In the eyes of Lewis' devils, God is cunning and spiteful. What make the demons angry, is Heaven's interference in the most ingenious plan against humans, usually in a critical moment of its advancement. Screwtapes grumbles that 'God allows us [devils] see the short misery of his favourites only to torment us. Also, it 32 is implied in the text that to balance the negative effect of the devils' guidance, God sends His own guardian angels to protect a human.
What advice they give to people under their charge is mystery and another hindrance on the demons' way to lead man astray: "You know [says Screwtape to Wormwood] how one can never quite overhear what He [God] says to them?
Screwtape desribes it as "the Enemy's most barbarous weapon" that is "the asphyxiatic cloud" preventing the devils from "attacking the patient". Some humans are permanently surrounded by such a barrier, therefore totally "inaccessible" to the devils.
The Screwtape Letters is an account of the battle over one man only, and because he happens to be a Christian, and tries to be a good person, the reader may observe God intervening between the man and Devil almost all the time.
However, it may be assumed that the more evil a human is, the more extended is the Devil's power over him. The demons are limited by God, but also, to a high degree, by human free will. In Paradise Lost God takes back from the demons freedom to decide about their own fate but allow them quite freely to seduce Adam and Eve.
After the fallen angels were punished with Hell, many of them desire to die, but God does not let them finish their existence.
God commands them to stay within Hell and suffer eternally. Paradise Lost II Lewis' Devils are unwilling to admit they are afraid of God, while Paradise Lost's narrator reveals fully the fear that inhabits the demons' soul. For Satan, the 33 most prominent and proud of the infernal spirits, who tries to get out of Hell and rebel against God's will once more, the departure from Hell is, after all, made possible. As a matter of fact, God wants Satan to find a way out, it is all within God's plan Heaven Left him [Satan] at large to his own dark designs, That with reiterated crimes he might Heap on his damnation, while he sought Evil to others, and enrag'd might see How all his malice serv'd but to bring forth Infinite goodness, grace and mercy shewn On Man by him seduc't PL I It becomes clear that Satan has no real influence on shaping the events.
He fits perfectly into whatever God has planned to do. Despise his attempts to enrage God by misleading humans, Satan ends as a tool used by God in his plan to redeem them. Their shameful and treacherous rebellion the Devils perceive as a glorious victory over a cruel tyrant.
Screwtape actually believes that the insurrection was inevitable and fully-justified. The devils do not admit that they were expelled from Heaven; they state firmly that Satan "remove s himself an infinite distance from the Presence with a suddenness which has given rise to the ridiculous Enemy story that he was forcibly thrown out of Heaven.
The Enemy gave no reply except to produce the cock-and-bull story about disinterested love which He has been circulating ever since. Screwtape Every single fact has been twisted by the Devils. Satan was too proud to admit defeat, so he invented the story about his dignified departure and made all the fallen spirits believe it.
Actually, lies play a key-role in keeping the devils highly motivated and ensure their efficiency at work. The devils labour under the illusion of a 'big- mission-nation' because they have discovered that it can help them create tolerable reality and forget the misery they suffer. Another case of self-deception may be Screwtape's persistence in denying that transformation into a centipede is a form of punishment.
Despite Heaven and Hell being immaterial and timeless realms, Milton and Lewis apply or imply the concept of time passing. It is possible to tell the approximate time in both Hells, because is it known what is happening at the same moment on the Earth. If the reader is to think about the story in Paradise Lost and The Screwtape Letters in linear terms, Milton's Fall of the Angels and consequent events would happen first and Lewis' story of Screwtape and Wormwood later.
Actually, Lewis makes some of his devils older, and others younger, which would suggest that even within the 35 boundaries of Lewis' Hell time flows.
The understanding of the way time functions in the poem and the novel helps the reader to see the reasons for the different perception of history by the Devils. Imagine that Screwtape and Wormwood represent a generation of modern Devils, thousands of years younger than Satan and the members of the Miltonic conclave. They are told about God and the Fall of the Angels, but they never participated in the event. They are fed with the false stories handed down from generation to generation of the demons inhabiting Hell.
They are affected by the infernal propaganda. The information circulating among the devils is the only truth they know. Miton's Satan would not dare to tell his legions that he left Heaven at his own request because the devils were directly involved in the quarrel with God and they saw with their own eyes what exactly happened. It is common knowledge for every spiritual creature: Death on the gates recognizes Satan as 'that Traitor Angel' Paradise Lost II , Chaos openly says that he saw and heard the fallen angels fleeing 'with ruin upon ruin.
However, Satan immediately starts 'modelling' the truth by providing noble justification for his actions and putting the blame for everything on God.
It can be assumed that after centuries of such practice, the Hell of Paradise Lost could transform into a Hell of Lewis' type. To sum up, Milton's and Lewis' Devils share a common fear of God, in both cases accompanied by the most unpleasant feelings of resentment and hatred towards Heaven. Lewis' devils tend to underestimate God and his creation. However, they attach great importance to the task of tempting humans and seem to be exceptionally concerned with the results.
Satan in Paradise Lost does not think of man seriously and bothers humans only to annoy God. In both Lewis and Milton, the devils try to retouch their history, but only in The Screwtape Letters do the devils seem not to be aware of the truth and keep 36 believing in lies made up by the older devils.
Such a perspective is a natural consequence of applying the concept of time. The time of the action in Lewis' novel and Milton's poem differs, but reference to the story of the Fall of the Angels is a common feature of both works. As a result, both groups of Devils perceive the event differently and falsify reality to a different degree.
The devils in Paradise Lost are less hypocrytical than Screwtape, because they are still able to see the greatness of God and understand their own lamentable situation. Surprisingly, there are many common features, but, there appear to be much more differences. Milton seems to be generally much more descriptive and his account of Hell is definitely more image-based. He lavishly describes Hell's landscape, the speeches made by the Devils are wordy and emotional, meant to stir up certain feelings in the reader.
Milton almost 'attacks' the reader with lines full of extremely ornate poetry, mythological references, formal and lofty language. Lewis prefers simplicity and clarity. He amuses the reader with 'easy' flow of ideas, invites the reader to trespass on the Devils' privacy, to read their letters. Milton's Satan looks as if he knows he is observed and tries to do his best to show how glorious he is.
Lewis' devils are caught red-handed, when they do not expect anybody to watch them. Consequently, Milton's Hell reminds the reader of the theatre, while Lewis' Hell gives the impression of sober reality, accidentally revealed truth about spiritual creatures.
The issue of authencity is of utmost importance when such a concept as Hell is 37 discussed, and it must be said that Milton's Satan somehow fails to be 'authentic enough'.
The devils in Paradise Lost are too beautiful and too emotional creatures. They certainly can be presented as intelligent, and so they are in both Lewis and Milton, but to claim that the fallen angels can cry with pain or feel sorrow for their comrades means that they are capable of producing sympathetic thoughts and a purely good attitude.
That, in turn, allows the reader to assume that the Devils' are emotionally mature and able to change one day. Lewis thinks it impossible. Screwtape and Wormwood do not feel anything but hatred, they even do not believe in the existence of such feelings as love or sympathy. The devils cynically use certain human emotions only to lead a soul astray.
Paradoxical as it may be, though Milton's Devils hate Hell while Screwtape gives it credit every time he speaks about it, both groups of Devils live a lie.
The Devils in Paradise Lost may really understand their miserable condition and, being capable of feeling, realise how self-torment is the place they were put in, but they will never admit they are guilty of their own fall. The way Devils refer to their new state of being during the Conclave resembles the Orwellian concept of "doublethink" at work: the demons are so eager to forget about their humiliation that they are inclined to replace the truth with any, even the most absurd idea.
It is sufficient to mention Mammon, who tries to convince others that they can enjoy Hell or see it as an invincible fortress against God. However, the reader quickly realizes how much Screwtape fears the Infernal Police and censorship and immediately learns that Screwtape cannot do anything else but praise Hell and Satan. Otherwise, he could probably be devoured for what would be regarded as treason. The differences in both works can be very well explained and justified by the literary conventions the two authors applied in their texts.
The choice of epistolary 38 novel 'forced' Lewis to use a conversational tone and limited the contents of each chapter immensely. Milton, in contrast, had to stick to formal and lofty language, long speeches, heroic characters and long descriptions. The implied author of Paradise Lost reveals himself in the guise of a divinely-inspired narrator who dreams his vision of The Fall of the Angels and The Fall of Man.
This narrator speaks from time to time, only to remind the reader of the true self of Satan. Actually, were it not for the alarming voice of the narrator, the reader would not probably be able to tell wrong from right.
On the whole, Milton probably cared much more about writing just a great epic poem than to produce a particularly Christian piece of work. His Satan is not as disgusting and repellant as he should be, his Devils are so intelligent that one cannot but admire their line of reasoning and feel sorry for their fall. Lewis, in contrast, clearly aimed at showing the reader basic truths about human nature and the nature of Evil, which would serve as a warning for Christians.
However, he plays a very risky game by making a very cunning Devil the author of the letters. To discern the voice of the implied author, the reader must filter Screwtape's every thought and think for himself, because nobody in the book decides for him. This dissertation compares two books that differ as much as they can in terms of style, conventions and technique. There is an unwritten conviction among many literary critics that the more complicated and complex is the writing, the better work of art must be.
Lewis' The Screwtape Letters may prove the opposite. The Dark Descent of Elizabeth Frankenstein. Zdele makes it seem as gerzs the story and battle lasts three months at the most, but in the book the battle has been going on for ten years.
While his chariot is moving. Troy Book Summary and Study Guide Marpessa is gifted, she sees the Gods and speaks to them, and more importantly, is the only one who actually remembers seeing them. The effect of this novel is similar to that of a confidently conducted symphony that brings new meaning to a renowned masterpiece: Primarily the story of two sisters Xanthe and Marpessa cursed by the goddess of love, Aphrodite, to love the same boy.
Oenone is rarely used in Trojan War novels, but I find her story really interesting and I think there are a lot of things an author can do with it. Soldiers go out to war every morning, leaving behind widows and orphans; women spend the day in terror, wondering whether their husbands, sons and brothers will come back or not. More often, she is killed during the fall of Troy.
Well, should have read more about this one! Well, in the book you only get the side of the Trojans—one disappointment. This author does a wonderful job of creating twists in plot and weaving frustration into geeras chapter.